Skeletal System: Bones and bone tissue

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1

Function of bone:

For the body and soft organs

What is Support?

2

Function of bone:

For brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

What is protection?

3

Function of bone:

  • Levers for muscle action via tendons.
  • Ligaments prevent excessive movement

What is movement?

4

Function of bone:

Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) in bone matrix and triglycerides (fat for energy) in bone cavitites (yellow marrow)

What is storage?

5

Function of the bone:

  • (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities (red marrow)

What is blood cell formation?

6

What are the main components of skeletal system?

Bone, Cartilage, Tendons, and ligaments

7

What are the 3 types of cartilage?

Elastic, Fibrocartliage, Hyaline

8

Contain no blood vessels or nerves

What is cartilage?

9
  • Cells: chondroblasts : produce matrix

What is Skeletal Cartilage?

10
  • Chondrocytes: reside in lacunae

What is Skeletal Cartilage?

11

What is the matrix of skeletal cartilage?

collagen fibers and proteoglycans

12

Skeletal cartilage

covers the outer surface of cartilage-> contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage

What is Perichondrium membrane?

13

hyaline cartilage covering bones at joints has no perichondrium

What is Articular cartilage?

14
  • respiratory cartilage (trachea and bronchi) and nasal cartilage
  • Provide support, flexibility, and resilience
  • Most abundant type
  • articular cartilage
  • costal cartilages (ribs)

What is Hyaline Cartilage?

15
  • Collagen fibers—have great tensile strength
  • Pubic symphysis , menisci of knee, intervertebral discs

What is fibrocartilage?

16

Growth of cartilage:

Appositional

- Cells secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

17

Growth of cartilage:

-Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within.

What is Interstitial?

18

Calcification of cartilage

-occurs during normal bone growth and old age

19

bind bone to bone

What are Ligaments?

20

bind muscle to bone

What are tendons?

21

Bone histology

Bone is connective tissue thus made of

CELLS

22

Bone histology

  • stuff between cells, secreted by cells

What is matrix

23

What are the components of matrix?

Fibers and ground substance

24

The remodeling of bone tissue is a function of

what is osteoblast and osteoclast activity?

25

Compared to other tissues, normal bone growth requires higher amounts of _____, _____, and _____ in the diet.

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

26

The spaces between developing skull bones that have not ossified are called

what is fontanels?

27

In endochondral ossification, chondroblasts produce a _________ cartilage model that has the approximate shape of the bone to be formed.

hyaline

28

In _________ growth of cartilage, chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between the existing cells.

interstitial

29

These house the blood vessels that carry blood from the medullary cavity and periosteum to the osteon and run perpendicular to the long axis of the bone.

What are perforating canals?

30

In __________ growth of cartilage, chondroblasts in the perichondrium add new cartilage to the outside edge of the existing cartilage.

appositional

31

Which matrix molecules in cartilage tends to trap large quantities of water?

proteoglycan

32

Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones. Consists of specialized cells that called chondroblasts that produce new cartilage matrix surrounding themselves. Become chondrocytes when surrounded trapped in lacunae ; serves as a precursor for the formation of long bones in the body

What is Hyaline Cartilage

33

Growth of cartilage in which chondroblasts in the perichondrium add new cartilage to the outside edge of existing cartilage

What is Appositional growth

34

Chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between cells of cartilage

What is Interstitial growth

35

Produce collagen and proteoglcans; release matrix vesicles, bone deposition, bone formation

What is Osteoblast?

36

Formation of bone by osteoblats; occurs by appositional growth

What is Ossification (osteogenesis)

37

has fibers that are randomly arranged in many directions; first to form during fetal development or during repair of fracture; remodeled into lamellar bone

What is Woven bone?

38

mature bone that is organized into thin sheets or layers; fibers are parallel to one another in one lamella but at an angle to the fibers in an adjacent lamellae

Lamellar bone

39

When blood calcium levels are low

ostoclast activity increases.

40

When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases.

What is calcium homeostasis

41

Ligaments attach

bone to bone

42

Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary constituents of

What is bone matrix?

43

vitamin D is important because

it absorbs calcium

44

small, smooth surface of a bone where articulation occurs

what is facet

45

The connective tissue sheath of cartilage is called the

What is perichondrium

46

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,

bones have reached their adult length

47

Calcium is found in crystals called

what are hydroxyapatite?

48

are the basic units in compact bone tissue.

What is Haversian systems or osteons?


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