1) Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
2) Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
A) adrenal medulla
C) thyroid gland
D) thymus gland
3) Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through
D) second messengers
4) Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
5) Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic
function of other cells in the body are called ________.
6) The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.
A) connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
B) is partly contained within the infundibulum
C) conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
D) is the site of prolactin synthesis
7) Tropic hormones ________.
A) include ACTH and TSH
B) do not regulate the function of other endocrine glands
C) exert their effects on cells by direct gene activation
D) include GH and PRL
8) Growth hormone ________.
A) is also called somatostatin
B) is regulated by humoral mechanisms
C) secretion results in a decrease in muscle mass
D) promotes long bone growth during the formative years
9) Oxytocin ________.
A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
B) is an adenohypophyseal secretion
C) exerts its most important effects during menstruation
D) controls milk production
10) ADH ________.
A) increases urine production
B) promotes dehydration
C) is produced in the adenohypophysis
D) is inhibited by alcohol
11) Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.
A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
B) exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
C) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore
decreasing blood pressure
D) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
A) synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens
B) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release
from the gonads during late puberty
C) secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH
D) hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
13) Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a
phenomenon known as ________.
A) diabetes mellitus
B) cellular inhibition
D) metabolism of protein kinases
14) Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
A) a change in membrane potential
B) the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
C) an increase in enzymatic activity
D) direct control of the nervous system
15) The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent
A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
D) nothingall hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types
because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
16) Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior
pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
gland is through the ________.
A) hepatic portal system
B) general circulatory system
C) hypophyseal portal system
D) feedback loop
17) The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland
A) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal
B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer
C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural
system due to its location
D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for
18) Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This
hormone is released ________.
A) in excessive amounts in obese people
B) in response to severe physical stress (i.e., a ten-mile run)
C) when the bodyʹs glucose level rises
D) when the bodyʹs glucose level drops
19) Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
B) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
C) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen
D) increasing blood pressure
20) The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
A) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
B) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
C) not responding to a feedback mechanism
D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
21) Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.
A) there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane
B) the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
C) the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized
D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
22) Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical
reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary
for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.
A) peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without
assistance from other messengers
B) hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
C) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
D) the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
23) Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
D) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
24) When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released
during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
25) One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing
blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
A) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
B) catabolic inhibition
C) protein synthesis
D) humoral stimulation
26) The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
A) the blood vessels
B) the adrenal glands
C) the liver
D) bones and skeletal muscles
27) The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished
A) blocking the action of growth hormone
B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
D) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
28) Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
A) the heart
B) the kidney
C) the skin
D) the spleen
29) Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
30) Leptin is secreted by ________.
C) goblet cells
31) The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.
32) Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?
33) Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of
A) cyclic AMP
C) cyclic GMP
D) inositol triphosphate
34) Select the correct statement about the structure or function of chemical messengers.
A) Prostaglandins are biologically active peptides.
B) Modified cholesterol forms the main structural component of the peptone hormones.
C) An amino acid derivative can be a hormone.
D) An example of a paracrine is testosterone.
35) Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?
A) extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the
B) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
C) second-messenger systems
D) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cellʹs DNA
36) Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.
A) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
B) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
C) formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
D) hormone binding to intracellular receptors
37) Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.
A) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing
blood to the pituitary
B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
C) travel by arteries to the pituitary
D) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
38) ACTH ________.
A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary
B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
C) causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla
D) is not a tropic hormone
39) Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
A) Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.
B) High calcium levels cause bone resorption.
C) Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity.
D) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the
40) Aldosterone ________.
A) is secreted by the neurohypophysis
B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
C) presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
D) production is greatly influenced by ACTH
43) In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the
DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the
target organ. This is known as ________.
A) the cellʹs sensitivity reaction
B) cellular affinity
D) a reaction to a stressor
44) Eicosanoids do not include ________.
45) A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain
A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by
B) The physician is wronga hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence
C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.
46) Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?
C) thyroid gland
47) Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones.
Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
A) It causes positive feedback.
B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
C) It is very specific in the cell type it targets.
D) It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.
48) Factors that inhibit TSH release do not include ________.
A) growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
B) rising levels of glucocorticoids
D) excessively high blood iodine concentrations
49) Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by
A) increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
B) decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
C) stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
D) blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
50) What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?