Distinguish between monomers and polymers
Condensation and Hydrolysis reactions
Condensation reaction -> A reaction in which two molecules become
covalently bonded to each other though the loss of a small molecule,
usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
Hydrolysis -> A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Distinguish between glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important.
Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion.
Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed.
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
Name the principle energy storage molecules of plants and animals
Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide
Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids.
List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group.
Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important.
Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined.
Name two types of secondary protein structures. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure.
*Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure.
List the major components of a nucleotide and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.
pyrimidine and purine
nucleotide and nucleoside
ribose and deoxyribose
5' end and 3' end
Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA
Be able to explain why chaperonins are sometimes necessary and how they may assist in proper folding of proteins.
List and briefly describe three complementary approach to determining a portion structure
Primary Structure: the unique amino acid sequence that determines a
protein's structure and function. Any slight changes, deletions,
insertions or substitutions in the amino acid sequence can have a
great impact on the protein's ability to function
Secondary Structure: segments of the polypeptide chain that are repeated coiled or folded patterns. This is the result from hydrogen bonding at regular intervals from the hydrogen/nitrogen atoms that are attracted to the oxygen atoms from a nearby peptide bond. Hydrogen bonding either results in alpha helixes or beta pleated sheets.
Tertiary Structure: irregular contortions from interactions between the various R group side chains