Anotomy Chapter 4

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1

Plasma Membrane

External boundary of cell; regulates flow of material into and out of the cell; site of cell signalling

2

Lysosomes

Contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; "suicide sac" of the cell

3

Mitochondria

Scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis

4

Micro villi

Slender extension of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area

5

Inclussion

Stores glycogen granules, crystal, pigments; present in some cell types

6

Golgi Apparatus

Membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; packages proteins for export

7

Nucleus

Control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life

8

Centrioles

Two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus; associated with the formation of the mitotic spindle

9

Nucleuos

Dense nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes

10

Microfilament

Contractile elements of the cytoskeleton

11

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Membranous tubules covered with ribosomes; involved in intracellular transport

12

Ribosomes

Attached to membrane system or scattered in the cytoplasm; site of protein synthesis

13

Chromatin (Chromatin thread)

Threadlike structure in the nucleus; contains genetic material (DNA)

14

Peroxisomes

Site of free radical detoxification

15

Organelle

Metabolic machinery of the cell, and they are highly organized to carry out specific functions for the cell

16

Cell

Structural and functional unit of all living things, is a complete enity

17

Squamous Epithelium

A. Flat shaped

B. Good for layering and overlapping

18

Sperm

A. Flagella

B. Allows the cell to be mobile

19

Smooth Muscle

A. Has a fusiform shape

B. Allows the muscle to tense and relax

20

Red Blood Cells

A. Biconave shape

B. Allows more surface area for efficient gas transfer

21

Gap Junctions

Passageway from one cell to another

22

Tight Junction

Seal cells together so nothing gets between

23

Desomosomes

Anchor cells to other cells or underlying basement membrane

24

Passive Transport

A. Simple diffusion- Solute molecules/atoms spread out to establish equilibrium

B. Facilitated diffusion- Charged, polar, or larger molecules. Requires a channel protein (door) to cross membrane

C. Osmosis- Type of facilitated diffusion in which water is moved from high to low concentration

25

Active Transport

A. Moves solute against gradient (low to high concentration)

B. Requires carrier protein

C. Requires energy

26

Hypertonic

Higher solute (salt) conc than normal cell

(Water moves away from cell, shrinks

27

Hypotonic

Lower salt conc than normal cell

(Water moves into cell) (Cell may rupture)

28

Isotonic

Same salt conc as normal cell

(Water moves in and out of cell equally; is at equilibrium)

29

Endo/Exocytosis

Movement of larger particles in and out of the cell via membrane vesicles

30

Interphase

Most of cell"s life, resting

3 stages

G1- growth, S (synthesis) copies genetic material in prep for diviosion

G2- continues prep

31

Prophase

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes (23 pairs in humans)

32

Metaphase

  • Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
  • Mitotic spindle attaches to chromosomes
  • Nuclear envelope breaks down
33

Anaphase

Spindles separate chromosomes and begin to move toward each pole

34

Telophase

  • Chromosomes are fully at opposite ends of cell
  • Overlaps with cytokines- division of cytoplasm
  • Cleavage furrow forms, cell begins to divide
  • Nuclear membrane re-forms
35

Mitosis

The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell.


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