Micro Bio Chp 10 Exam 4

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Microbiology
Chapter 10
Medical Micro Kingwood Tx
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1

Who proposed the concept of chemotherapy, that compounds might selectively kill pathogens without harming people?

Paul Ehrlich

2

An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following?

Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure

3

Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells?

bacterial cells

4

Which of the following is a primary advantage of semisynthetic drugs?

they have a broader spectrum of action

5

Which of the following drugs specifically targets cell walls that contain arabinogalactan-mycolic acid?

isoniazid

6

Which of the following antibiotics disrupts cytoplasmic membrane function?

amphotericin B

7

Which of the following is NOT a target of drugs that inhibit protein synthesis?

interference with alanine-alanine bridges

8

this figure represents a petri plate. the gray area is where bacteria A is growing, the black area is where bacteria B is growing. the white area is a zone where neither organism is growing. What is the best interpretation of what is observed on the plate?

Bacteria B is producing an antibiotic that inhibits the growth of bacteria A.

9

Which of the following type of antimicrobial agent has the narrowest spectrum of action?

antivirals

10

The first synthetic antimicrobial widely available for treatment of infections

was an attachment antagonist

11

In the compound lamivudine an -SH group replaces an -OH group found in cytosine. When used as a medication it will

interfere with nucleic acid synthesis

12

Which of the following groups of drugs can become incorporated into the bones and teeth of the fetus?

tetracyclines

13

Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota?

both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush

14

A compound is extracted from a microbial culture and is modified in the laboratory for use as an oral medication. this product would be a

semisynthetic antimicrobial

15

B-lactamase production is an example of which of the following types of resistance?

inactivation of the drug

16

Bacillus licheniformis secretes a compound that inhibits the growth of other Gram-positive bacteria. this is an example of an

antibiotic

17

Most drugs that inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall act by

preventing the cross-linkage of NAM subunits.

18

Most broad spectrum antibiotics act by

inhibiting protein synthesis

19

Which of the following antifungals works by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis?

both fluconazole and turbinafine

20

A drug is structurally similar to PABA and inhibits folic acid synthesis. It is most likely a

sulfonamide

21

Which of the following pathways is specifically inhibited by sulfonamides?

the conversion of PABA to dihydrofolic acid

22

Which of the following drugs inhibits nucleic acid synthesis in prokaryotes?

quinolones

23

The cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a B-lactamase inhibitor, is known as

synergism

24

Alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs?

porins

25

it is inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat colds or flu becasue

these diseases are caused by viruses

26

Who discovered the first antibiotic widely available to the general public?

Domagk

27

Which of the following statements is true of selective toxicity?

Selective toxicity takes advantage of structural differences between host and pathogen.

28

Antimicrobials that block protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA are

antisense nucleic acids

29

The E-test determines which of the following?

both susceptibility and MIC(minimum inhibitory concentration)

30

The therapeutic range of an antimicrobial is the

range of concentrations at which the antimicrobial is both effective and non-toxic

31

Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation?

both cycloserine and vancomycin

32

Antimicrobial sugars analogs are effective for

preventing virus attachment

33

Which of the following is a measurement associated with the broth dilution test?

lack of turbidity

34

Infection of the _____ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs.

brain

35

Disruption of the normal microbiota can result in infections caused by which of the following microbes?

Candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium difficile

36

The antimicrobials called quinolone act by

inhibiting DNA replication

37

How does resistance to drugs spread in bacterial populations?

Both horizontal gene transfer and the growth of biofilms spread drug resistance

38

The mechanism of action of the antibiotic vancomycin is

inhibition of cell wall synthesis

39

The tetracyclines interfere with

protein synthesis

40

Pentamidine is an example of an antimicrobial that

binds to DNA

41

The mechanism of action of erythromycin is

inhibition of protein synthesis

42

Methicillin is an example of the beta-lactam class of drugs that

inhibits cell wall synthesis

43

Ribavirin is an antiviral that interferes with

nucleic acid synthesis

44

The antimicrobial polymyxin

disrupts cytoplasmic membranes

45

Drug resistant populations of microbes arise when

exposure to drugs selectively kills sensitive cells, allowing overgrowth of resistant cells.

46

Any drug that acts against a disease is called a (analog/ antibiotic/ chemotherapeutic) agent.

chemotherapeutic

47

Selective (toxicity/ action/ treatment) means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated.

toxicity

48

Nucleotide or nucleoside (analogs/ antisense/ acids) are antimicrobial agents that mimic the chemical structure of DNA building blocks.

analogs

49

A microbe resistant to a variety of different antimicrobials is said to have (cross/ drug/ multiple) resistance.

multiple

50

Secondary infections that result from the killing of some of the normal microbiota are called (antagonism/ superinfection/ resistance).

superinfections

51

Competition between beneficial microbes and potential pathogens is called (synergy/ antagonism).

antagonism

52

A (bacteriostatic/ bacteriocidal/ minimum) concentration of a drug is one at which microbes survive but are not able to grow and reproduce.

bacteriocidal

53

the ratio of a medication's dose that cane tolerated to its effective dose is the therapeutic (range/ index) of the medication.

index

54

Some bacteria develop resistance to groups of drugs because the drugs are all structurally similar to each other; this is a phenomenon known as (cross/ multiple) resistance.

cross

55

Second generation drugs are semisynthetic drugs developed to combat (immunity/ resistance) against an existing drug.

resistance

56

Drugs that slow down bacterial growth would be (competitive/ synergistic/ antagonistic) to penicillin.

antagonistic

57

External infections can be treated by (surface/ topical) administration, in which a drug is applied directly to the site of infection.

topical

58

the abbreviation (MIC/ MID/ MD) stands for the smallest amount of a drug that will inhibit the growth and reproduction of a pathogen.

MIC

59

Antiviral medication frequently block unique (proteins/enzymes/ molecules) to prevent production of new virus.

enzymes

60

Some medications for influenza are (attachment/ binding/ microbial) antagonists that block the ability of the virus to enter cells.

attachment


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