Chapter 1: The Human Body

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Sharleezybby
662 views
updated 3 years ago by Sharleezybby
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Anatomy and physiology are absolutely interrelated subjects in which...

Structures at all levels are defined and also used to understand the dynamic function of a living organism

2

Specialized systems within the body support each other’s operation so that...

Complex responses are possible to a myriad of changing environmental conditions

3

The skin provides protection and vitamin D for the skeletal system, which in turn...

Provides structural support, calcium storage, and blood cells for the skin

4

The definition of anatomy

The study of structure and the relationships among structures

5

Subdivisions of anatomy

Surface anatomy, gross anatomy, systemic anatomy, regional anatomy, radiographic anatomy, developmental anatomy, embryology, cytology, and pathological anatomy

6

The definition of physiology

The study of how body structures function

7

Subdivisions of physiology

Cell physiology, systems physiology, pathophysiology, exercise physiology, neurophysiology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, immunophysiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, and reproductive physiology

8

The human body consist of these several levels of structural organizations

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems, and Organism

9

Cells

Basic structural and functional units of a living organism

10

Tissues

Groups of similarly specialized cells and the substance surrounding them that usually arise from a common ancestor and perform certain special functions

11

Organs

Structures of definite form that are composed of two or more different tissues and have specific functions

12

Systems

Associations of organs that have a common function

13

Human Organism

Collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems

14

The systems of the human body

Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive

15

Life processes in humans

Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction

16

Metabolism

Sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body, including catabolism and anabolism

Ex. Blood work

17

Responsiveness

Ability to detect and respond to changes in the external or internal environment

18

Movement

Motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, or even organelles inside cells

19

Growth

Increase in size and complexity, due to an increase in the number of cells, size of cells, or both

20

Differentiation

Change in a cell from an unspecialized state to a specialized state

Ex. Cells come of of mitosis and do what they are specialized to do depending on the type of DNA

21

Reproduction

The formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement (Mitosis), or to the production of a new individual

22

The definition of homeostasis

Condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits

23

Fluid outside body cells

Extracellular fluid (ECF)

24

Extracellular fluid (EFC) is found in

Filling the narrow spaces between cells or in blood/lymphatic vessels

25

Extracellular fluid (ECF) filling the narrow spaces between cells of tissue

Interstitial fluid, intercellular fluid, or tissue fluid

26

Extracellular fluid (ECF) in blood vessels

Plasma

27

Extracellular fluid (ECF) in lymphatic vessels

Lymph

28

Fluid within cells

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

29

Because extracellular fluid (ECF) is in constant motion throughout the body and also surrounds all body cells

Body's internal environment

30

An organism is said to be in homeostasis when its internal environment:

Contains the optimum concentration of gases, nutrients, ions, and water; has an optimal temperature (100.4 oF), and has an optimal volume for the health of the cells

31

Stress

Any external or internal stimulus that creates and imbalance in the internal environment

32

If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to

Counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal

33

Homeostasis is regulated by

The nervous and endocrine systems acting together or independently

34

In order to regulate homeostasis, the nervous system

Detects body changes and sends nerve impulses to counteract the stress

35

In order to regulate homeostasis, the endocrine system

Secretes hormones

36

Nerve impulses cause _____ changes, while hormones work more _____.

Rapid; Slowly

37

Feedback system (loop)

A cycle of events in which information about the status of a condition is continually monitored and fed back (reported) to a central control region

38

Any stress that changes a controlled condition

Stimulus

39

Three basic components in a feedback system

Control center, receptor, and effector

40

Control center

Determines that point at which a controlled condition should be maintained

41

Receptor

Monitors changes in the controlled condition and then sends the information, called the input, to the control center

42

Effector

Receives information, called the output, from the control center and produces a response (effect)

Will always include muscle response

43

If a response reverses the original stimulus; Maintain conditions that require frequent monitoring and adjustment within physiological limits

The definition of negative feedback system (loop)

44

If a response enhances the original stimulus; Regulate conditions that do not occur often and do not require continual fine-tuning

The definition of positive feedback system (loop)

45

Example of negative feedback

Homeostasis of Blood Pressure

46

Example of positive feedback

Labor contractions

47

Disruptions of homeostasis can lead to

Disease or death

48

Disease

Any change from a state of health, characterized by symptom or sign

49

Local disease

One that affects one part or a limited area of the body

50

Systemic disease

Affects either the entire body or several parts of the body

51

Symptoms

Subjective changes in the body functions that are not apparent to an observer

52

Signs

Objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure

53

Examples of symptoms

Pain, nausea, sensitivity, dizziness, weakness

54

Examples of signs

Discoloration, O2, HR, BP, fever, rash

55

Diagnosis

Art of distinguishing one disease from another or determining the nature of a disease generally after taking of a medical history and the administration of a physical examination

