Anatomy & Physiology - Endocrine System

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1

Hormones

Chemical signals produced in small amounts

2

List the characteristics that apply to the endocrine system when compared to the nervous system

1. amplitude-modulated signals

2. usually slower response

3. effects usually more generally distributed

3

Name the intercellular chemical signal that is released by cells and has a local effect on the same cell type as that from which the chemical signal is released

autocrine chemical signal

4

Chemical signals that are secreted into the environment and modify the behavior and physiology of other individuals are called

pheromones

5

Norepinephrine and acetylcholine are examples of what types of intercellular chemical signals?

neurotransmitters

6

Neurohormones are intercellular chemical signals that are

produced by neurons and act like hormones

7

___________ are released by cells and affect other cell types locally without being transported in blood.

paracrine chemical signals

8

The lipid hormones are either ___________ or derivatives of fatty acids.

steroids

9

Hormones

  1. are not secreted at a constant rate
  2. function to regulate the rates of many activities in the body
  3. secretion rate is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
  4. help maintain homeostasis
10

Hormones can be any type of molecule except

glycolipids

11

Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and glucocorticoids are examples of

steroids

12

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones are examples of

amino acid derivatives

13

Increased blood glucose causes increased insulin secretion from the pancreas. This is an example of

nonhormonal regulation of hormone secretion

14

Water-soluble hormones

1. have a long half-life

2. bind to intracellular receptors

15

Hormones with a short half-life regulate activities that have a __________ onset with a __________duration.

rapid

short

16

Arrange in order the correct after parasympathetic neurons are stimulated

  1. action potentials travel through parasympathetic neurons
  2. acetylcholine is released
  3. pancreatic cells depolarize
  4. insulin is secreted
17

TRH stimulates the secretion of TSH, which stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones inhibit TRH and TSH secretion. This is an example of

hormonal regulation of hormone secretion

18

The monthly change in secretion of reproductive hormones that occurs in women during their reproductive years is an example of

cyclic hormone regulation

19

Give an example of positive-feedback regulation in the endocrine system

before ovulation, and increase in LH causes an increase in estrogen, which causes and increase in LH

20

Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain ______ specific for the hormones

receptors

21

Growth hormone, secreted by the _____________ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle

anterior pituitary

22

______________ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the _________________(gland). The anterior pituitary consists of ____________ tissue

ACTH

Adrenal Cortex

Glandular

23

The parafollicular cells of the ____________ gland produce _________, a peptide hormone that lowers plasma calcium levels.

thyroid

calcitonin

24

Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets of the pancreas include _________ from the a cells and __________ from the B cells. Which of these hormones raise blood glucose levels?

glucagon

insulin

glucagon

25

_________________ (hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.

FSH - Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

26

_____________ secreted by the pineal gland, helps regulate body activities with the light-dark cycle

Melatonin

27

The outermost layer of the adrenal cortex primarily produces the hormone _________ which acts on the ________(organ) to increase ________(electrolyte) reabsorption

aldosterone

kidney

sodium

28

The ________________ (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as ______________. This category of amine hormones includes both ________ and ____________(two hormones)

Adrenal Medula

Catecholamines

norepinephrine

epinephrine

29

Examples of peptides (proteins)

insulin

glucagon

growth hormone GH

vasopressin (ADH)

30

Examples of Amides

T4 (thyroxin)

T3 (triiodothyronine)

norepinephrine

epinephrine

31

Examples of steroids

estrogen

aldosterone

cortisol

testosterone

32

Thyroid hormones include two molecules called _______ and _____

T3

T4

33

T3 consists of two ______ molecules plus _____ iodine molecules

tyrosine

3

34

The anterior pituitary is composed of ____________ tissue

epithelial / glandular

35

Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well-known

  1. TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
  2. FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  3. LH - Lutenizing Stimulating Hormone
  4. ACTH - Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  5. GH - Growth Hormone
  6. PRL - Prolactin
36

