FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS

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HORMONES, CELLS, AND TERMS
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1

GONADOTROPINS
FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE
FSH

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARY
TARGET TISSUE: OVARIES AND TESTES
FUNCTION: REGULATE GAMETE PRODUCTION.
WITH LH, STIMULATES THE MATURATION
OF AND EGG.

2

GONADOTROPINS
LUTEINIZING HORMONE
LH

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARY
TARGET TISSUE: OVARIES AND TESTES
FUNCTION: STIMULATES THE PRODUCTION OF GONADAL
HORMONES, TRIGGERSS OVULATION,
PROMOTES SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE OF
OVARIAN HORMONES. IN MALES, ITS CALLED ICSH(INTERSTITIAL CELL STIMULATING HORMONE)WHICH STIMULATES THE INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF THE TESTES TO PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE.

3

ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
ACTH
AKA CORTICOTROPIN

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARY BY CORTICOTROPE CELLS
TARGET TISSUE: ADRENAL CORTEX
FUNCTION: CONTROLS THE PRRODUCTION AND
RELEASE OF THE SEX STEROIDS
(ESTROGENS, ANDROGENS AND
PROGESTERONE), THE GLUCOCORTICOIDS
AND THE MINERALOCORTICOIDS

4

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE
AKA THYROTROPIN
TSH

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARY BY THYROTROPE CELLS
TARGET TISSUE: THYROID GLAND
FUNCTION: CONTROLS PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF
THYROID HORMONES WHICH CONTROLS
METABOLIC RATE

5

GROWTH HORMONE
GH
(GROWTH HORMONE RELEASING HORMONE-GHRH, GROWTH
HORMONE INHIBITING HORMONE-GHIH)

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARY BY SOMATOTROPIC CELLS
TARGET TISSUE: LIVER, MUSCLES, BONES
FUNCTION: AFFECTS GROWTH RATE DETERMINING BODY
SIZE
DISEASE: EXCESS GH: ACROMEGALY-OVERGROWTH OF
BONES IN HANDS
GIGANTISM IN CHILDREN
LACK GH: DWARFISM

6

PROLACTIN
PRL

ORIGIN: ANTERIOR PITUITARYBY LACTOTROPES
TARGET TISSUE: MAMMARY GLANDS, CORPUS LUTEUM
FUNCTION: STIMULATES BREAST DEVELOPMENT AND
PROMOTES AND MAINTAINS LACTATION BY
THE MAMMARY GLANDS AFTER CHILDBIRTH.
MAY ALSO STIMULATE TESTERONE
PRODUCTION IN MALES.

7

OXYTOCIN

ORIGIN: HYPOTHALAMUS STORED IN POSTERIOR
PITUITARY
TARGET TISSUE: UTERUS AND MAMMARY GLANDS
FUNCTION: STIMULATES POWERFUL UTERINE
CONTRACTIONS DURING BIRTH AND COITUS
AND ALSO CAUSES MILK EJECTION IN THE
LACTATING MOTHER

8

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
ADH
AKA VASOPRESSIN

ORIGIN: HYPOTHALAMUS STORED IN THE POSTERIOR
PITUITARY
TARGET TISSUE: KIDNEY TUBULES
FUNCTIONS: CAUSES THE DISTAL AND COLLECTING
TUBULES OF THE KIDNEYS TO REABSORB
MORE WATER FROM THE URINARY FILTRATE,
THEREBY REDUCING URING OUTPUT AND
CONSERVING BODY WATER.
DISEASES: DIABETES INSIPIDUS AKA POLYURIA-
HYPOSECRETION OF ADH RESULTS IN
DEHYDRATION FROM EXCESSIVE URINE OUTPUT

9

MELATONIN

ORIGIN: PINEAL GLAND
TARGET TISSUE: BRAIN
FUNCTION: EXHIBITS A DIURNAL(DAILY) CYCLE. PEAKS AT NIGHT, MAKING US DRWOSY AND IS LOWEST AROUND NOON. IN HUMANS IT APPEARS TO EXERT SOME INHIBITORY EFFECT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM THAT PREVENTS PRECOCIOUS SEXUAL MATURATION.

