Anatomy and Physiology 2: Final Exam Review

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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, VESSELS, REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM,
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1

WHICH IS THE LARGEST LYMPHATIC ORGAN?

SPLEEN

2

T/F Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

3

T/F Lymph always flows away from the heart.

FALSE

4

T/F Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

5

T/F Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

6

T/F All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth

FALSE

7

T/F ) The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

8

T/F All lymphatic organs are composed of epithelial tissue

FALSE

9

T/F The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

10

T/F The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE (TONSIL)

11

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A) right lymphatic duct

B) lumbar trunk

C) cisterna chyli

D) thoracic duc

A

12

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A) more permeable than blood capillaries

B) as permeable as blood capillaries

C) less permeable than blood capillaries

D) completely impermeable

A

13

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A) T lymphocytes

B) medullary cords

C) lymph nodes

D) plasma cells

D

14

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A) pancreas

B) Peyer's patches of the intestine

C) spleen

D) tonsils

A

15

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A) storage of blood platelets

B) forming crypts that trap bacteria

C) storage of iron

D) removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood

B

16

When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A) increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage

B) shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

C) abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region

D) severe localized edema distal to the blockage

D

17

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

B) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.

C) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.

D) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

D

18

What is a bubo?

A) a lobe of the spleen

B) an infected Peyer's patch

C) a wall in a lymph node

D) an infected lymph node

D

19

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A) produce hormones

B) have a cortex and medulla

C) have lymphocytes

D) directly fight antigens

D

20

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A) palatine tonsils

B) lingual tonsils

C) islets of Langerhans

D) Peyer's patches

C

21

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A) breathing

B) valves in lymph vessel walls

C) smooth muscle contraction

D) skeletal muscle contraction

C

22

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A) transporting dietary fats

B) carrying out immune responses

C) transporting respiratory gases

D) draining excess interstitial fluid

C

23

A sentinel node is ________.

A) a small node in the spleen

B) the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks

C) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

D) a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria

C

24

Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa

LACTEAL

25

The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ________.

LEFT SUBCLAVIAN

26

Tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________.

CRYPTS

27

Hassall's corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored ________ regions of the thymus.

MEDULLARY

28

) The ________ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries.

WHITE

29

Describe the mechanisms by which lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics.

Lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics by the milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes within the thorax during breathing, valves to prevent backflow, and pulsation of adjacent arteries.``

30

Where are the lymph node aggregations most dense?

1. INGUINAL

2. CERVICAL

3. AXILLARY

31

What is the special role of the thymus gland?

thymus gland causes T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent.

32

List the functions of the spleen.

REMOVE OLD RBC'S AND PLATELETS

STORE IRON

BLOOD FILTER

SITE FOR ERYTHROCYTE PRODUCTION

LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION

33

How do the lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries?

SIMILAR:

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

VALVES

DIFFERENT:

ENDOTHELIAL CELLS ARE NOT TIGHTLY JOINED

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES LARGER IN DIAMETER

BUNDLES OF FINE FILAMENTS ANCHOR THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS TO SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

34

A man involved in a traffic accident is rushed to the emergency room of a hospital with severe internal bleeding. Examination reveals a ruptured spleen. What is the treatment of choice and what is the likely long-term outcome (prognosis)?

Splenectomy is not as necessary

the prognosis is very good, as the functions of the spleen are taken over by the liver and bone marrow.

35

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What could have caused the increased size of the swollen leg?

ELEPHANTIASIS

PARASITIC WORM BLOCKED LYMPH SYSTEM-> EDEMA

36

A nurse palpated enlarged lymph nodes. Describe signs and symptoms that help to distinguish cancerous lymph nodes from infected lymph nodes.

HARD INDICATE MALIGNANCY

TENDER INDICATES INFLAMMATION

37

As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progresses, some individuals develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Explain why this may occur.