TSH controls

everything - HR, BP, menstruation, RR, stimulates the release of T3 and T4 - glycoprotein

37

FSH

Stimulates follicule maturation and production of estrogen, stimulates sperm production, stimulates mild production, stimulates ovaries - glycoprotein

38

LH

Triggers ovulation and production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovary; promotes sperm production, promotes milk secretions - glycoprotein

39

ACTH

Promotes release of glucocorticoids and androgens from adrenal cortex, stimulates the stress hormone producing corticol - flight or flight - peptide

40

GH

Stimulates body growth - protein

41

PRL

Promotes lactation - protein

42

Define endocrinology

The scientific study of hormones and the endocrine organs

43

Hormones are chemical messengers that are released to the __________ and _________effects after a period of a few seconds to several days

blood

elicit target cell

44

Hormone targets include most cells of the body and regulate the following

reproduction

growth and development

electrolyte

water

nutrient balance

cellular metabolism

energy balance

mobilization of body defenses

45

Endocrine glands

have no ducts and release hormones through diffusion

46

Endocrine glands include

the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands

47

Name the organs that contain endocrine tissue

pancreas

gonads

placenta

adipose tissue

thymus

intestine

stomach

kidneys

heart

48

Autocrines

are local chemical messengers that act on the same cells that secrete them

49

paracrines

are local chemical messengers that act on neighboring cells, rather than the cells releasing them

50

Most hormones are _________________ but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are ______________ derived from ___________

amino acid based

steroids

cholesterol

51

Eicosanoids

leukotrienes and prostaglandis that derive from arachidonic acid

52

Target cells

Cells that have receptors for a given hormone

53

Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) exert their effects how

through an intracellular second messenger that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor

54

Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) diffuse how

into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific genes.

55

Second-messenger system

is signaled by most amino acid-based hormones, cause the generation of an intracellular second messenger when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor

56

Cyclic AMP signaling mechanism or the PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism involves what

the G protein-mediated activation of enzymes that results in the activation of protein kinases

57

Direct gene activation occurs how?

when a lipid-soluble hormone or thyroid hormone binds to an intracellular receptor, which activates a specific region of DNA, causing the production of mRNA and initiation of protein synthesis.

58

Target cells have specific _______________ or __________ receptors to which hormones can bind.

membrane

intracellular

59

Name the three factors that target cell response depends on?

  1. blood levels of the hormone
  2. relative numbers of target cell receptors
  3. affinity of the receptor for the hormone
60

Target cells can change their sensitivity to a hormone by changing what?

The number of receptors

61

Persistently low levels of hormone can cause ?

a cell to up-regulate, increasing the number of receptors

62

Persistently high levels of hormones can cause ?

a cell to down-regulate, decreasing the number of hormone receptors

63

Most hormone synthesis and release is regulated through ___________________

negative feedback mechanisms

64

Endocrine gland stimuli may be ___________, _____________, or ____________

humoral

neural

hormonal

65

Humoral stimuli

Critical ions or nutrients that act as stimuli controlling the secretion of hormones

66

________________ stimulate hormone release, then the stimulus for release is _________

Nerve fibers

neural

67

If the secretion of a hormone is in response to hormones produced by other endocrine glands, it follows a

hormonal pattern of secretion

68

Nervous System modulation allows ________________________

hormone secretion to be modified by hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli in response to changing body needs.

69

The concentration of a hormone reflects

its rate of release and the rate of inactivation and removal from the body

70

The half-life of a hormone:

the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood and is shortest for water-soluble hormones.

71

Permissiveness occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without

another hormone being present

72

Synergism

occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified

73

Antagonism

occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone.