10

THYROID HORMONE
T3(TRIIODOTHYRONINE), T4(THYROXINE)

ORIGIN: THYROID GLAND
TARGET TISSUE: BODY CELLS
FUNCTIONS: CONTROL THE RATE OF BODY METABOLISM
AND CELLULAR OXIDATION
DISEASES: MYXEDEMA-HYPOSECRETION OF T4, CONDITION OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL SLUGGISHNESS.
HYPERSECRETION CAUSES ELEVATED GRAVE'S DISEASE-HYPERTHYROIDISM-METABOLIC RATE,NERVOUSNESS, WEIGHT LOSS, SWEATING, AND IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
CRETINISM-SEVERE HYPOTHYROIDISM IN INFANTS

11

CALCITONIN

ORIGIN: THYROID GLAND BY PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS
TARGET TISSUE: BONES (OSTEOBLASTS)
FUNCTIONS: DECREASES BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS BY
STIMULATING CALCIUM SALT DEPOSITS
***ANTAGONIST OF PARATHYROID HORMONE-LOWERS BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS***

12

PARATHYROID HORMONE
PTH

ORIGIN: PARATHYROID GLANDS
TARGET TISSUE:
FUNCTIONS: REGULATES CALCIUM BALANCE OF THE
BLOOD, AND STIMULATES THE KIDNEYS TO
CONVERT VITAMIN D TO ITS ACTIVE D3
FORM, CALCITRIOL
DISEASES: TETANY PROLONGED MUSCLE SPASMS THA TCAN RESULT IN RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS AND DEAT DUE TO HYPOSECRETION.
HYPERSECRETION CAUSES LOSS OF CALCIUM FROM BONES, CAUSING DEFORMATION, SOFTENING AND SPONTANEOUS FRACTURES.
***ANTAGONIST OF CACITONIN-INCREASES BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS***

13

THYMULIN, THYMOSINS, AND THYMOPOIETINS

ORIGIN: THYMUS
TARGET TISSUE:
FUNCTIONS: AID IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF T-LYMPHOCYTES AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE.

14

EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE

ORIGIN: ADRENAL GLANDS
TARGET TISSUE:
FUNCTIONS: ACT IN CONJUNCTIN WITH THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM TO ELICIT THE FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE TO STRESSORS. INCREASE OF CARDIAC ACTIVITY, BREAKDOWN IN GLYCOGEN.

15

INSULIN

ORIGIN: PANCREAS (ACTS AND ENDOCRINE AND EXCRONE GLAND)
TARGET TISSUE: ALL BODY CELLS
FUNCTIONS: DECREASES BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS BC OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS, PRIMARILY BY ACCELERATING THE TRANSPORT OF GLUCOSE IN THE BODY CELLS WHERE IT IS OXIDIZED FOR ENERGY OR CONVERTED TO GLYCOGEN OR FAT FOR STORAGE
DISEASES: DIABETES MELLITUS-INABILITY OF BODY CELLS TO UTILIZE GLUCOSE AND THE SUBSEQUENT LOSS OF GLUCOSE IN URINE.
HYPOGLYCEMIA-HYPERSECRETION OF INSULIN CAUSES LOW BLOOD SUGAR

16

GLUCAGON

ORIGIN: PANCREAS
TARGET TISSUES: LIVER
FUNCTIONS: WHEN BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS ARE LOE, IT STIUMULATES THE LIVER, ITS PRIMARY TARGET ORGAN, TO BREAK DOWN GLYCOGEN STORES TO GLUCOSE AND SUBSEQUENTLY TO RELEASE THE GLUCOSE TO THE BLOOD.

17

ESTROGEN

ORIGIN: GONADS
TARGET TISSUE: OVARIES
FUNCTIONS: RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FEMALE AT PUBERTY (PRIMARILY MATURATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BREASTS AND ACT WITH PROGESTERONE TO BRING ABOUT CYCLIC CHANGES OF THE UTERINE LINING THAT OCCUR DURING THE MENSTURAL CYCLE. ALSO HELPS THE MAMMARY GLANDS FOR LACTATION

18

PROGESTERONE

ORIGIN: FEMALE GONADS
TARGET TISSUES: OVARIES
FUNCTIONS: DURING PREGNANCY, IT HELPS TO MAINTAIN THE UTERINE MUSCULATURE IN A QUIESCENT STATE AND HELPS TO PREPARE THE BREAST TISSUE FOR LACTATION

19

TESTOSTERONE

ORIGIN: MALE GONADS
TARGET TISSUE: TESTES
FUNCTIONS: PROMOTES MATURATION OF MALE SEX ORGANS, SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS, AND SEX DRIVE DURING PUBERTY. NECESSARY FOR NORMAL SPERM PRODUCTION AND MAINTAIN THE REPORDUCTIVE ORGANS IN THEIR MATURE FUNCTIONAL STATES

