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Medical Microbiology

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created 3 years ago by missy627
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updated 2 years ago by missy627

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1

1) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to

A) use a magnifying glass.
B) develop a taxonomic system.
C) view protozoa and bacteria.
D) disprove spontaneous generation.
E) prove the germ theory.

C

2

2) The microbes commonly known as __________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.

A) archaea
B) bacteria
C) fungi
D) protozoa
E) viruses

D

3

3) Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE?

A) The group includes seaweeds and kelps.
B) They are photosynthetic organisms.
C) They provide most of the oxygen on Earth.
D) They are important in the degradation of dead plants and animals.
E) They are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals.

D

4

4) Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen are called

A) anaerobes.
B) facultative anaerobes.
C) obligate parasites.
D) archaea.
E) prokaryotes.

B

5

5) Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?

A) Pasteur
B) Needham
C) Redi
D) Buchner
E) Spallanzani

B

6

6) The microbial production of alcohol from sugar is known as

A) fermentation.
B) pasteurization.
C) metabolism.
D) abiogenesis.
E) antisepsis.

A

7

7) Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE?

A) Fungi are eukaryotes.
B) Molds form hyphae.
C) Fungi have a cell wall.
D) Fungi are photosynthetic.
E) Yeasts are unicellular

D

8

8) Which of the following statements concerning Koch's postulates is FALSE?

A) Koch's postulates cannot be used to demonstrate the cause of all diseases.
B) A suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory.
C) All of Koch's postulates must be satisfied before an organism can be proven to cause a particular disease.
D) Koch's postulates involve the experimental infection of susceptible hosts.
E) A suspected pathogen must be found in the majority of individuals with a particular disease.

E

9

9) Which of the following individuals pioneered the use of chemicals to reduce the incidence of infections during surgery?

A) Nightingale
B) Snow
C) Ehrlich
D) Lister
E) Semmelweis

D

10

10) The study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called

A) etiology.
B) immunology.
C) chemotherapy.
D) molecular biology.
E) epidemiology.

B

11

11) Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?

A) What causes disease?
B) How do genes work?
C) Is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
D) How are microbes related?
E) What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?

E

12

12) The microbial activity of __________ is responsible for the production of various foods.

A) archaea
B) bacteria
C) fungi
D) protozoa
E) both fungi and bacteria

E

13

13) What scientist first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?

A) Woese
B) Avery
C) Ehrlich
D) Kluyver
E) Pauling

E

14

14) Work by __________ laid the foundations of the field of environmental microbiology.

A) Redi and Spallanzani
B) Koch and Pasteur
C) Beijerinck and Winogradsky
D) Lister and Semmelweis
E) Pauling and Woese

C

15

15) According to Kluyver and van Niel, which of the following are true of basic biochemical reactions?

A) They are shared by all living things.
B) There are an unlimited number of them.
C) They primarily involve the transfer of electrons and ions.
D) Basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions.
E) They primarily involve transfers of chemical groups

D

16

16) Semmelweis advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases?

A) cholera
B) puerperal fever
C) smallpox
D) anthrax
E) syphilis

B

17

17) Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat

A) cholera.
B) cancer.
C) anthrax.
D) smallpox.
E) syphilis.

E

18

18) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of viruses?

A) They are visible with a light microscope.
B) They are acellular.
C) They are composed of genetic material and protein.
D) They are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
E) They are obligatory parasites.

A

19

19) The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a __________ pathogen.

A) bacterial
B) protozoal
C) fungal
D) viral
E) archaeal

D

20

20) All of the following individuals were involved in improving public health in the 19th century EXCEPT

A) Snow.
B) Spallanzani.
C) Nightingale.
D) Semmelweis.
E) Lister.

B

21

21) Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of which of the following types of microbes?

A) fungus
B) protozoan
C) prokaryote
D) alga
E) virus

A

22

22) Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of

A) etiology.
B) genetic engineering.
C) immunology.
D) microbial genetics.
E) gene therapy.

B

23

23) Which of the following was NOT an aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?

A) The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
B) He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
C) The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.
D) The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
E) The flasks he used were sealed with corks.

E

24

24) Proteins that promote chemical reactions in the cell are called

A) spores.
B) enzymes.
C) genes.
D) protozoa.
E) flagella.

B

25

25) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?

A) Most exhibit asexual reproduction.
B) They are single-celled organisms.
C) They are eukaryotic organisms.
D) They are the microbes most similar to plants.
E) They frequently possess cilia or flagella.

D

26

26) Which of the following scientists was the first to develop a taxonomic system for classifying organisms?

A) Linnaeus
B) Needham
C) Leeuwenhoek
D) Lister
E) Pasteur

A

27

27) Which of the following is NOT an observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?

A) Yeast can grow with or without oxygen.
B) Bacteria produce acid in grape juice.
C) Pasteurization kills yeast to prevent spoilage of grape juice.
D) Yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
E) Yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.

C

28

28) Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."

