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Chapter 12 Neural Tissue

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1

1) Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system?

  1. A) sense the internal and external environments
  2. B) integrate sensory information
  3. C) coordinate voluntary and involuntary activities
  4. D) direct long-term functions, such as growth
  5. E) control peripheral effectors

D) direct long-term functions, such as growth

2

2) The ________ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. A) autonomic
  2. B) peripheral
  3. C) central
  4. D) efferent
  5. E) afferent
  1. C) central
3

3) The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.

  1. A) sympathetic
  2. B) parasympathetic
  3. C) afferent
  4. D) somatic
  5. E) autonomic
  1. D) somatic
4

4) The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated

  1. A) motor.
  2. B) afferent.
  3. C) efferent.
  4. D) autonomic.
  5. E) somatic.
  1. B) afferent.
5

5) The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates ________ cells.

  1. A) skeletal muscle
  2. B) smooth muscle
  3. C) heart muscle
  4. D) glandular

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

6

6) The axoplasm of the axon contains which of the following?

  1. A) neurotubules
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) vesicles
  4. D) neurofibrils
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

7

7) Which of the following is not a recognized structural classification for neurons?

  1. A) anaxonic
  2. B) bipolar
  3. C) multipolar
  4. D) pseudopolar
  5. E) unipolar

D) pseudopolar

8

8) The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is

  1. A) anaxonic.
  2. B) bipolar.
  3. C) multipolar.
  4. D) pseudopolar.
  5. E) unipolar.

C) multipolar

9

9) The cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of a neuron is called the

  1. A) protoplasm.
  2. B) nucleoplasm.
  3. C) sarcoplasm.
  4. D) neuroplasm.
  5. E) perikaryon.

E) perikaryon

10

10) Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called

  1. A) neurofilaments.
  2. B) neurofibrils.
  3. C) perikaryon.
  4. D) Nissl bodies.
  5. E) microglia.

D) Nissl bodies

11

11) The axon is connected to the soma at the

  1. A) telodendria.
  2. B) synaptic terminal.
  3. C) collaterals.
  4. D) axon hillock.

E) synapse.

D) axon hillock

12

12) Branches that may occur along an axon are called

  1. A) telodendria.
  2. B) synaptic terminals.
  3. C) collaterals.
  4. D) hillocks.
  5. E) synapses.

C) collaterals

13

13) Axons terminate in a series of fine extensions known as

  1. A) telodendria.
  2. B) terminals.
  3. C) collaterals.
  4. D) dendrites.
  5. E) synapses.

A) telodendria.

14

14) Neurotransmitters ready for release are stored in synaptic

  1. A) telodendria.
  2. B) terminals.
  3. C) vesicles.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) neurosomes.

C) vesicles

15

15) The site of intercellular communication between a neuron and another cell is the

  1. A) telodendria.
  2. B) synaptic terminals.
  3. C) collateral.
  4. D) hillock.
  5. E) synapse.

E) synapse

16

16) The rabies virus travels to the CNS via

  1. A) anterograde axoplasmic transport.
  2. B) retrograde axoplasmic transport.
  3. C) blood vessels.
  4. D) subcutaneous connective tissue.

E) cerebrospinal fluid

B) retrograde axoplasmic transport

17

17) Neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called

  1. A) anaxonic.
  2. B) unipolar.
  3. C) bipolar.
  4. D) tripolar.
  5. E) multipolar.

A) anaxonic.

18

18) Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called

  1. A) anaxonic.
  2. B) unipolar.
  3. C) bipolar.
  4. D) tripolar.
  5. E) multipolar.

B) unipolar

19

19) Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called

  1. A) anaxonic.
  2. B) unipolar.
  3. C) bipolar.
  4. D) tripolar.

E) multipolar

C) bipolar.

20

20) Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called

  1. A) anaxonic.
  2. B) unipolar.
  3. C) bipolar.
  4. D) tripolar.
  5. E) multipolar.

E) multipolar.

21

21) Sensory neurons of the PNS are

  1. A) unipolar.
  2. B) bipolar.
  3. C) anaxonic.
  4. D) multipolar.

E) tripolar.

A) unipolar

22

22) Which of the following activities or sensations is/are not monitored by interoceptors?

  1. A) sight
  2. B) taste
  3. C) activities of the digestive system
  4. D) cardiovascular activities

E) urinary activities

A) sight

23

23) ________ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that distinguish dendrites from axons.

  1. A) Multipolar
  2. B) Anaxonic
  3. C) Unipolar
  4. D) Bipolar
  5. E) Sensory

B) Anaxonic

24

24) ________ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs.

  1. A) Multipolar
  2. B) Anaxonic
  3. C) Unipolar
  4. D) Bipolar
  5. E) Motor

D) Bipolar

25

25) In a(n) ________ neuron, the dendrites and axon are continuous or fused.

  1. A) multipolar
  2. B) anaxonic
  3. C) unipolar
  4. D) bipolar
  5. E) interneuron

C) unipolar

26

26) ________ neurons are the most common structural class in the CNS.

  1. A) Multipolar
  2. B) Anaxonic
  3. C) Unipolar
  4. D) Bipolar

E) Sensory

A) Multipolar

27

27) ________ neurons form the afferent division of the PNS.

  1. A) Visceral sensory
  2. B) Sensory
  3. C) Neural sensory
  4. D) Somatic sensory
  5. E) Motor

B) Sensory

28

28) ________ are the most numerous type of neuron in the CNS.

  1. A) Sensory neurons
  2. B) Motor neurons
  3. C) Unipolar neurons
  4. D) Bipolar neurons
  5. E) Interneurons

E) Interneurons

29

29) Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains

  1. A) why CNS neurons grow such long axons.
  2. B) why CNS neurons cannot divide to regenerate damaged tissue.
  3. C) the ability of neurons to generate an action potential.
  4. D) the ability of neurons to communicate with each other.
  5. E) the ability of neurons to produce a resting potential.

