Micro Bio Chp 13 Exam 2

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Microbiology
Chapter 13
Microbiology Kingwood Tx
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1

In what ways do viruses differ from other pathogens?

Viruses lack cytoplasm & organelles

2

The outermost layer of a virion fulfills which of the following functions of the virus?

both protection & recognition

3

A n ______ is a virus that infects bacterial cells.

bacteriophage

4

Which of the following is a characteristic by which viruses are classified?

type of nucleic acid

5

Host specificity of a virus is due to

interactions between viral and cellular surface molecules

6

Which of the following is primarily responsible for the shape of a virion?

the capsid

7

How are fungal viruses different from viruses that infect other organisms?

they have no extracellular state.

8

Which of the following infectious particles do NOT have protein in their structure?

viroids

9

Which of the following may occur in a lysogenic infection, but not a latent one?

The inserted viral DNA may leave the host DNA

10

Which of the following statements regarding virus taxonomy is true?

Some virus family names are derived from the name of an important member of the family.

11

Which of the following statements comparing virus classification and taxonomy of organisms is true?

Genus and specific epithet are used in both classification systems.

12

Which of the following places stages of a lytic replication cycle in order, from earliest to latest stages?

III, V, I, II, IV

13

Which of the following is associated with the attachment of a bacteriophage to a bacterial cell?

random collisions, chemical attractions, and receptor specificity

14

The enzyme lysozyme is critical for which of the stages of a bacteriophage T4 infection cycle?

entry and release

15

Which means of entry into host cells is common to both some animal viruses and bacteriophage T4?

direct penetration

16

Which of the following events occurs in the lytic cycle of bacteriophage T4 infection but NOT in the lysogenic cycle?

digestion of host DNA

17

Why is lysogen advantageous to a bacteriophage?

The genetic material of the bacteriophage is amplified many times over that seen in a lytic phage.

18

Which of the following agents is capable of inducing conversion of a prophage to the lytic cycle?

both UV light and X-rays

19

Zones of clearing in cell cultures that are the result of virus infection are called plaques. Sometimes "cloudy plaques" are seen on bacteria cultures infected with bacteriophage. What type of viral infection might cause this appearance?

lysogenic

20

Which of the following is matched Incorrectly?

adenovirus; membrane fusion

21

Reverse transcriptase is associated with which of the following?

retroviruses

22

The genome of which of the following types of animal virus can act directly as mRNA?

+ssRNA viruses

23

Which of the following types of animal virus requires RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase to be replicated?

-ssRNA viruses

24

In contrast to most dsDNA animal viruses, the poxviruses replicate solely in the cytoplasm of the host cell. this fact implies that the viral genome may encode

a DNA polymerase

25

Which of the following membranes can give rise to a viral envelope?

the nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes and the endoplasmic reticulum

26

A cell is infected with a virus carrying an oncogene sequence in its genome. What process may occur if the oncogenes expressed in the infected cell?

neoplasia

27

How is the HIV provirus different from a lambda-phage prophage?

The HIV provirus is integrated permanently into the host cell's DNA

28

Which of the following laboratory procedures is used for culturing animal viruses in the laboratory?

both cell cultures and embryonated eggs

29

One mechanism by which viruses may cause cancer is to interrupt the genetic regulatory sequences of repressor proteins. which of the following types of viruses is most likely to be involved in causing cancer by this mechanism?

retroviruses

30

Tumors invade other organs and tissues in a process called

metastasis

31

Plaque assays are used for

determine the density of phage in a culture.

32

Diploid cell cultures and continuous cell cultures differ in which of the following ways?

both longevity and source of cells

33

Viroids infect

plants

34

How are prions different from all other known infectious agents?

they lack nucleic acid

35

The viruses of fungi have RNA genomes and lack a capsid. they are therefore similar to

prions

36

A lipid membrane is present in which of the following?

enveloped viruses

37

Some human viruses are difficult to study because

they only grow in normal human cells.

38

Double stranded RNA genomes can be found

only in viruses

39

Which of the following is a feature shared by viruses and living organisms?

possession of a genome that directs synthesis of materials necessary for replication

40

Small circular RNA molecules without capsids are characteristic of

viroids

41

Viruses are shed slowly and steadily during

lysogenic infection

42

During _____ viruses remain dormant in animal cells.

latency

43

Virus replication results in the death of the cell in ______ infections.

a lytic

44

A ______ is a mass of neoplastic cells.

tumor

45

The process known as ______ is a mechanism of release for enveloped viruses.

budding

46

The combination of a virus's protein coat and nucleic acid core is called the (capsid/ virion/ nucleocapsid).

nucleocapsid

47

Viral capsids are composed of subunits called (nucleocapsids/ capsomeres).

capsomeres

48

Virus infection is initiated by the specific (fit/affinity/interaction) between proteins on the surface of a virion the surface of the target cell.

affinity

49

Some viruses can be cultured on (continuous/diploid/animal) cells which are descended from neoplastic cells.

continuous

50

The virions shown in the figure have a (polyhedral/ helical/ complex) capsid.

complex

51

Another term for a lysogenic phage is a (temperate/ latent/ prophage) phage.

temperate

52

The process in which viral capsids are removed within the infected cell is called (entry/ disassembly/ uncoating).

uncoating

53

Uncontrolled cell division in animals is known as (metastasis/ neoplasia/ cancer).

neoplasia

54

RNA viruses such as HIV require the activity of reverse (transcriptase/ polymerase) to become proviruses.

transcriptase

55

In enveloped viruses, virus-encoded (matrix/ capsomers/ envelope) proteins are required for the assembly of the envelope around the capsid.

matrix

56

Genes that play a role in proper cell division but may also play a role in some types of cancer are called (oncogenes/ protooncogenes/ promoters)

protooncogenes

57

A (colony/ plaque) is a clear zone on a bacterial lawn where cells have been killed by the activity of a bacteriophage.

plaque

58

Three (orders/ families/ classes) represent the highest level of taxonomic rank uses in classifying viruses.

orders

59

Prions are composed of a single protein called (plaque/BSE/ PrP).

PrP

60

An animal virus that does not have an envelope is described as a (naked/ unenveloped/ capsid) virion.

naked


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