CHAPTER 17

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Shannon_Marie03
1,153 views
Bio CH 17
Subjects:
biology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Gene expression

The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins, or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs

2

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

A type of RNA synthesized using a DNA template that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein

3

Transcription

The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template

4

Translation

The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of the "language" from nucleotides to amino acids

5

Primary transcript

An initial RNA transcript from any gene; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene

6

Triplet code

A genetic information system in which sets of three-nucleotide long words specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains

7

Template Strand

The DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering, by complementary base pairing, the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript

8

Codons

A 3-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code

9

Reading frame

On an mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis

10

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription, based on complementary binding to nucleotides on a DNA template strand

11

Promoter

A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place

12

Terminator

In bacteria, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA

13

Transcription unit

A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule

14

Start point

In transcription, the nucleotide position on the promoter where RNA polymerase begins synthesis of RNA

15

Transcription factors

A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and effects transcription of specific genes

16

Transcription initiation complex

The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to a promoter

17

TATA Box

A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex

18

RNA processing

Modification of RNA primary transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of eons and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends

19

5' cap

A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule

20

poly-A tail

A sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added onto the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule

21

RNA splicing

After synthesis of a eukaryotic primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions of the transcript (introns) that will not be included in the mRNA and the joining together of the remaining portions (exons)

22

Introns

A noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed

23

Exons

A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed

24

Spliceosome

A large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons

25

Ribozymes

An RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing

26

Alternative RNA splicing

A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the NRA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns

27

Domains

A discrete structural and functional region of a protein

28

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

An RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA

29

Anticodon

A nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule

30

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

An enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA

31

Wobble

Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon

32

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

RNA molecules that, together with proteins, make up ribosomes, the most abundant type of RNA

33

P site

Holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain

34

A site

Holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain

35

E site

The place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome (exit)

36

Release Factor

A protein shaped like an aminoacyl tRNA, bunds directly to the stop codon in the A site

37

Signal peptide

A sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell

38

Signal-recognition particle (SRP)

A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the ER by binding to a receptor protein on the ER

39

Polyribosomes (Polysomes)

A group of several ribosomes attached to, and translating, the same messenger RNA moleucle

40

Point mutations

A change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene

41

Nucleotide-pair substitutions

A type of point mutation in which one nucleotide in a DNA strand and its partner in the complementary strand are replaced by another pair of nucleotides

42

Silent Mutation

A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype

43

Missense mutation

A nucleotide-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid

44

nonsense mutation

a mutation that changes a amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein

45

insertions and deletions

a mutation involving the addition or loss of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene

46

frameshift mutation

a mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons

47

mutagens

a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation


Related pages


economic midpoint formulagrassland average temperaturesynonyms for maligndefine blastulawhat gland secretes adhthe cerebrum diencephalon and cerebellum are parts of theklebsiella pneumoniae shapefinal product of dna replicationechinoderm nervous systemof plymouth plantation quizsensory cortex of the brainbiceps femoris origin and insertionsympathetic nervous system spinal cordsmooth muscle contracts ________condyles here articulate with the atlasback to back stemplotsthe sternocleidomastoid inserts on thebacteriostatic activitycampbell biology 8thadduct hipdefine continental riseap biology chapter 18 reading guide answersweak acids listbarium sulfate suspension side effects gasdonkeys matewalgreens cultural beliefswhat is a rinne testhistology laboratory manualthe movement of potassium into an animal cell requirestundra annual rainfallwhat kind of molecule is atpmedical terminology printable flash cardsdura mater pia mater arachnoidlife cycle of marchantiaregions of cerebrumphysical examination bookhyoid bone is unique becauseinfectious agent that causes aidsion channels that are always open are calledtrapezius dorsilocation of somatosensory cortexwillma rudolphwhich is not true of dialectical behavior therapy dbtthe modulating control valve allows you to control thebeta blockers quizletin the central nervous system myelin is formed bycoronary sinus rhythm ecgolfactory anatomythe correct order of events during meiosis iswhich is true of transmission electron microscopesfunction of nostrilswhat is ventilation perfusion couplingwhat is the expiratory reserve volumepassive exhalationestim for edemaquizlet chapter 10hypersecretion of parathyroid hormoneheads of these bones form the knucklesamino acids are monomers ofwhat two cavities does the diaphragm separatedna rna proteins starts withosteocytes are found inpharmacology quizeslord of the flies examasexual reproduction in invertebratesmesenchymal cells are most commonly found inoperons in eukaryoteshepatic arteries and veinslysosome function in animal celloutermost electron shellamendments flash cardsanatomy and physiology easy notes