56

Use of anatomical position

Standardized method of observing or imagining the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references

57

Description of anatomical postition

The subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are places at the sides, the palms of the hands are turned forward, and the feet are flat on the floor

58

Regional names

Terms given to specific regions of the body for reference

59

Examples of regional names

Cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), bracial ( arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head) and gluteal (buttock)

60

Directional terms

Used to precisely locate one part of the body relative to another and to reduce length of explanations

61

Examples of directional terms

Dorsal, superior, inferior, medial, and distal

62

Planes

Imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas

63

Principal planes

Midsagittal (median) and parasagittal, frontal (coronal), and transverse (cross-sectional or horizontal)

64

Sections

Flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures; named according to the plane on which the cut is made

65

Body cavities

Spaces in the body that contain internal organs

6 ventral. 2 dorsal.

66

Body cavities are separated by these structures

Muscles, bones, or ligaments

67

The two principal body cavities

Dorsal and central cavities

68

Dorsal cavity is subdivided into

The cranial cavity and the vertebral canal

69

Cranial cavity contains

The brain

70

Vertebral canal contains

The spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves

71

The ventral cavity is subdivided by

The diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity

72

Thoracic cavity contains

Two pleural cavities and the mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity

73

Pleural cavities _____ the lungs, while pericardial cavity _____ the heart

Enclose; surround

74

Pleural and pericardual cavities are lined by

Serous membranes

75

Mediastinum

Broad, median partition between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and contains all contents of the thoracic cavity except the lungs

76

Abdominopelvic cavity

Divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity

77

Viscera of the abdominal cavity include

Stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine

78

Viscera of the pelvic cavity include

Urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal female and male reproductive structures

79

The abdominopelvic cavity may divided into _____ regions by drawing ____ imaginary lines

Nine; four

80

The abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into _____ by passing imaginary horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus

Quadrants

81

Medical imaging

Essentional for diagnosis of many disorders

82

Commonly used medical imaging techniques

Conventional radiography, computer tomography (CT) scanning, dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), fluoroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US)


Related pages


equator of a cellseasons flashcardsthe hormone called secretin functions toquiz lord of the fliesdigestive system in order food passes throughwhat is the peripheral nervous system made up ofpolypeptides are composed ofmastering biology chapter 2connective tissue ensheathing the entire musclea phospholipid is usuallyfundamentals of nursing 7th editionliver serosalife span of red blood celltransversus abdominis actionthe walls of the alveoli are composed ofmiddle nasal conchaescientist that studies fossilsphlebotomy complicationspig leg anatomytropical grasslands latitude rangemicrobiology exam 1define colony morphologycommon fraction decimal equivalentsmicrobiology lab practical reviewwhat hormone stimulates growth and secretion of the thyroid glanda herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______jagermeister pintwhere are the melanocytes founddnase sensitivitycrossing over during prophase 1 results insynarthrosis definitionribosomes in an animal cellis hydrogen a metal metalloid or nonmetalaxial skeleton labgrassland biome average precipitationthalamic neuronsthe ends of the long bone are calledwhat is a protein coatveins that carry oxygenated bloodstreaking techniques in microbiologybacillus subtilis endospore staincerebral cortex hemispheresanimal kingdom phylogenetic treedna alkaline hydrolysisdo professional athletes get overpaidfunctions of the cerebrospinal fluidwhich hormone raises blood sugarthe major mineralocorticoid iscampbell reece biology 6th editionlaw of individual assortmentname two anticoagulants used in conducting the hematologic testsmoney markets are markets for quizletbiology mitosis and meiosis notesdescribe photorespirationjava chapter 3 exercise answersblood hydrostatic pressurewhat type of movement is a hinge jointbill of rights quizzeshow to study for hesi a2hno3 h2so4nadh cellular respirationcrossed extension reflex babywhat is the difference between spirilla and spirochetesspear bearer by polykleitos2nd smallest planetnitrogen bases rnafunction of the duodenumwhat is peristaltic actionadenosine dose aclspunnett square for sickle cell anemiacell membrane organellesmedical terminology chapter 6which region of the skin supports the largest bacterial population