A) III, IV, I, II, V
B) V, IV, I, III, II
C) IV, I, V, II, III
D) III, V, II, IV, I
E) IV, I, II, V, III

E

29

29) John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?

A) infection control
B) epidemiology
C) immunology
D) both infection control and epidemiology
E) infection control, epidemiology, and immunology

D

30

30) Robert Koch was involved in research on all of the following topics EXCEPT

A) the cause of anthrax.
B) the cause of fermentation.
C) development of a method to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
D) the cause of tuberculosis.
E) techniques for isolating microbes in the laboratory.

B

31

31) Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?

A) protozoa: multicellular
B) fungi: cell walls
C) algae: aquatic and marine habitats
D) prokaryotes: no nuclei
E) viruses: acellular parasites

A

32

32) What was the first disease proven to be bacterial in origin?

A) yellow fever
B) cholera
C) anthrax
D) malaria
E) tuberculosis

C

33

33) The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by

A) developing techniques for isolating pathogens.
B) developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.
C) identifying the sources of infectious agents.
D) determining the taxonomic relationships among microbes.
E) developing vaccines.

B

34

34) Who discovered penicillin?

A) Fleming
B) Ehrlich
C) Kitasato
D) Pasteur
E) Domagk

A

35

35) All of the following were involved in developing the germ theory of disease EXCEPT

A) Koch.
B) Pauling.
C) Fracastoro.
D) Snow.
E) Pasteur.

B

36

36) Microorganisms characterized by the absence of a nucleus are called

A) fungi.
B) pathogens.
C) eukaryotes.
D) prokaryotes.
E) viruses.

D

37

37) The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is

A) antisepsis.
B) prokaryote.
C) chemotherapy.
D) recombinant technology.
E) nosocomial.

A

38

38) The term __________ refers to an infection acquired in a health care setting.

A) abiogenesis
B) bioremediation
C) spontaneous generation
D) nosocomial
E) archaea

D

39

39) The term __________ literally means "produces disease."

A) prokaryote
B) pathogen
C) nosocomial
D) facultative anaerobe
E) animalcule

B

40

40) The study of the causation of disease is known as

A) epidemiology.
B) immunology.
C) biotechnology.
D) etiology.
E) chemotherapy.

D

41

41) The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is

A) epidemiology.
B) bioremediation.
C) chemotherapy.
D) serology.
E) ecology.

B

42

42) The term __________ means the study of the blood components that fight infection.

A) antisepsis
B) chemotherapy
C) etiology
D) serology
E) bioremediation

D

43

43) The study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as

A) biotechnology.
B) epidemiology.
C) molecular biology.
D) serology.
E) biochemistry.

B

44

44) The taxonomic scheme developed by Linnaeus remains largely unchanged in modern biology.

A - True

B - False

B

45

45) Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups.

A - Ture

B - False

A

46

46) The production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli is an example of bioremediation.

A - True

B - False

B

47

47) Walter Reed proved that a virus causes yellow fever in humans.

A - Ture

B - False

A

48

48) Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease.

A - True

B - False

B

49

49) Koch's postulates can be used only to prove the causes of infectious diseases.

A - True

B - False

A

50

50) Joseph Lister reduced the incidence of wound infections in health care settings by using chlorinated lime water.

A - True

B - False

B

51

51) Robert Koch developed a vaccine to prevent anthrax after identifying the causative agent.

A - Ture

B - False

B

52

52) Fermentation can occur in the absence of living cells.

A - True

B - False

A

53

53) Lazzaro Spallanzani was the first scientist to provide evidence disproving the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.

A - True

B - False

A

54

54) Microbes that move by means of cilia are __________.

protozoa

55

55) A cell that contains a nucleus is called a(n) __________ cell.

eukaryotic

56

56) A(n) __________ organism makes its own food using solar energy.

photosynthetic

57

57) Microbes that cause infectious disease are called __________.

pathogens

58

58) An asexual method of reproduction associated with yeasts is __________.

budding

59

59) A(n) __________ is a potential explanation for a set of observations made by a scientist studying a phenomenon.

hypothesis

60

60) Bacteria that can live without oxygen are termed __________.

anaerobic

61

61) Robert Koch discovered the cause of __________, a disease of animals that can be spread to humans.

anthrax

62

62) A(n) __________ is a mass of cells that are descended from a single cell through successive cell divisions.

colony

63

63) The first true vaccine provided protection from disease caused by a(n) __________.

virus

64

64) Ignaz Semmelweis demonstrated the importance of __________ as a means of preventing disease transmission.

handwashing

65

65) A term synonymous with immunization, __________ is derived from the Latin name of the cowpox virus.

vaccination

66

66) The use of chemicals to treat diseases such as bacterial infections is called __________.

chemotherapy

67

67) Organisms such as bacteria that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate are often studied in __________ microbiology.

environmental

68

68) The __________ of an organism is all the chemical reactions that take place in the organism.

metabolism


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