Protists

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1

Plasmodium falciparum is a protistan parasite, borne by mosquitoes, that constitutes a serious health problem for humans. The disease it causes is:
A.diabetes
B. malaria
C. yellow fever
D. dengue fever
E. Lyme disease

B. malaria

2

Protists are NOT monophyletic. This means:
A. that all protists are of the same lineage
B. that all protists are more closely related to each other than they are to any other kind of organisms
C. that all protists are not more closely related to each other than they are to some other kinds of organisms
D. that all protists are not in the same phylum
E. that all protists are in the same phylum

C. that all protists are not more closely related to each other than they are to some other kinds of organisms

3

Which of the following types of organisms are NOT considered to be part of the plankton?
A.bacteria
B. algae
C. protozoans
D. periphyton
E. viruses

D. periphyton

4

Phytophthora, a pathogen attacking a wide variety of plants, is a(n):
A. alga
B. protist
C. lichen
D. fungus
E. bacterium

B. protist

5

Flagella can be used to:
A.propel the organism through water
B. collect food
C. propel reproductive cells through water
D. propel the organism and collect food
E. propel the organism, collect food, and propel reproductive cells

E. propel the organism, collect food, and propel reproductive cells

6

Phagocytosis (Phagotrophy) is:
A.attack of cells by bacteriophages
B. the phases through which cells pass during division
C. the disintegration of a cell
D. the attachment of protist cells to a substrate
E. the capture of food particles by a cell

E. the capture of food particles by a cell

7

Endosymbiosis gave rise to:
A.chloroplasts
B. mitochondria
C. nuclei
D. both chloroplasts and mitochondria
E. none of the other choices provided

D. both chloroplasts and mitochondria

8

Which of the following statements is NOT true of Trichomonas vaginalis?
A. It attacks the human genitourinary tract.
B. It lacks true mitochondria.
C. It has hydrogenosomes.
D. It has mitosomes.
E. It has a flagellum.

D. It has mitosomes.

9

Which of the following DOES NOT occur in Euglenozoa?
A. disk-shaped mitochondrial cristae
B. kinetoplasts
C. glycolysis in the peroxisomes
D. cilia
E. inter-locking protein strips

D. cilia

10

The immediate ancestors of plants were:
A.charophyceans
B. red algae
C. kelp
D. cyanobacteria
E. dinoflagellates with plastids

A.charophyceans

11

Stramenopiles are unique in that they possess:
A. double plastids
B. hairy flagella
C. alveoli
D. disk-shaped mitochondrial cristae
E. calcium carbonate crystals

B. hairy flagella

12

There was a massive immigration of Irish to the United States in the mid-19th century because of a failure of the Irish potato crop caused by:
A. Trichomonas vaginalis
B. Plasmodiuim falciparum
C. Phytophora infestans
D. Giardia lamblia
E. Spudsik emeraldensis

C. Phytophora infestans

13

Which of the following statements best describes secondary endosymbiosis?
A. A host cell manufactures its own symbiont and later acquires another one by phagocytosis.
B. A host cell ingests another cell already containing a primary symbiont.
C. A host cell ingests two or more symbionts simultaneously.
D. A host cell ingests one symbiont and then later ingests another one.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

B. A host cell ingests another cell already containing a primary symbiont.

14

Which of the following statements is NOT true of any Foraminifera?
A. They contain symbiotic algae.
B. They formed petroleum deposits.
C. They are useful in studying global warming.
D. They have filose pseudopodia.
E. They have flagella.

E. They have flagella

15

Amoebae are characterized by:
A. locomotion by extension of pseudopodia
B. possession of hard shells
C. tertiary symbiosis
D. causing cancer
E. conjugation

A. locomotion by extension of pseudopodia

16

The collars on the cells of choanoflagellates have the function of:
A. protecting the flagellum
B. filtering bacterial food from the water
C. directing currents away from the flagellum
D. storing waste materials of the cell
E. attaching to the substrate

B. filtering bacterial food from the water

17

The group of protists to which you are most closely related is:
A. the choanoflagellates
B. slime molds
C. Rhizaria
D. Foraminifera
E. Stramenopila

A. the choanoflagellates

18

Which of the following terms DOES NOT describe a basic type of protistan nutrition?
A. phagotrophic
B. eutrophic
C. osmotrophic
D. autotrophic
E. mixotrophic

B. eutrophic

19

Which of the following statements DOES NOT characterize decomposers?
A. They feed on nonliving organic matter.
B. They are saprobes.
C. They break down wastes.
D. They release nutrients that other organisms can use.
E. They contain endosymbionts.

