CHAPTER 18

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Shannon_Marie03
1,858 views
Campbell Biology Chapter 18
Subjects:
biology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Operator

In bacterial and phage DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon

2

Operon

A unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages, consisting of a promoter, and operator, and a coordinately regulated cluster of genes whose products function in a common pathway

3

Repressor

A protein that inhibits gene transcription. In prokaryotes, repressors bind to the DNA in or near the promoter. In Eukaryotes, the repressors, may bind to control elements within enhancers, to activators, or to other proteins in a way that blocks activators from binding to DNA

4

Regulatory Gene

A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes

5

Corepressor

A small molecule that binds to a bacterial protein and changes the protein's shape, allowing it to bind to the operator and switch an operon off

6

Inducer

A specific small molecule that binds to a bacterial repressor protein and changes the repressor's shape so that it cannot bind to an operator; thus switching an operon on

7

cyclic AMP (cAMP)

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells. It is also a regulator of some bacterial operons.

8

Activator

A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates gene transcription. In prokaryotes, activators bind in or near the promoter. In eukaryotes, activators generally bind to control elements in enhancers

9

Differential gene expression

The expression of different sets of genes by cells with the same genome

10

histone acetylation

The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins

11

DNA methylation

The presence of methyl groups on the DNA bases (usually cytosine) of plants, animals, and fungi. Also refers to the process of adding methyl groups onto DNA bases.

12

epigenetic inheritance

inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms that do no involve the nucleotide sequence

13

control elements

A segment of noncoding DNA that helps regulate transcription of a gene by serving as a binding site for transcription

14

enhancers

A segment of eukaryotic DNA containing multiple control elements, usually located far from the gene whose transcription it regulates

15

Alternative RNA splicing

A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-rpocessing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which an introns

16

microRNAs (miRNA)

A small, single-stranded RNA molecule, generated from a double stranded RNA precursor. The miRNA associates with one or more pre tines in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a complementary sequence

17

small interfering RNAs (siRNA)

One of multiple small, single-stranded RNA molecules generated by cellular machinery from a long, linear, double stranded RNA molecule. The siRNA associates with one or more proteins in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a complementary sequence

18

RNA interference (RNAi)

A mechanism for silencing the expression of specific genes. In RNAi, double-stranded RNA molecules that match the sequence of a particular gene are processed into siRNAs that either block translation or trigger the degradation of the gene's messenger RNA. This happens naturally in some cells, and can be carried out in a lab

19

Differentiation

The process by which a cell or group of cells becomes specialized in structure and function

20

morphogenesis

The development of the form of an organism and its structures

21

cytoplasmic determinant

a maternal substance, such as a protein or RNA, that when placed into an egg influences the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells

22

Induction

A process in which a group of cells or tissues influences the development of another group through close-range interactions

23

Determination

The progressive restriction of developmental potential in which the possible fate of each cell becomes more limited as an embryo develops. At the end of determination, a cell is committed to its fate

24

Pattern Formation

The development of a multicellular organism's spatial organization, the arrangement or organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three-dimensional space

25

Positional Information

Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell's location relative to the organism's body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development

26

Homeotic genes

Any of the master regulatory genes that control placement and spatial organization of body parts in animals, plants, and fungi by controlling the developmental fate or groups of cells

27

embryonic lethal

A mutation with a phenotype leading to death of an embryo or larvae

28

Maternal effect gene

A gene that, when mutant in the mother, results in a mutant phenotype in the offspring, regardless of the offspring's genotype. Also called egg polarity genes, were first identified in Drosophilia

29

bicoid

A maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible for specifying the anterior end in Drosophilia

30

morphogen

A substance, such as Bicoid protein in Drosophilia, that provides positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis

31

oncogenes

A gene found in viral or cellular genomes that is involved in triggering molecular events that can lead to cancer

32

proto-oncogenes

A normal cellular gene that has the potential to become an oncogene

33

tumor-surpressor genes

A gene whose protein product inhibits cell division, thereby preventing the uncontrolled cell growth that contributes to cancer

34

ras gene

A gene that codes for Ras, a G protein that relays a growth signal from a growth factor receptor on the plasma membrane to a cascade of protein kinases, ultimately resulting in stimulation of the cell cycle

35

p53 gene

A tumor-surpressor gene that codes for a specific transcription factor that promotes the synthesis of proteins that inhibit the cell cycle


Related pages


background stainingthe true pelvischemical senses includesubclavian nervehow to calculate renal plasma flowwhats a trace elementthe layer of the epidermis that contains melanocytes is thewhat is found in the medullary cavitywhich of the following statements about protists is not truefemale climactericportal blood vessels connect two capillary beds found in theamphiarthrotic jointsyou would expect a peptide bond to linkreflexive property in geometryphysioex 9.0 exercise 4 activity 3 review sheet answersepithalamus definitionthe major head flexor muscles are theneuron type found in dorsal hornpackages proteins for transport out of the cellspermatogenesis producesplural form of thoraxwhat does oogenesis meanchemistry flashcardsaxonal terminalsterrell election lawdefine fremitusdetermine the point estimate of the population proportionsoleal vein deep or superficialspring brakes cdldescribe a karyotypewhat are the northeast states and capitalsrenal papilawhich is not an endocrine glandintegumentary system nailirp projectare nucleus found in plants or animalsintegument plantdifference between epidermis and corkwhat is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormoneedwin lemert primary and secondary deviancechestnut horse with blazemain primary bronchusvolvox domaintexas constitution of 1845tsa agar microbiologybiology campbell 9th editionechinodermata excretory systemcomplementary bases in dnalabel humeruslaboratory experiments in microbiology answerswhich of the following is not true of graded potentialsin e coli the lac operon controls thechapter 5 integumentary system quizclusters of lymph nodesan intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion isblood pressure peripheral resistancedna polymerase adds nucleotides tospinal reflex definitionwhich of the following statements correctly describes the plasma membranex ray beam filtrationchapter 11 anatomy and physiology answersdefine coniferophytatransverse tubuleshighly concentrated urinelabel the skin structures and areas indicated in the accompanyinga weakness or slight muscular paralysis is known asspecific and nonspecific defensesunlike most other fish sharks have no ______neck rightingwhat is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle calledglucocorticoids and mineralocorticoidsjoint between forearm and wristtheories of gender typingsensation physiology