Chapter 15

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1

Being an overweight or obese woman increases the risk for:

a. having a baby weight of more than 10 pounds. b. neural tube defects. c. all of these choices d. having a preterm baby. e. having a low-birthweight infant.

b. neural tube defects.

2

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a cluster of physical, mental, and neurobehavioral symptoms that include all of the following except:

a. hyperactivity. b. abnormalities of the face and skull. c. excess prenatal growth of fetus. d. mental retardation. e. postnatal growth retardation.

c. excess prenatal growth of fetus.

3

Consequences of malnutrition during pregnancy include all of the following except:

a. stillbirth. b. low infant birthweight. c. spontaneous abortion. d. post-term births. e. birth defects.

d. post-term births.

4

________ is a condition characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. The cause remains unclear and symptoms typically regress within two days of delivery.

Preeclampsia

5

Which of the following is a benefit of breastfeeding for an infant?

a. may protect against atherosclerosis later in life b. protection against a variety of infections c. all of these choices d. improves cognitive development e. protection against food allergies

c. all of these choices

6

WIC provides nutrition education and nutritious foods to ________ who qualify financially and have a high risk of medical or nutritional problems.

a. breastfeeding women b. pregnant women c. all of these choices d. children up to age five e. infants

c. all of these choices

7

Which of the following is a benefit of exercise during pregnancy?

a. reduction of stress b. aids with weight loss after delivery c. all of these choices d. facilitation of labor e. prevention of gestational diabetes

c. all of these choices

8

The recommended gain for a woman who begins pregnancy at a healthy weight and is carrying a single fetus is ________ pounds.

20 - 35

9

Which of the following is not a component of the weight gain that accompanies a healthy pregnancy?

a. amniotic fluid b. maternal fat stores c. increased breast size d. increased stomach capacity e. increased maternal blood supply

d. increased stomach capacity

10

Which of the following substances can pass through the breastmilk and cause harm to the infant?

a. PCBs b. nicotine c. all of these choices d. illicit drugs e. alcohol

c. all of these choices

11

By ________ weeks, the 1 ΒΌ-inch embryo has a complete central nervous system, a beating heart, a digestive system, and well-defined fingers and toes.

8

12

The ideal childbearing age is ________ .

20 - 25

13

Which of the following is a consequence of gestational diabetes?

a. neural tube defects b. high infant birthweight c. infant heart damage d. neural tube defects and infant heart damage e. all of these choices f. infant heart damage and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes later in life g. maternal risk of type 2 diabetes later in life

e. all of these choices

14

Which of the following is a predictor of low birthweight?

a. drug use b. alcohol c. all of these choices d. teen pregnancy e. smoking

c. all of these choices

15

When compared to regular multivitamin-mineral supplements, prenatal supplements typically contain greater amounts of ________ .

a. folate b. calcium c. iron d. all of these choices

d. all of these choices

16

Which of the following conditions may a woman experience during pregnancy?

a. hemorrhoids b. heartburn c. all of these choices d. food aversions e. nausea f. constipation

c. all of these choices

17

Risks associated with pregnancy among older women include all of the following except:

a. increased chance of c-section. b. higher rates of preterm births. c. higher rates of high-birthweight babies. d. higher rates of birth defects.

c. higher rates of high-birthweight babies.

18

Recommendations for ________ and fatty acids remain about the same during lactation as during pregnancy, but they increase for ________ .

protein; carbohydrates

19

Adverse influences at critical times during fetal development may set the stage for which of the following diseases?

a. type 2 diabetes b. high blood pressure and hypertension c. all of these choices d. type 2 diabetes and hypertension e. hypertension f. high blood cholesterol

c. all of these choices

20

Risks associated with teen pregnancy include all of the following except:

a. preterm births. b. higher maternal death rate. c. low-birthweight infants. d. prolonged labor. e. iron-deficiency anemia.

b. higher maternal death rate

21

Which of the following is a change a woman's body experiences during pregnancy?

a. joints become more flexible b. blood volume increases by three times c. feet swell in response to high blood sodium levels d. the stomach and supporting muscles increase in size

a. joints become more flexible

22

The fetal ________ is largely made of lipid material, and it depends heavily on the long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for its growth, function, and structure.

brain

23

A low-birthweight infant is defined as weighing less than ________ pounds.

5.5

24

The protein RDA for pregnancy is an additional ________ grams per day higher than for nonpregnant women.

25

25

Which of the following nutrients is the need particularly great due to its role in creating new cells during fetal growth and development?

a. vitamin B12 b. iron c. zinc d. zinc and iron e. all of these choices f. folate and iron g. folate

e. all of these choices

26

Which of the following is an environmental contaminant for which pregnant women need to be cautious of ingesting?

a. mercury b. lead and calcium c. all of these choices d. lead and mercury e. calcium f. lead

d. lead and mercury

27

The RDA or AI for which of the following nutrients does not increase during pregnancy?

a. zinc b. iron c. vitamin D d. calcium and vitamin D e. all of these choices f. zinc and iron g. calcium

e. all of these choices

28

The cause of neural tube defects is ________ .

a. sexually transmitted diseases b. age c. none of these choices d. alcohol consumption e. folate deficiency

c. none of these choices

29

Which of the following statements regarding folate supplementation is false?

a. Folate supplements taken one month before conception and continued throughout the first trimester can help support a healthy pregnancy. b. Women of childbearing age should consume 1 milligram of folate daily. c. High doses of folate can mask the symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency. d. A woman who has previously had an infant with a neural tube defect may be advised to take 4 milligrams of folate daily.

b. Women of childbearing age should consume 1 milligram of folate daily.

30

Pregnant women are about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get the foodborne illness ________ .

Listeriosis

31

The ________ is a metabolically active organ that develops as an interweaving of fetal and maternal blood vessels embedded in the uterine wall.

placenta

32

Which of the following statements regarding nutrition prior to pregnancy is false?

a. Men with diets rich in antioxidant nutrients have lower sperm numbers and motility. b. Ingestion of harmful substances (such as alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes) by the father can cause miscarriage or abnormalities, alter genes or their expression, and interfere with fertility. c. All of these choices are true. d. Women can be physically active during pregnancy if they are physically active before pregnancy. e. Being underweight at delivery increases the risks of complications for the mother and newborn.

a. Men with diets rich in antioxidant nutrients have lower sperm numbers and motility.

33

When the pounds retained after pregnancy are ________ or more and BMI increases by a unit or more, risks of chronic diseases in later life can increase.

7

34

Which of the following risk factors associated with moms does not increase the risk of neural tube defects?

a. mutations in folate-related enzymes b. use of certain antiseizure medications c. race/ethnicity d. obesity e. diabetes

c. race/ethnicity

35

Which of the following is a problem associated with spina bifida?

a. club foot b. muscle weakness c. kidney disorders d. club foot and kidney disorders e. all of these choices f. meningitis and club foot g. meningitis

e. all of these choices

36

Infants of vegan parents may suffer spinal cord damage and develop severe psychomotor retardation due to a lack of ________ .

b. vitamin B12


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