Chapter 16 A&P II - Overview

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1

The nervous system regulates muscle and gland activity via

electrochemical impulses

2

Endocrine system stimulates ______ activity, using _____.

Metabolic.

Hormones.

3

Chemical messengers excreted by cells into extracellular fluid

hormones

4

What responses last longer?

Endocrine responses or nervous system responses

Endocrine

5

5 Major processes that are controlled by hormones:

Reproduction.

Growth and development.

Maintenance of electrolytes, water, and blood nutrients.

Regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balance.

Mobilization of body defenses.

6

Study of hormones is called

endocrinology

7

Exocrine glands produce ______ and have ______.

nonhormonal substances.

ducts.

8

Adipose cells release-

leptin

9

the thymus releases-

thymic hormones

10

Local chemical messengers that travel short distances-

Autocrine and Paracrine

11

Autocrines exert their effects on-

the same cell that secreted them

12

paracrines releases into the same _____, but affect-

tissue.

cells other than paracrine cells.

13

Somatostatin is release by one form of pancreatic cells, so stop ______ from being made by different pancreatic cells.

insulin

14

Which 2 endocrine glands are found in the neck?

thyroid and parathyroid

15

Whats the difference between a hormone and a paracrine?

hormones travel larger distances in the blood while a paracrine affects local cells usually in the same tissue

16

Nearly all hormones can be chemically classified as either _____ or _____.

amino acid based,

steroids.

17

most hormones are

amino acid based

18

peptides are _____ ______ of amino acids

short chains

19

proteins are _____ _____ of amino acids

long polymers

20

the amino acid tyrosine and amines construct _____.

thyroxine

21

synthesized from cholesterol

steroid hormones

22

only the _____ and _____ produce steroid hormones

gonads and adrenal glands

23

a possible third class of hormones:

eicosanoids

24

eicosanoids include _____ and _____

leukotrienes and prostaglandins

25

signaling chemicals for inflammation and some allergic reactions

leukotrienes

26

raise blood pressure and increase contractions during birth for blood clotting, pain, and inflammation.

prostaglandins

27

why are eicosanoids classified as autocrines and paracrines instead of hormones?

Hormones influence distant targets but eicosanoids affect only nearby cells.

28

True or False.

All major hormones circulate to and influence all tissues.

False.

They circulate to all tissue but only influence tissues with receptors for that particular hormone.

29

Target cells are ___________.

the cells in the tissues that the hormones are trying to reach.

30

How do hormones effect the target cells?

It alters the target cell activity, by increasing or decreasing cellular processes.

31

What happens when epinephrine binds to smooth muscle cells in blood vessel walls?

It stimulates them to contract.

32

Hormones open or close _____ _____ in the plasma membrane to alter its ______ or _____.

ion channels.

permeability or potential.

33

Hormones stimulate synthesis of _____ and certain _______ within the cell

Enzymes.

Proteins.

34

Hormones activate or deactivate ______.

Enzymes.

35

Hormones induce ______ activity.

secretory.

36

Hormones stimulate _____ to begin within a cell.

mitosis

37

What 2 things determine how a hormone communicates with its target cell?

The chemical nature of the hormone

and

The cellular location of the receptors

38

hormones act at receptors in 2 ways depending on if they are ____ _____ or _____ _____.

water soluble

or

lipid soluble

39

If hormones are water soluble then they act on receptors ___________

in the plasma membrane.

40

If hormones are lipid soluble then they act on receptors ___________.

inside the cell.

41

lipid soluble hormones include:

steroid and thyroid hormones.

42

water soluble hormones include:

all amino acid based hormones, except thyroid.

43

If the tissue needs water soluble hormones, its receptors are usually connected to __________ by regulatory molecules called _______.

intracellular second messengers.

G Proteins.

44

A hormone is also called a ________.

First messenger.

45

A second messenger used by neurotransmitters and olfactory receptors:

Cyclic AMP

(cAMP)

46

3 components for cAMP signaling mechanism are

a hormone receptor

a G protein

an effector enzyme (adenylate cyclase)

47

Step 1 in cAMP mechanism:

Hormone binds receptor.

48

Step 2 in cAMP mechanism:

Receptor activates G protein.

49

Step 3 in cAMP mechanism:

G protein activates adenylate cyclase

50

Step 4 in cAMP mechanism

Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP.

51

Step 5 in cAMP mechanism

Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.

52

Explain step 1: Hormone binds receptor.

The first messenger, the hormone, binds with the receptor in the plasma membrane.

53

Explain step 2: Receptor activates G protein.

Hormone binding makes the receptor change shape so it can bind to a G protein. Inactive G proteins are bound to GDP, which is replaced by GTP to activate them.

54

What is bound to an inactive G protein?

GDP

55

What does GDP stand for?

Guanosine DiPhosphate

56

GDP gets replaced by ______ to activate the G protein.

GTP

57

GTP stands for:

Guanosine TriPhosphate

58

Explain Step 3: G protein activates adenylate cyclase

The G protein, with attached GTP, then bind to adenylate cyclase to either stimulate it or inhibit it. (Gs= A G protein that stimulates. Gi+ A G protein that inhibits.)