20

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

1)2ND MAJOR CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE BODY.
2)ACTING WITH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, IT HELPS COORDINATE AND INTEGRATE THE ACTIVITY OF THE BODY'S CELLS.
3)THE NERVOUS SYSTEM EMPLOYS ELECTROCHEMICAL IMULSES TO BRING ABOUT RAPID CONTROL WHEREAS THE MORE SLOWLY ACTING ENDOCRINE SYSTEM EMPLOYS "CHEMICAL MESSENGERS" HORMONES, WHICH ARE RELEASED INTO THE BLOOD TO BE TRANSPORTED THROUGHOUT THE BODY

21

TARGET ORGANS

ORGANS THAT RESPOND TO A PARTICULAR HORMONE, WHICH DEPENDS ON THE ABILITY OF THE HORMONE TO BIND WITH SPECIFIC RECEPTORS (PROTEINS) OCCURRING ON THE CELLS' PLASMA MEMBRANE OR WITHIN THE CELLS.

22

PURELY ENDOCRINE HORMONE PRODUCING GLANDS

ANTERIOR PITUITARY, THYROID(CONSIDERED TO BE THE ONLY TRUE ENDOCRINE GLAND), ADRENALS, PARATHYROIDS

23

BOTH ENDOCRINE AND EXOCRINE HORMONE PRODUCING
GLANDS

PANCREAS AND GONADS

24

PITUITARY GLANDS AKA HYPOPHYSIS

LOCATED IN THE HYPOPHYSEAL FOSSA OF THE SELLA TURCICA OF THE SPHENOID BONE. CONTAINS TWO LOBES: ANTERIOR PITUITARY (ADENOHYPOPHYSIS) AND POSTERIOR PITUITARY (NEUROHYPOPHYSIS)

25

INFUNDIBULUM

ATTATCHES THE PITUITARY GLAND TO THE HYPOTHALAMUS

26

PARAFOLLICULAR OR C CELLS

RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CALCITONIN PRODUCTION

27

CHIEF CELLS

SYNTHESIZE PARATHYROID HORMONES, ARE MALL AND ABUNDANT AND ARRANGED IN THICK BRANCHING CORDS.

28

ACINAR CELLS

PRODUCES THE EXOCRINE SECRETION OF HYDROLITIC ENZYMES THAT IS RELEASED INTO THE DUODENUM THROUGHT THE PANCREATIC DUCT

29

PANCREATIC ISLETS(ISLET OF LANGERHANS)

ENDOCRINE PORTINS OF THE PANCREAS. CONTAINS ALPHA CELLS, WHICH TEND TO CLUSTER AT THE PERIPHERY OF THE ISLETS AND PRODUCE GLUCAGON AND BETA CELLS, WHICH SYNTHESIZE INSULIN.

30

ACIDOPHIL CELLS

PRODUCES GROWTH HORMONES AND PROLACTIN

31

BASOPHIL CELLS

DEEP BLUE GRANULES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TROPIC HORMONES (TSH, ACTH, FSH, AND LH)

32

CHROMOPHOBES

ROLES OF IS CONTROVERSIAL, BUT THEY APPARENTLY ARE NOT DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN HORMONE PRODUCTION

33

ZONA GLOMERULOSA

MOST MINERALOCORTICOID PRODUCTION OCCURS, TIGHTLY PACKED CELLS ARE ARRANGED IN SPHERICAL CLUSTERS

34

ZONA FASCICULATA

DEEPER INTERMEDIATE LAYER PRODUCES GLUCOCORTICOIDS, THE THICKEST PART OF THE CORTEX, ITS CELLS ARE ARRANGED IN PARALLEL CORDS.

35

ZONA RETICULARIS

THE INNERMOST CORTICAL ZONE WHICH PRODUCES SEX HORMONES AND SOME GLUCOCORTICOIDS, FORMS A BRANCHING NETWORK

36

HORMONE

CHEMICAL MESSENGERS WHICH ARE RELEASED INTO THE BLOOD TO BE TRANSPORTED THROUGHOUT THE BODY

37

THE PITUITARY GLAND, AKA THE _______________, IS LOCATED IN THE SELLA TURCICA OF THE SPHENOID BONE.

HYPOPHYSIS


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