BOI 201 Chapter 9

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1
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What does A represent?

The tissue that binds muscles into functional groups.
Connective tissue covering the exterior of a muscle organ.

Epimysium

2
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What does B represent?

Within the muscle.
Connective tissue sheath surrounding individual muscle fibers.

Endomysium

3
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What does C represent?

Individual muscle fiber.
Skeletal and smooth muscle cells (but not cardiac muscle cells) are elongated and called___.

Muscle Fiber

4
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What does D represent?

Bundles.
Bundles of muscle cells surrounded by a perimysium

Fascicle

5
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What does E represent?

Around the fascicles.
Connective tissue surrounding muscle fiber bundles.

Perimysium

6
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What does A represent?

A sarcomere is defined as the segment between two neighboring Z-lines. In electron micrographs of cross-striated muscle, the ___.

Z disc

7
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What does B represent?

Within the A-band is a polar region called the ___.

H zone

8
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What does C represent?

Surrounding the Z-line is the region of the ___.

I band

9
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What does D represent?

Following the I-band is the ___.

A band

10
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What does E represent?

Inside the H-zone is a thin ___.

M line

11

Depends on oxygen delivery and aerobic mechanisms.

Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers

12

Have very fast-acting myosin ATPases and depend upon anaerobic metabolism during contraction.

Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers

13

Red fibers, the smallest of the fiber types.

Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers

14

Contain abundant amounts of glycogen.

Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers

15

Abundant in muscles used to maintain posture.

Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers

16

A relatively high percentage are found in successful marathon runners.

Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers

17

The strongest stimulus that produces increased contractile force.

Maximal stimulus

18

The stimulus above which no stronger contraction can be elicited, because all motor units are firing in the muscle.

Maximal stimulus

19

All skeletal muscle is maintained in a constant, slightly contracted state, spinal reflexes activate groups of motor units alternately

Muscle Tone

20

Determined by alternating motor units of a muscle organ even when the muscle is at rest.

Muscle Tone

21

A state of continuous muscular contraction, especially when induced artificially by rapidly repeated stimuli.

Tetanus

22

Continued sustained smooth contraction due to rapid stimulation.

Tetanus

23

The situation in which contractions become stronger due to stimulation before complete relaxation occurs.

Wave summation

24

Temporal aka _____________, occurs because the second contraction occurs before the muscle has completely relaxed.

Wave summation

25

How a smooth increase in muscle force is produced.

Multiple motor unit summation

26

The force of contraction is controlled more precisely by recruitment also called __________________.

Multiple motor unit summation

27

A sacromere is the distance between two ___.

Z disc

28

The ___ contains only the actin filaments.

I band

29

The thicker filaments are the ___ filaments.

Myosin

30

Both actin and myosin are found in the ___.

A band

31

The myosin filaments are located in the ___.

A band

32

Serves as the actual "trigger" for muscle contraction by removing the inhibition of the troponin molecules.

Calcium ions

33

A neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminals.

Acetylcholine

34

Diffusion across the cell membrane results in depolarization.

Sodium Ions

35

Activate synaptic vesicles in axon terminals.

Calcium ions

36

Used to convert ADP to ATP by trnsfer of high-energy phosphate group. A reserve high-energy compound.

Creatine phosphate

37

Destroys ACh.

Acetylcholinesterase

38

An enzyme located in the synaptic cleft.

Acetylcholinesterase

39

Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract.
True / False

False

40

The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bears active sites for myosin attachment.
True / False

True

41

The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide sub-unit G actin that bears active sites for myosin attachment.
True / False

True

42

The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment.
True / False

True

43

Eccentric contractions are more forceful than concentric contractions.
True / False

True

44

A motor neuron and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate.
True / False

False

45

Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle.
True / False

True

46

A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric.
True / False

True

47

During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction.
True / False

False

48

During isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement.
True / False

False

49

One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is a production of heat.
True / False

True

50

An increase in the calcium ion level in the sarcoplasm starts the sliding of the thin filaments. When the level of calcium ions declines, sliding stops.
True / False

True

51

Muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached.
True / False

False

52

Although there are "no" sacromeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments.
True / False

True

53

Muscle tone is the small amount of tautness or tension in the muscle due to weak, involuntary contractions of its motor units.
True / False

True

54

Cells of unitary (single-unit) smooth muscle are found in the longitudnal and circular muscle layers of the intestine.
True / False

True

55

A resting potential is caused by a difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.
True / False

True

56

The effect of a neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its ion permeability properties temporarily.
True / False

True

57

When a muscle fiber contracts, the I bands diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A bands move closer together but do not diminish in length.
True / False

True

58

Contractures are a result of a total "lack" of ATP.
True / False

True

59

Smooth muscles relax when intercellular Ca2+ (calcium ion) levels drop but may not cease contractions.
True / False

True

60

Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

smooth

61

Most skeletal muscle contain ___.

a mixture of fiber types

62

Fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of ___.

intense exercise of short duration

63

The strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by ___.

increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus

64

Myoglobin ___.

stores oxygen in muscle cells

65

What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?

sacroplasmic reticulum

66

Immediately following the arival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the ___ period during which the events of excitation-contraction coupling occur.

latent

67

Marathons

Aerobic Pathway

68

25 Meter Swim

Anaerobic Pathway

69

Weight Lifting

Direct Phosphorylation

70

A smooth, sustained contraction from rapid stimulation is called ____.

Tetanus

71

Only ____ muscle cells commonly branch.

Cardiac

72

Only ______ muscle cells are always multinucleated.

Skeletal

73

The end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the _____.

Insertion

74

In the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, and enzyme called _____ is always present.

Acetylcholinesterase

75

The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of ____.

Contraction


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