E. They contain endosymbionts.

20

Algae appear in colors of gold, brown, red, or green. The significance of that fact is:
A. These pigments absorb the quality of light prevalent in their various preferred habitats and enhance their photosynthetic ability.
B. These pigments camouflage them from grazers.
C. These pigments warn grazers of their toxic properties.
D. These pigments are waste products stored in the tissues.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

A. These pigments absorb the quality of light prevalent in their various preferred habitats and enhance their photosynthetic ability.

21

Which of the following are not used by protists for protection against predators?
A. protective coverings that are hard, tough, or slimy
B. toxins
C. gamma radiation
D. shooting sharp projectiles
E. spines

C. gamma radiation

22

Bioluminescence is:
A. emission of flashes of light by organisms
B. capture of moonlight for nocturnal photosynthesis
C. light absorbed by other pigments and transferred to chlorophyll a
D. the fluorescing of Gram-positive bacteria
E. none of the other choices provided

A. emission of flashes of light by organisms

23

The dinoflagellate Pfisteria is an important protist. Which of the following statements DOES NOT describe its attributes?
A. It causes nervous disorders in humans.
B. It uses toxins to attack fish which it then consumes.
C. It lies dormant on the bottom until stimulated by chemicals from fish.
D. It is a major cause of food poisoning in humans.
E. Its toxins damage fish skin thereby increasing exposure to the pathogen.

D. It is a major cause of food poisoning in humans.

24

Which of the following statements is NOT true of protistan cysts?
A. They may arise from asexual reproduction.
B. They may arise from sexual reproduction.
C. Their consumption can lead to human health problems.
D. They facilitate the spread of pathogens from one host to another.
E. They attach to host cells by small hooks.

E. They attach to host cells by small hooks.

25

The adaptive significance of sexual reproduction is that it:
A. diversifies genotypes thereby allowing faster evolutionary responses to changing environments
B. is more fun than asexual reproduction
C. is more rapid than sexual reproduction
D. promotes the dispersal of individuals more effectively
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect

A. diversifies genotypes thereby allowing faster evolutionary responses to changing environments

26

In a zygotic life cycle:
A. Haploid cells form gametes that fuse to produce thick-walled diploid zygotes capable of surviving stressful conditions.
B. There is an alternation of generations.
C. The zygote undergoes meiosis and produces many heat-resistant spores that increase the population size and aid in dispersal.
D. Haploid cells form spores that in turn fuse to produce thick-walled zygotes capable of surviving stressful conditions.
E. none of the choices provided.

A. Haploid cells form gametes that fuse to produce thick-walled diploid zygotes capable of surviving stressful conditions.

27

Diatoms reproduce by:
A. binary fission
B. a sporic life cycle
C. a gametic life cycle
D. a zygotic life cycle
E. spontaneous generation

C. a gametic life cycle

28

Diatoms have a special problem:
A. because their + and - mating strains are nonmotile and have to be dispersed by currents
B. because their heavy siliceous shells impede conjugation
C. because they must await a chemical signal from a fish before they can become mobile and search for mating partners
D. because their two halves fit like the lid and body of a pillbox and on repeated cell divisions the half that is overlapped gets progressively smaller
E. because the gametes experience difficulty in exiting the overlapping halves of their siliceous shells

D. because their two halves fit like the lid and body of a pillbox and on repeated cell divisions the half that is overlapped gets progressively smaller

29

Exchange of genetic material in ciliates is known as:
A. macronucleosis
B. micronucleosis
C. conjugation
D. panmixis
E. myxomycetosis

C. conjugation

30

When a ciliate reproduces asexually by mitosis:
A. The macronucleus divides into two with each new cell receiving an identical macronucleus.
B. The macronucleus divides into four micronuclei with each new cell receiving two micronuclei each.
C. The macronucleus doesn't divide but it goes to one new cell and the micronuclei go to the other.
D. The macronuclei fuse with the micronuclei and then divide into two with each new cell receiving an identical fused nucleus.
E. none of the other choices provided

A. The macronucleus divides into two with each new cell receiving an identical macronucleus.

31

In sexual reproduction in ciliates the sequence of events is:

