Chapter 6

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Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?



Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

rough ER


What types of proteins are not synthesized in the rough ER?

mitochondrial proteins


The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?

All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function


The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?

smooth ER


Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?

cytoskeletal structures


Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?

Proteins that are secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.


When a potassium ion (K+) moves from the soil into the vacuole of a cell on the surface of a root, it must pass through several cellular structures. Which of the following correctly describes the order in which these structures will be encountered by the ion?

primary cell wall --> plasma membrane --> cytoplasm --> vacuole


Hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?



The smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with a standard (not super-resolution) research-grade light microscope is

a mitochondrion.


In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is

he size and weight of the component.


A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely

producing primarily cytoplasmic proteins.


Which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells?



Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum


A primary objective of cell fractionation is to

separate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined.


Which of the following makes it necessary for animal cells, although they have no cell walls, to have intercellular junctions?

Maintenance of tissue integrity and barriers to fluid leakage requires cells to adhere tightly to one another.


A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from

nearly any eukaryotic organism.


Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?



Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?



A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in it

Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix.


All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except

an endoplasmic reticulum.


The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved

endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria.


Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in



Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through

gap junctions.


A newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that a very inexpensive microscope available for a small child is able to magnify specimens nearly as much as the much more costly microscope available in your college lab. What is the primary reason for the price difference?

The toy microscope magnifies a good deal, but has low resolution and therefore poor quality images.


In a plant cell, DNA may be found

in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.


Which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?



Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?



Which type of organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?



What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?

ER →Golgi →vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane


Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?



Which animal cell organelle contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen?



The cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma membrane. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all of these extracellular structures?

They are constructed of polymers that are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported out of the cell.


Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?



Movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures?

microtubules and motor proteins


All of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. Which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition?

plant cell walls


Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?



ECM proteins are made by ribosomes in which part of a eukaryotic cell?

rough ER

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