Chapter 19 Circulatory System: Heart

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1

Which of the following structures are considered to be part of the cardiac conduction system?

purkinjie fibers, AV node, SA node

2

The _____ are the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and to the body.

ventricles

3

List in order the three layers of the heart wall from deep to superficial

1) endocardium

2) myocardium

3) epicardium

4

The ____ side of the heart supplies blood to the systemic circuit

left

5

Which of the following are components of the cardiovascular system?

heart, capillaries, veins, arteries

6

The _____ circuit of the cardiovascular system carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the left atrium of the heart.

pulmonary

7

The blunt inferior point or tip of the heart is known as the ____

apex

8

The broad flat superior top portion of the heart is known as the ____

base

9

Place the following chambers in the correct order to best represent the flow of blood

right atrium

right ventricle

left atrium

left ventricle

10

List the correct order the major phases of the cardiac cycle following ventricular filling

1) isovolumetric contraction

2) ventricular ejection

3) isovolumetric relaxation

11

The depolarization of the SA node (from threshold to peak) is due to the inflow of ____ and _____ ions

calcium and sodium

12

The study of the heart and its disorders is known as

caridology

13

As a chamber, such as a cardiac ventricle, contracts just prior to reducing its volume, the pressure of the fluid within would ____

increase

14

The term _____ refers to contraction of the heart

systole

15

The ____ is the layer that lines the inner chambers of the heart

endocardium

16

When a normal heart rate is established by the appropriate firing of the SA node, this is known as a _____ rhythm.

sinus

17

The term ____ refers to relaxation of the heart

diastole

18

What are the functions of the fibrous skeleton?

provides structural support for the heart

anchors the cardiocytes and give them something to pull against

provides electrical insulation between the atria and ventricles

19

Carrying the action potentials the _____ _____ spread throughout the ventricular myocardium to excite the ventricles

purkinje fibers

20

The volume of blood ejected by the ventricles per minute is the

cardiac output

21

The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle is ____ the amount of blood pumped by the right ventricle

equal to

22

The alternate name for the left atrioventriular valve is the ____ valve

mitral

23

Cardiac output is equal to stroke volume _____ heart rate

times

24

The surface indentation that separates the atria from the ventricle is known as the _____ sulcus

coronary

25

Indicate which of the chemicals an cause an increase in HR

caffeine

nicotine

thyroid hormone

26

When ventricles are relaxed and their pressure is low, the ____ valves are open

AV

27

The ____ wave of an ECG is a recording of the depolarization of the atrial myocardium

P

28

_____ is the process of listening to sounds made by the body

auscultation

29

The branch of the left coronary artery that continues around to the posterior of the heart leading to the coronary sulcus is the _____ branch

circumflex

30

The _____ of the heart is the amount of tension in the ventricular myocardium immediate before it begins the contract

preload

31

The _____ sac is the outer wall of the pericardium consisting of a fibrous layer lined by a serous layer also called the parietal pericardium

pericardial

32

The heart receives innervation from

both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

33

The left and right ventricles are separated by the ____ _____

interventricular septum

34

The opening between the atria and the ventricles is regulated by the

atrioventricular

35

A resting heart rate below 60 bpm is known as

bradycardia

36

The blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen only to the heart muscle make up the specific type of circulation called the _____ circulation

coronary

37

One specific type of arrhythmia is _____ _____, which is failure of the cardiac conduction system to transmit signals

heart block

38

The blood vessel that collects venous drainage from the anterior side of the heart and travels alongside the anterior interventricular artery is the _____ vein

great cardiac

39

The cardiocytes are described as _____ because individual cells can depolarize on their own without outside stimulation

autorhythmic

40

The difference between maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is referred to as the cardiac

reserve

41

The fibrous structure indicated in the figure i the ____ sac

pericardial

42

The contraction of a cardiocyte occurs during the ____ phase of its action potential

plateau

43

The ____ is a double-walled sac enclosing the heart

pericardium

44

When a portion o the hear wall other than the SA or AV node spontaneously depolarize, this is known as

ectopic focus

45

The heart has 3 layers. The outermost layer of the heart is called the _____

epicardium

46

An abnormal cardiac rhythm is considered an

arrythemia, arrhthmia, arrythmia

47

Another name for the epicardium is the _____ pericardium

visceral

48

The amount of blood ejected by a ventricle is ____ the amount of blood received during ventricular filling

the same as

49

With the onset of ventricular contraction, the pressure within the ventricles

increases

50

Closing of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves produces the ____ heart sound

second

51

During which phase of the cardiac cycle does blood flow through the coronary circulation?

ventricular diastole

52

The QRS wave of an ECG represents the _____ of the ventricular myocardium

depolarization

53

When ventricles contract, blood surging against the ____ valves forces them closed

AV

54

A ____ is the instrument used to measure blood pressure

sphygmomanometer

55

Which arterial branch of the left coronary artery travels down to the apex of the heart?

anterior interventricular

56

The role of the papillary muscles is to do what?

tense the tendinous cords just prior to ventricular contraction

57

The opening and closing of heart valves are governed by changes in ____ within chambers

pressure

58

The valve between the right atrium and ventricle is specifically called the ____ valve

tricuspid

59

The outermost layer of the heart wall is the

epicardium

60

The strength of contraction for a given preload is defined as the ____ of the myocardium

contractility

61

In the posterior coronary sulcus is a large vein called the _____, which collects venous drainage from all of the coronary veins and drains into the right atrium

coronary sinus

62

A patient presents with a persistently elevated heart rate over 100 bpm. The clinical condition is known as

tachycardia

63

Cardiostimulatory effects of the cardiac center are transmitted to the heart via fibers of the ____ branch of the autonomic nervous system

sympathetic

64

When the volume of blood within a heart chamber is decreased (leaving the chamber), the pressure within that chamber is

decreased

65

The closing of the atrioventricular valves produces which of the heart sounds?

the first

66

The semilunar valves will open when the pressure within the ____ exceeds the pressure within the ______

ventricles, greater arteries

67

Depolarization of a cardiocyte is due to the opening of _____ channels

sodium

68

Stimulatuon of the SA node by the ____ nervous system raises the heart rate

sympathetic

69

Which of the following best describes what happens in the cardiac cycle during the T-wave of an ECG?

the ventricles repolarize

70

The ____ center of the medulla oblongata initiates autonomic output to the heart

cardiac

71

The groove that extends downward from the coronary sulcus on the front of the heart is the anterior _____ sulcus

interventricular

72

The right and left coronary arteries arise from the

aorta

73

When the AV node acts as pacemaker, the slower heartbeat is called a _____ rhythm

nodal

74

The blood vessel within the posterior interventricular sulcus on the back of the heart that collects venous drainage from the posterior portion of the heart is the posterior _____ vein

interventricular

75

If the volume of blood pumped by the right side of the heart is less than that pumped by the left side of the heart, the result would be

systemic edema


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