A. (1) in each conjugating pair of cells all but one of the four diploid micronuclei disintegrates, (2) then the surviving one undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid micronuclei, of which three also disintegrate, (3) the remaining micronucleus undergoes mitosis to produce two, (4) of which one stays in the parent cell and the other moves to the opposite cell while the macronucleus in each cell disintegrates, (5) the cells separate, each with two nuclei, one of its own and one from its conjugant, (6) one haploid micronucleus in each cell forms a new haploid macronucleus and the other divides mitotically to form eight new haploid micronuclei, (7) the two haploid macronuclei fuse to form a diploid one and the eight haploid micronuclei fuse by pairs into four diploid micronuclei.
B. (1) in each conjugating pair of cells all but one of the four diploid micronuclei disintegrates, (2) then the surviving one undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid micronuclei, of which three also disintegrate, (3) the remaining micronucleus undergoes mitosis to produce two, (4) of which one stays in the parent cell and the other moves to the opposite cell while the macronucleus in each cell disintegrates, (5) the cells separate, each with two nuclei, one of its own and one from its conjugant, (6) the two haploid micronuclei in each cell fuse to form a diploid micronucleus, that (7) divides mitotically, producing diploid macronuclei and micronuclei.
C. A haploid nucleus in an individual of sexual strain (+) divides mitotically and one of the daughter nuclei passes to an individual of sexual strain (-) where it fuses with the resident haploid nucleus to produce a diploid nucleus.
D. (1) in each conjugating pair of cells the four diploid micronuclei fuse, (2) then each undergoes meiosis to produce eight micronuclei, of which seven disintegrate, (3) the remaining micronucleus undergoes mitosis to produce two, (4) of which one stays in the parent cell and the other moves to the opposite cell while the macronucleus in each cell disintegrates, (5) the cells separate, each with two nuclei, one of its own and one from its conjugant, (6) the two haploid micronuclei in each cell fuse to form a diploid micronucleus, that (7) divides mitotically, producing diploid macronuclei and micronuclei.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

B. (1) in each conjugating pair of cells all but one of the four diploid micronuclei disintegrates, (2) then the surviving one undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid micronuclei, of which three also disintegrate, (3) the remaining micronucleus undergoes mitosis to produce two, (4) of which one stays in the parent cell and the other moves to the opposite cell while the macronucleus in each cell disintegrates, (5) the cells separate, each with two nuclei, one of its own and one from its conjugant, (6) the two haploid micronuclei in each cell fuse to form a diploid micronucleus, that (7) divides mitotically, producing diploid macronuclei and micronuclei.

32

Plasmodium sporozoites produce merozoites in the human:
A. blood
B. brain
C. lymph glands
D. liver
E. spleen

D. liver

33

The sexual phase of Plasmodium is called a:
A. sporozoite
B. gametocyte
C. merozoite
D. plasmacyte
E. anthracite

B. gametocyte

34

The symptoms of malaria are:
A. jaundice
B. abdominal cramps
C. diarrhea and dehydration
D. headaches and nausea
E. alternating chills and fever

E. alternating chills and fever

35

The malarial stage infecting red blood cells of humans are the:
A. merozoites
B. sporozoites
C. saprophytes
D. gametocytes
E. neophytes

A. merozoites

36

Sleeping sickness is transmitted by:
A. mosquitoes
B. tsetse flies
C. sand fleas
D. ticks
E. drinking contaminated water

B. tsetse flies

37

Knowledge of a pathogen's genome is useful because:
A. It allows scientists to cause mutations in the DNA thereby killing the pathogen.
B. It allows scientists to prevent meiosis and the duplication of genes necessary for the survival of the pathogen.
C. It allows developing drugs that make antibodies against the pathogen.
D. It allows developing drugs that target metabolic pathways unique to the pathogen.
E. none of the choices provided

D. It allows developing drugs that target metabolic pathways unique to the pathogen.

38

The photosynthetic systems of algae living in deeper water are adapted to absorb more of the light of which of the following colors?
A. yellow
B. red-orange
C. blue-green
D. purple
E. white

C. blue-green

39

The choanoflagellates are in the supergroup:
A. Opisthokonta
B. Rhizaria
C. Amoebozoa
D. Stramenopila
E. Alveolata

A. Opisthokonta

40

Slime molds are in the supergroup:
A. Opisthokonta
B. Rhizaria
C. Amoebozoa
D. Stramenopila
E. Alveolata

C. Amoebozoa

41

Some algae are more closely related to plants than they are to other algae.

TRUE

42

Protozoa are monophyletic.

FALSE

43

The supergroup Excavata contain some of Earth's most recent eukaryotes.

FALSE

44

Metaboly is a reduced level of metabolism that allows protists to remain dormant under stressful environments.

FALSE

45

Paramylon are stored particles of carbohydrate

TRUE

46

Red algae, green algae, and plants are so closely related that they are grouped in the same supergroup by most biologists.

TRUE

47

Animals and fungi are more closely related to each other than either is to plants.

TRUE

48

Zoospores are single flagellated cells that disperse otherwise nonmotile protists.

TRUE

49

Sexual reproduction provides multiple benefits to protists

TRUE

50

The alternate host for Entamoeba histolytica is the Anopheles mosquito.

FALSE


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