74

The pituitary gland is stimulated in the _______________ of the skull and is connected to the _______________ via the infundibulum

sella turcica

brain

75

The pituitary has two lobes....name and describe each

The posterior pituitary - or neurohypophysis - is neural in origin

The anterior pituitary - or andenohypophysis - which is glandular in orgin

76

The posterior pituitary produces two neurohormones:

oxytocin - which promotes uterine contraction and milk ejection

antidiuretic hormone ADH - which prevents wide swings in water balance

77

The anterior pituitary hormone produces six hormones, four of which are ______ hormones that ___________secretion of other hormones as well as a ____________

tropic

regulate

prohormone

78

Name the six hormones produced by the pituitary

POMC

TSH

GH

ACTH

FSH

LH

79

PRo-opiomelanocortin (POMC)

a prohormone that can be split into adrenocorticotropic hormone, two natural opiates, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

80

Growth Hormone - GH

acts on target cells in the liver, skeletal muscle, bone, and other tissues to cause the production of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

81

Hypothalamus

Regulates hunger, thirst, sleep and wakefulness plus most of your involuntary mechanism including body temperature

82

Pituitary gland

controls all other endocrine glands: influences growth metabolism and regeneration

Posterior - storehouse for oxytocin and ADH

Anterior - everything else

Sends hormones to the thyroid (TSH)

high amounts = inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

low amounts = diabetes insipidus

83

Parathyroid

secrete parathyroid hormone or parathormone, which causes osteoclasts to bread down bone, increases absorption of Ca++ in the kidneys and activates vitamin D which aids in the absorption of calcium from food.

Secretes the hormones necessary for calcium absorption

84

Thyroid Glands

Regulates your energy and your metabolism, negative-feedback, keeps balance, positive feedback, HR, BP......

iodine uptake

Stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones

low amounts = Cretinism in children and myxedema in adults

high amounts = hyperthyroidism - similar to Graves disease

85

Pancreas

Aids in the digestion of protein, fats and carbohydrates. Produces insulin which controls blood sugar levels (glucose levels)

86

Ovaries/testes - gonads

Influences how your body circulates and determines your mental vigor and your sex drive Estrogen and progesterone in females

Gives serotonin - calming hormone

Promotes testosterone production in males

87

Thymus

Helps build resistance to disease

88

Adrenal Cortex

promotes release of glucocorticoids and androgens - mineralocorticoids to a lesser extent

High amounts = Cushing's disease

89

low amounts of prolactin PRL =

poor milk production in nursing women

90

low amounts of FSH =

failure of sexual maturation

91

low amounts of GH =

dwarfism in children

92

low amounts of ADH

diabetes insipidus

93

high amounts of GH =

Gigantism in children

Acromegaly in adults

94

The only major secretory product of the pineal gland is

melatonin

95

The pancreas is a mixed gland that contains both

endocrine and exocrine gland cells

96

Glucagon

targets the liver where it promotes glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and release of glucose to the blood.

97

About 80 % of the hormone stored in the adrenal medulla is

epinephrine and 20 % norepinephrine

98

Adrenal catecholamines produce

brief stress-mediated responses

99

Insulin

lowers blood glucose levels by enhancing membrane transport of glucose into body cells and inhibits production through glycogen breakdown or conversion of amino acids or fats to glucose

100

Adipose tissue produces

Leptin - acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety

resistin - an insulin antagonist

adiponectin - increases sensitivity to insulin

101

The GI tract contains

enteroendocrine cells throughout the mucosa that secrete hormones to regulate digestive functions.

102

The atria of the heart contains

specialized cells that secrete atrial natriuretic peptide, resulting in decreased blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration

103

The kidneys produce

erythropoietin, which signals the bone marrow to produce red blood cells

104

The skin produces

Cholecalciferol and inactive form of V D3

105

Osteoblasts in skeletal tissue secrete

osteocalcin, a hormone that promotes increased insulin secretion by the pancreas and restricts fat storage by adipocytes.

106

The thymus produces

thymopoietin, thymic factor, and thymosin, which are essential for the development of T lymphocytes and the immune response.

107

Catecholamines are produced in the _______________ of the adrenal gland and are classified as _____________ hormones

adrenal medulla

amine


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