The GTP is then broken back down to GDP and the G protein becomes inactive again.

59

Explain Step 4: Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP.

Before the activated Gs is broken down, the adenylate cyclase uses ATP to generate the second messenger, cAMP.

60

Explain Step 5: Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.

cAMP moves freely within the cells and triggers many chemical reactions using protein kinases, which are enzymes that add a phosphorus group to various proteins. creating millions of product molecules.

61

The sequence of reactions from cAMP depend on what 3 things?

the type of target cells.

the protein kinases it contains.

the substance available for phosphorylation.

62

In thyroid cells, binding TSH promotes synthesis of the thyroid hormone ______.

thyrosine.

63

TSH stands for

thyroid stimulating hormone

64

In liver cells, binding glucagon activates enzymes that break down ______, that release ______ into the blood.

glycogen.

Glucose

65

The action of cAMP lasts only _____, because the molecules are degraded by the enzyme _______.

briefly,

phosphodiesterase.

66

_______ makes sure that no extracellular controls are needed to stop the activity caused by the hormones.

phosphodiesterase.

67

_____ and _____ work without second messengers

insulin

growth hormones

68

__________ act as the second messenger in the PIP2-calcium mechanism

intracellular calcium ions

69

In the PIP2- Calcium mechanism, what is the membrane bound effector?

Phospholipase C

70

Phospholipase C splits a plasma membrane phospholipid called _____

PIP2

71

PIP2 splits into ______ and ______

DAG

and

IP3

72

What does DAG do?

activates protein kinase enzyme to trigger response.

73

What does IP3 do?

Released CA^2+ from storage.

74

How does releasing CA^2+ amplify cellular response?

CA^2+ works as a second messenger

to either directly alter activity

or

by binding to calmodulin to activate enzymes that amplify

75

ACTH receptors are normally only found on

the adrenal cortex

76

thyroxine receptors are normally found on

almost all body cells

77

What is the main hormone to stimulate cellular metabolism?

Thyroxine

78

3 factors of target cell activation

1. Hormone blood levels

2. # of receptors

3. Binding strength

79

When you have too little of a hormone, eventually the target cells will create additional receptors, this is called_____.

Up-regulation

80

Decreasing the amount of receptors for a hormone because there is too much of the hormone being produced is called _____.

Down-regulation

81

Progesterone down-regulates ______ receptors in the uterus

estrogen

82

Estrogen up-regulates _______ receptors in the uterus.

Progesterone

83

Hormones are regulated by __________, where a stimulus triggers hormone secretion.

negative feedback mechanisms

84

3 types of stimuli that trigger endocrine glands to make and release their hormones:

Humoral

Neural

Hormonal Stimuli

85

The type of stimuli that occurs from a change in blood level of critical ions and nutrients

Humoral

86

Cells of the ______ gland monitor CA^2+ levels

parathyroid

87

The simplest endocrine controls are the ________

Humoral stimuli

88

Hormones released from Humoral stimuli:

1.

2.

3.

1. PTH - Parathyroid

2. Insulin - Pancrease

3. Aldosterone - Adrenal Cortex

89

Nerve fibers stimulus that releases hormones:

Neural stimuli

90

Example of neural stimuli:

stress

91

How the body handles stress:

The nervous system stimulates the adrenal medulla to release _______ and _______.

norepinephrine

and

epinephrine

92

Hormones are produced because of other hormones that were produced somewhere else:

Hormonal stimulus

93

True or False:

All endocrine organs use only 1 type of the stimuli for producing hormones.

False.

Some of them respond to multiple stimuli

94

The _________ functions as the hormonal safeguard, turning production on and off when it is needed.

nervous system

95

Using blood glucose while under stress, explain why the nervous system over-ride is important.

When under severe stress, you need more glucose in the blood in case of vigorous activity. So the nervous system is responsible for increasing blood glucose levels.

96

Hormones circulate in the blood either _____ or __________.

Freely

or

Bound to a protein carrier.

97

Lipid-soluble hormones travel

bound to a protein

98

The concentration of a circulating hormone reflects:

1.

2.

1. The rate of release

2. The speed it is activated and removed from the body

99

True or False:

Water soluble hormones have shorter half-lives.

True.

100

3 types of hormone interactions

Permissive

Synergism

Antagonism

101

One hormone needs cannot be fully effective without another hormone in this interaction:

Permissive

102

Reproductive hormones and ______ hormones are needed for normal and timely development of reproductive structures

Thyroid

103

True of False:

Without Thyroid hormone, reproductive structures and development will not take place.

False.

They will still take place, it will just be delayed.

104

When one or more hormones produce the same effect and are used at the same time to amplify the effect, this is a _______ reaction

Synergism

105

Glucagon and epinephrine cause the liver to release _______ into the blood

Glucose

106

Hormones oppose actions of other hormones in ________ interactions

antagonism

107

______ antagonizes insulin to raise glucose levels.

Glucagon


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