THE LYMPH NODES ARE OVERWHELMED BY THE LARGE NUMBER OF VIRUS PARTICLES TRAPPED IN THE NODES

38

SINUSOID CAPILLARY

card image
39

CAPILLARY FOUND IN ENDOCRINE ORGANS THAT ALLOW HORMONES TO GAIN RAPID ENTRY INTO THE BLOOD

card image
40

CAPILLARY THAT MAY CONTAIN KUPFFER CELLS IN THE LINNING

card image
41

CAPILLARY FOUND WHERE ACTIVE CAPILLARY ABSORPTION OF FILTRATE OCCURS

card image
42

SUPPLIES THE DUODENUM AND STOMACH

COMMON HEPATIC ARTERY

43

MAJOR SUPPLY TO THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

A. CELIAC TRUNK

B. RADIAL ARTERY

C. BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK

D INTERNAL CAROTIC ARTERY

E EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY

D

44

SUPPLIES THE LOWER LIMBS

A. CELIAC TRUNK

B. RADIAL ARTERY

C. BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK

D INTERNAL CAROTIC ARTERY

E EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY

E

45

VESSEL COMMONLY USED AS A CORONLY BYPASS VESSEL

A. GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

B. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY

C. BRACHIAL ARTERY

D. PULMONARY VEIN

E. FEMORAL ARTERY

A

46

RECEIVES BLOOD FROM ALL AREAS SUPERIOR TO THE DIAPHRAGM, EXCEPT THE HEART WALL

A. EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN

B. SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

C. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

D. PULMONARY TRUNK

E. AXILLARY ARTERY

C

47

SITE WHERE RESISTANCE TO BLOOD FLOW IS GREATEST

A. LARGE ARTERIES

B. CAPILLARIES

C. ARTERIOLES

D. LARGE VEINS

C

48

SITE WHERE BLOOD PRESSURE IS LOWEST

A. LARGE ARTERIES

B. CAPILLARIES

C. ARTERIOLES

D. LARGE VEINS

D

49

SITE WHERE VELOCITY OF BLOOD IS SLOWEST

A. LARGE ARTERIES

B. CAPILLARIES

C. ARTERIOLES

D. LARGE VEINS

B

50

SITE THAT IS THE MAJOR DETERMINANT OF PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE

A. LARGE ARTERIES

B. CAPILLARIES

C. ARTERIOLES

D. LARGE VEINS

C

51

T/F The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.

TRUE

52

T/F The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries

FALSE (ELASTIC ARTERIES)

53

T/F The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole.

TRUE

54

T/F In infants and young people, congenital vascular problems are less common than congenital heart disease.

TRUE

55

T/F The azygos vein originates in the abdomen.

TRUE

56

The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

A) capillaries

B) arterioles

C) muscular arteries

D) elastic arteries

C

57

) Aldosterone will ________.

A) promote an increase in blood pressure

B) decrease sodium reabsorption

C) promote a decrease in blood volume

D) result in a larger output of urine

A

58

Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?

A) cold, clammy skin

B) rapid, thready pulse

C) rapidly falling blood pressure

D) increased heart rate

C

59

Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?

A) The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.

B) They contain a large quantity of elastic tissue.

C) Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.

D) They distribute blood to various parts of the body.

A

60

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

A) vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

B) circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant

C) cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels

D) hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume

A

61

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

A) significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

B) the only factor that influences resistance

C) significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter

D) insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary

A

62

The hepatic portal vein ________.

A) is actually an artery

B) carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera

C) carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava

D) carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver

D

63

Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?

A) Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them.

B) Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure.

C) Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute-containing fluid out of the bloodstream.

B

64

Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?

A) activity

B) emotions

C) postural changes

D) the vessel selected to palpate

D

65

The velocity of blood flow is ________.

A) slower in the veins than in the capillaries because veins have a large diameter

B) in direct proportion to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels

C) slower in the arteries than in capillaries because arteries possess a relatively large diameter

D) slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest

D

66

Select the correct statement about blood flow.

A) It is measured in mm Hg.

B) It is greatest where resistance is highest.

C) It is relatively constant through all body organs.

D) Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.

D

67

The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?

A) chemoreceptors

B) altering blood volume

C) reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers

D) reflex arcs involving baroreceptors

B

68

Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.

A) stress

B) smoking

C) arteriosclerosis

D) obesity

C

69

Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?

A) kidney

B) liver

C) heart

D) lungs

D

70

What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?

A) fossa ovalis; ligamentum arteriosum

B) ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis

C) ligamentum teres; fossa ovalis

D) ligamentum arteriosum; ligamentum teres

B

71

Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of th eprecapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?

A) a decrease in local tissue oxygen content

B) an increase in local tissue carbon dioxide

C) a local increase in pH

D) a local increase in histamine

C

72

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

A) a decrease in carbon dioxide

B) an increase in oxygen levels

C) changes in arterial pressure

D) a decrease in oxygen levels

C

73

A family of peptides called ________ are released by the endothelium and are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known.

ENDOTHELINS

74

________ shock is due to abnormal expansion of blood vessels and a rapid drop in blood pressure.

VASCULAR

75

Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of blood vessels that is responsible for millions of deaths each year. Describe the disease process, noting the involvement of specific cell/tissue types and molecules.

1. INJURY TO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

2. fats i.e. cholesterol, LDL, trigylycerides

3. macrophages try to eat the oxidized fat but transform into foam cells

4. foam cells become fatty streaks -> atherosclerotic plaques

5. lumen narrows

76

A woman in her early 50s appeared at a walk-in clinic, complaining of aching pain in her right leg following a fall. Visual examination revealed that the medial aspect of that leg was red and swollen. A diagnosis of phlebitis was made. What is phlebitis, and what more serious condition may result if proper healing does not occur?

PHBLEBITIS inflammation of the vein

if proper healing does not occur it will become THROMBOPHLEBITIS (clot formation) which might become embolus

77

A pregnant patient comes into a clinic and asks about a small dark bulge that is becoming more apparent on her leg. What is it and what caused it?

VARICOSE VEINS -blood pooling-> enlarges veins-> valves begin to fail

78

A patient lost a lot of blood during surgery and his blood pressure dropped from 120/80 to 90/50. Describe how the kidneys respond to this change in blood pressure.

when BP declines -> kidney receptors detect this change, thus they secrete

renin-> Angiotensin

ADH released

Aldosterone

sodium moves into blood stream

79

The ________ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis

pampiniform

80

The ________ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells.

sustentacular

81

The portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the ________.

Stratnum Basalis


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