Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 19

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1

Pulmonary veins

Bring oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium

Two from each lung carry blood into the left atrium

2

Pulmonary trunk

The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel

3

Inferior vena cava

brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to the right atrium

4

Superior vena cava

brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to the right atrium

5

Aorta

The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel

6

Tunica externa

Composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel

Protects and reinforces the vessel; anchors it to surrounding structures

7

Tunica media

Mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin

Capable of undergoing vasoconstriction or vasodilation to influence blood flow and blood pressure

8

Tunica interna

Contains the endothelium (made of simple squamous epithelium)

It's flat cells fit closely to form a slick surface that minimizes friction as blood moves through

9

Vessel lumen

Blood containing space in center of the vessel.

Provides a space for blood to travel through the vessel.

10

Elastic arteries

Thick-walled, large vessels near the heart that conduct blood continuously away from the heart

11

muscular arteries

smaller vessels that distribute blood to specific body organs.

12

Arterioles

smallest of the vessels that lead into capillary beds.

13

Capillaries

smallest blood vessels with thin walls that allow exchange between blood and tissue cells.

14

Venules

Smallest vessels leading away from capillaries

15

Veins

contain valves to assist blood flow back towards the heart

16

Blood flow

The volume of blood flowing through a vessel, and organ, or the entire circulation in a given period.

17

Blood pressure

The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood

18

Resistance

The opposition to flow - a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels.

19

Blood viscosity

A source of resistance related to thickness or stickiness of the blood

20

Total blood vessel length

A source of resistance related to the distance blood has to travel through layers of fat to reach a destination.

21

Brachial artery

Muscular artery traveling near the humerus bone.

22

Left subclavian artery

Third major branch of the aortic arch

23

Brachiophalic trunk

First major branch of the aortic arch

24

coronary arteries

The only branches of the ascending aorta

25

common carotid arteries

supply most of the blood to the head

26

pulmonary artery

First vessel leaving the pulmonary side of the heart to carry blood to the lungs.

27

Pulmonary arterioles

Branches of pulmonary arteries, structurally like veins, and venules, with thin walls and large lumens

28

Pulmonary capillaries

Area of exchange for oxygen and carbon dioxide.

29

Pulmonary venules

Smallest veins, collect blood from capillaries as it flows back toward the heart.

30

During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the

right ventricle and moves to the lungs

31

During systemic circulation, blood leaves the

left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta

32

The endothelium is composed of

simple squamous epithelium

33

The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the

right atrium

34

The correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from outside to inside:

Tunica externa

Tunica media

Tunica intima

35

The major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by

The kidneys

36

Exchange of gasses and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the

capillaries and tissue cells

37

Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called

Circulatory shock

38

Reduction in the lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as

vasoconstriction

39

The only vessels that provide direct assess to nearly every cell in the body are the

capillaries

40

What regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary?

Precapillary sphincter

41

In _______________________, blood volume is normal and constant but there is an abnormal expansion of the vascular beds, resulting in a huge drop in peripheral resistance, causing blood pressure to fall rapidly.

Vascular shock

42

_________________arteries branch to form the common hepatic artery, left gastric artery, and the splenic artery

Celiac trunk

43

The _________________ is the longest in the body, running from the sole of the foot up to the inguinal region (without changing names)

Great saphenous vein

44

Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones?

Middle layer

45

What type of blood vessels have the proportionally thickest tunica media of all vessels?

distributing arteries

46

_____________inhibits fibrinolysis by competing with plasminogen and may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Lipoprotein

47

The minute-to-minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the

diameter of arterioles

48

The pressure of ___________stabilizes the wall of the capillaries

pericytes

49

__________do not contain intercellular clefts

arterioles

50

The flow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium is called the

systemic circulation

51

A metarteriole is a vessel that

is intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed.

52

Up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in

veins

53

Where are dural sinuses present?

CNS

54

Most neural controls of blood pressure involve input from baroreceptors which are sensitive to

Changes in blood pressure

55

An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of

muscular arteries

56

What blood vessel is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis?

The aorta

57

What is the major force generating blood flow?

pumping action of the heart

58

Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the

Aorta

59

The blood does not produce

hormones

60

What plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?

Hormone production

61

What leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?

perniclous anemia - results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

62

_______________ is the universal donor. People with this blood type can give blood to __________

Type O

all the ABO blood groups

63

_______________ are the precursor cells that ultimately form basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils

Myeloblasts

64

________________ leads to an above normal level of oxygen in the blood, which would not stimulate RBC production

hyperventilating


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