Receptors called _____ nerve endings consist of nerve fibers surrounded by glial cells or a connective tissue covering.
List the ossicles of the middle ear in order starting from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Color blindness results from abnormality in or lack of ______, a type of photoreceptor protein.
Which of the following sensations result from input by exteroceptors?
The ____ point of vision refers to the closest an object can be to the eyes and still be focused.
Describe endogenous opioids such as endorphins.
The vestibular nerves lead to four vestibular nuclei that are located ____ and _____.
The photoreceptor cell only produces images in shades of gray, and is responsible for night vision:
Place the following events in the correct order.
Chose the three terms that describe senses that utilize receptors widely distributed throughout the body.
Identify the fluid-filled cochlear chambers that contain perilymph.
List the steps in order involved in generating a nerve signal within the macula utriculi and sacculi starting with movement of the head.
Any audible vibration of molecules creates ______ and can be detected by one of your special senses
The sens of ____ is the perception of objects resulting from detection of the light they emit or reflect.
A _________ is a receptor that is stimulated by touch, pressure, stretching, or vibration.
Order the sequence of events that stimulate the crista ampullaris.
____ is the sensation of taste that results from the action of chemicals stimulating the taste buds.
List the components of the near response for close vision.
Pain that results from convergent neutral pathways that leads to visceral pain mistakenly thought to originate from the skin is called ______ pain.
Identify the significance the sensory projection pathway.
The ________ is the translucent anterior section of the fibrous layer of the eye while _____ is the white of the eye
An area of tissue called the olfactory ____ contains the sensory epithelium for olfaction in the nose.
By definition, _______ is the bending of light rays as they pass through objects of different density.
Which of the following sensations result from input by interoceptors?
Starting with the optic nerve, list the steps in conduction of a nerve impulse from the eyes to the brain.
The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane.
Identify the four types of information transmitted by sensory receptors.
_____ is a protective, sticky secretion of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the ear canal which waterproofs the ear canal and inhibits bacterial growth
Sensory receptors may be accompanied by accessory tissues that facilitate transduction of a stimulus, together forming a:
Place the following events in order starting with the vibration of the oval window and ending with the depolarization of hair cells.
______ is the result or irregularity of the lens or cornea of the eye which prevents the ability to focus on light rays that enter on different planes.
Identify the three modalities detected by free nerve endings.
A _____ is a variable change in membrane voltage produced by a stimulus acting on a receptor cell which will generate an action potential upon reaching threshold.
Describe how the location of a stimulus is determined.
Looking at the anterior view of the eye through the palpebral fissure, list the parts of the eye that are visible.
Identify the two characteristics of a tonic receptor.
The _____ membranes of the maculae sacculi and utricli are important in sensing gravity and motion
The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane
The olfactory ______ carry sensory information from the olfactory bulbs to the primary olfactory cortex.
List some characteristic of the conjunctiva
Spinal gating is the blockage of pain signals from nociceptors at the ______ horn of the spinal cord
The lens is located in between the _____ and ______. Identify two structures below.
_______ is the serous fluid secreted by the ciliary body that fills the anterior cavity of the eye
_______ equilibrium refers to the perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary
Identify the effects of light exposure on rhodopsin
By definition, _____ is the reduced ability to accomodate for near vision that commonly occurs with aging
Identify the receptors that are unencapsulated nerve endings
The ______ tube is a flattened tube which, when opened by actions such as yawning or swallowing, equalizes pressure in the tympanic cavity
The comparison of signals from both the right and left ears that allows for the identification of the direction from which a sound is coming is called
List some characteristics of the perception of taste
Identify the four modalities detected by lamellar (pacinian) corpuscles
Half of the fibers from each optic nerve cross over to the opposite side of the brain. The term for half cross over is _______
Identify the three characteristics of the choroid
Identify some naturally occurring analgesics (endogenous opiods)
Identify the types of encapsulated nerve endings responsible for detecting light touch and texture
The myoepithelial cells within the pupillary dilator are innervated by the _____ nervous system
Similar to tactile corpuscles, which moalities are detected by end bulbs (krause corpuscles)?
Name the area of the retina that is lacking photoreceptors and is therefore referred to as the "blind spot"
______ is the conversion of one form of energy to another. In biological terms it is the conversion of external stimuli into a nerve signal
Which unencapsulated nerve endings would be most likely to be the first to sense the presence of a mosquito on your arm
_______ corpuscles consist of flattened elongated capsules capable of detecting heavy touch, stretching of the skin and joint movement
The perception of color vision is based upon the
Name the six extrinsic eye muscles
Sensory adaptation refers to the ____ in perceived sensation over time despite the continuation of the stimulus
Having two eyes with overlapping visual fields provides for
An apocrine sweat gland secretion contains compounds called ______ that may affect human sexual behavior
The taste buds located on the vallate papillae in the back of the mouth are most sensitive to which taste?
An area with a higher two-point touch discrimination will have a _____ number o receptor fields
The ______ nuclei are located on either side of the pons and medulla oblongata, and serve to process signals regarding position and movement of the body
First-order somatosensory fibers carrying signals from below the head enter the central nervous system at the level of the
The portion of the retina that produces the greatest visual acuity (sharpness of image) is the ______. It is located within a patch of cells posterior to the center of the lens is called the ______.
____-order fibers carry information from the brainstem to the contralateral side of the thalamus
Identfity the two nerves that send motor fibers to the tensor tympani and stapeius muscles
Describe the projection of pain occurring in the head
Sensory receptors that are "naked" sensory dendrites, lacking connective tissue coverings, are referred to as _____ receptors. They include free nerve endings, tactile (merkel) discs, and hair receptors
Name the photoreceptor cell type that functions to regulate pupil diameter and circadian rhythms
____ pain is the pain that results from stretch receptors, chemical irritants or ischemia to the abdominal organs
_____ cells demonstrate extensive neural convergence resulting in spatial summation, useful for low light vision
The _____ reflex refers to the ability of both pupils to respond to the intensity of the light
The transformation of cis-retinal to trans-retinal after absorption of light is called ______
List some properties of descending analgesic fibers
The visual adjustment that is made when you go from a dark or dimly lit area to a brighet area is called _____ adaptation
Cones are capable of acute color perception because their signal ____ experience extensive neural convergence when synapsing with bipolar cells
_____ and amacrine cells from horizontal connections between rods, cones, and bipolar cells
Within somatosensory projection pathways, most third-order fibers synapse with the second-order fibers in the
Identify the cranial nerves involved in collecting sensory information from taste buds
The _____ hair cells of the spiral organ adjust the response of the cochlea to various pitches of sound
Pain fibers that are ____ conduct impulses that travel 0.5-2 m/sec and produce the slow (second) pain
The area of the brain responsible for identification and discrimination of odors is the area of the cerebral cortex called the ____ cortex
Within the olfactory bulb, olfactory fibers synapse with dendrites of these two types of neurons
Which of the following is the projection pathway for pain from below the neck responsible for carrying most of the somatic pain information?
Constriction of the pupil facilitates focusing of an image by the lens because:
The cochlea is capable of discerning differences in the loudness of stimuli because specific amplitude of sound
Identify the projection pathway for pain below the neck responsible for eliciting the emotional response to pain including fear and nausea