© 2016

Biology ch5

Set Details Share
Helpfulness: +3
show more

List the four major classes of macromolecules.

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids


Distinguish between monomers and polymers

Monomers are the small molecules that make up a Polymer. A Polymer is a long chain consisting of monomers that are connected by covalent bonds.


Condensation and Hydrolysis reactions

Condensation reaction -> A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other though the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
Hydrolysis -> A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion


Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

monosaccharides: simplest carb and is the monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides
disaccarides: a double sugar, two monosaccharides bonded together using glycosidic linkage
polysaccharides: a polymer of many monosaccharides


Describe the formation of glycosidic linkage

A covalent bond formed between two sugars


Distinguish between glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important.

Starch has alpha glycosidic linkages and cellulose has beta glycosidic linkage. Is important because we have an enzyme that breaks down the alpha but not the beta.


Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion.

Symbiosis: ecological relationship between different organisms (cow, bacteria), stuff living inside of other things, beneficial and not so beneficial.
The role in cellulose digestion is bacteria breaks down cellulose for the host cow/bull.


Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids.

Fats: are constructed of a glycerol + 3 fatty acids. (saturated fats = bad)
Phospholipids: make up cell membranes; glycerol + 2 fatty acids
Steroid: hormones/cholesterol; four fused rings


Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed.

Found in fats and connect a glycerol and three fatty acids.


Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.

Saturated: no double bonds, straight chains of hydrogen and carbon, solid at room temp
Unsaturated: one or more double bonds formed by removal of hydrogen atoms, liquid at room temperature, bent chains of carbon and hydrogen


Name the principle energy storage molecules of plants and animals

Plants: starch stores the energy
Animales: glycogen(made in your liver) store the energy


Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide

Protein: many structures, wide variety of functions, made up of polypeptides
Polypeptide: amino acid sequence (chain), part of the protein


Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids.

A dehydration reaction covalently bonds amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of another amino acid


List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group.

Amino group
Carboxyl Group
Hydrogen Atom
R Group: determines qulaity (polar, nonpolar, etc.)


Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important.

Polypeptide has to have best environment(temp,pH). Important because if not in good conditions it unravels and can not do the right job. (denaturation)


Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined.

primary structure: DNA tells the amino acid order. bonded with peptide bonds.


Name two types of secondary protein structures. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure.

Secondary: Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated Sheet
They are made by hydrogen bonds.


*Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure.

tertiary structure has disulfide bridges. covalent bond. ionic bonding. hydrogen bonds. vanderwalls. needs all of these bonds to keep the right shape.


List four conditions under which proteins may be denatured.

heat, acid, salt


List the major components of a nucleotide and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.

nitrogen base, pentose sugar, phosphate group
sugars and phosphates: ladder upright; covalent bonds
bases: rungs of the ladder (purine bonds with a pyrimidine); hydrogen bonds (weakest)


pyrimidine and purine
nucleotide and nucleoside
ribose and deoxyribose
5' end and 3' end

pyrimidine: C.T.U. (think structure of DNA)
purine: A.G.
nucleotide: base+sugar+phosphate
nucleoside: base+sugar
ribose: RNA
deoxyribose: DNA
5': front
3': back
example: 5' ATTCGA 3' > 3' TAAGCT 5' : complimentary DNA strands


Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA

A double-helix consisting of two anti-parrallel nucleotide strands. There is a spiral around an imaginary axis


Be able to explain why chaperonins are sometimes necessary and how they may assist in proper folding of proteins.

The folding is not always spontaneous. They keep amino acids from inappropriate associations.


List and briefly describe three complementary approach to determining a portion structure

Primary Structure: the unique amino acid sequence that determines a protein's structure and function. Any slight changes, deletions, insertions or substitutions in the amino acid sequence can have a great impact on the protein's ability to function
Secondary Structure: segments of the polypeptide chain that are repeated coiled or folded patterns. This is the result from hydrogen bonding at regular intervals from the hydrogen/nitrogen atoms that are attracted to the oxygen atoms from a nearby peptide bond. Hydrogen bonding either results in alpha helixes or beta pleated sheets.
Tertiary Structure: irregular contortions from interactions between the various R group side chains


Explain how DNA or protein comparisons may allow us to assess evolutionary relationships between species

shared traits and features account for us being descended from one another

Related pages

explain referred painanatomy physiology study guidecomplex media microbiologyap biology chapter 25 reading guide answershow many moles of na2co3 can be producedskin tougheningcollection of nerve cell bodies found outside the cnsancestor of birdsyac plasmidbabcock intestinal forcepshow many protons neutrons and electrons does phosphorus havewhere are the hinge joints locateddichotomous key for microbiologyrespiratory membrane diagramstructure formed by the crossing-over of the optic nervesanterior cubital fossamacroeconomic formulasmonoacylglycerol structurehuman anatomy and physiology marieb and hoehn 9th edition pdfprotein synthesis inhibitors antibioticshumoral immunity diagramearwax is produced byfrog vocabularysheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissuesthe openings to the nostrils are theantagonist and synergist muscleswhich of the following is a carboxyl groupdrug of choice for uti in pregnancychapter 7 cell structure and function answerstet offensive apushwhat is renal papillahow many phalangesarticulating bones definitionhow many ghosts visit scroogehormones that inhibit gastric secretion includetrna diagramseasonally polyestrous animalssilk panties drink recipecomponents of axial skeletonsurgical connection of two tubular structuresfunctions of the glycocalyx include all of the following exceptcontractile unit of muscle fiberthe small intestine in the digestive systemthe language of medicine davi-ellen chabneroblongata functionplatelets or thrombocytesquizlet personality disorderswhat is the hybridization of so2five major functions of epithelium in the bodyappositional growthwhat is the genotype of individual b 5principles of economics sixth edition answersdrains blood from myocardium into right atriumskull axialfundamentals of macroeconomicsiv therapy quizstimulates wbc productionhaploid gametophytecell walls of archaeanasal concha functiondelivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissuespathway of food through the digestive tractanatomy of a sperm cellthe female gamete is calledwhat are the three main functions of the lymphatic systemwhich nerves carry nerve impulses away from the spinal cordthe term meaning above or outside the ribs isspread of cardiac impulsepictures of flags of countriesthe process of synthesizing glucose from noncarbohydrates is calledpasteur and listercapitals abbreviationsmetaphysis diaphysisderivatives of three germ layershuman reflex physiology exercise 16 answersplatinum protons neutrons and electronswhat causes the semilunar valves to closeomphalocele embryology