B) why CNS neurons cannot divide to regenerate damaged tissue

30

30) How does blocking retrograde axoplasmic transport in an axon affect the activity of a neuron?

  1. A) The neuron becomes unable to produce neurotransmitters.
  2. B) The neuron becomes unable to produce action potentials.
  3. C) The soma becomes unable to export products to the synaptic terminals.
  4. D) The soma becomes unable to respond to changes in the distal end of the axon.
  5. E) The neuron becomes unable to depolarize when stimulated.

D) The soma becomes unable to respond to changes in the distal end of the axon

31

39) Deteriorating changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called ________ degeneration.

  1. A) neural
  2. B) central
  3. C) peripheral
  4. D) Wallerian
  5. E) conduction

D) Wallerian

32

40) Which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia?

  1. A) support
  2. B) memory
  3. C) secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
  4. D) maintenance of blood-brain barrier
  5. E) phagocytosis

B) memory

33

41) Which of the following is a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system?

  1. A) astrocytes
  2. B) satellite cells
  3. C) oligodendrocytes
  4. D) microglia
  5. E) ependymal cells

B) satellite cells

34

42) The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) satellite cells.
  3. C) oligodendrocytes.
  4. D) microglia.

E) ependymal cells

A) astrocytes.

35

43) Functions of astrocytes include all of the following except

  1. A) maintaining the blood-brain barrier.
  2. B) conducting action potentials.
  3. C) guiding neuron development.
  4. D) responding to neural tissue damage.
  5. E) forming a three-dimensional framework for the CNS.

B) conducting action potentials.

36

44) ________ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system.

  1. A) Axons
  2. B) Dendrites
  3. C) Neuroglia
  4. D) Synapses
  5. E) Efferent fibers

C) Neuroglia

37

45) The function of the astrocytes in the CNS includes which of the following?

  1. A) adjusting the composition of the interstitial fluid
  2. B) guiding neuron development
  3. C) maintaining the blood-brain barrier
  4. D) repairing damaged neural tissue
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

38

46) The neuroglial cells that participate in maintaining the blood-brain barrier are the

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) ependymal cells.
  3. C) microglia.
  4. D) oligodendrocytes.
  5. E) Schwann cells.

A) astrocytes

39

47) The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) satellite cells.
  3. C) oligodendrocytes.
  4. D) microglia.
  5. E) ependymal cells.

C) oligodendrocytes

40

48) ________ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal.

  1. A) Astrocytes
  2. B) Satellite cells
  3. C) Oligodendrocytes
  4. D) Microglia
  5. E) Ependymal cells

E) Ependymal cells

41

49) Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) satellite cells.
  3. C) oligodendrocytes.
  4. D) microglia.
  5. E) ependymal cells.

D) microglia

42

50) The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) satellite cells.
  3. C) oligodendrocytes.
  4. D) microglia.
  5. E) Schwann cells.

E) Schwann cells.

43

51) Glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) satellite cells.
  3. C) oligodendrocytes.
  4. D) microglia.
  5. E) ependymal cells.

B) satellite cells

44

52) Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because

  1. A) oligodendrocytes form a continuous myelin sheath around the axons.
  2. B) the endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier.
  3. C) the neurolemma is impermeable to most molecules.
  4. D) ependymal cells restrict the flow of interstitial fluid between the capillaries and the neurons.

E) astrocytes form a capsule around neurons.

B) the endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier.

45

53) Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

  1. A) loss of the structural framework of the brain.
  2. B) a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.
  3. C) inability to produce scar tissue at the site of an injury.
  4. D) decreased production of cerebrospinal fluid.

E) loss of sensation and motor control

E) loss of sensation and motor control

46

54) Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the

  1. A) formation of myelin sheaths.
  2. B) formation of cerebrospinal fluid.
  3. C) formation of ganglia.
  4. D) repair of axons.

E) transport of neurotransmitters within axons

B) formation of cerebrospinal fluid

47

55) When pressure is applied to neural tissue, all of the following effects are possible except

  1. A) a decrease in blood flow.
  2. B) a decrease in available oxygen.
  3. C) a change in neuron excitability
  4. D) glial cells degenerate.

E) neurons are triggered to divide

E) neurons are triggered to divide

48

56) In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves by

  1. A) producing new axons.
  2. B) regenerating cell bodies for the neurons.
  3. C) forming a cellular cord that directs axonal regrowth.
  4. D) clearing away cellular debris.

E) producing more satellite cells that fuse to form new axons.

C) forming a cellular cord that directs axonal regrowth.

49

57) After a stroke, what type of glial cell accumulates within the affected brain region?

  1. A) Schwann cells
  2. B) satellite cells
  3. C) oligodendrocytes
  4. D) microglia
  5. E) ependymal cells

D) microglia

50

58) Which of the following is not true regarding the establishment of a neuron's resting potential?

A) Chemical and electrical forces both favor sodium ions entering the cell.

B) Electrical forces push sodium ions into the cell.

C) The chemical gradient for potassium ions tends to drive them out of the cell.

D) Ion pumps in the plasma membrane eject sodium ions as fast as they cross the membrane.

E) Resting membrane permeability to Na+ is very low.

B) Electrical forces push sodium ions into the cell.

51

59) At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its sodium-potassium exchange pump transports

A) 1 intracellular sodium ion for 2 extracellular potassium ions.

B) 2 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion.

C) 3 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion.

D) 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.

E) 3 extracellular sodium ions for 2 intracellular potassium ions.

D) 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.

52

60) Ion channels that are always open are called ________ channels.

  1. A) active
  2. B) gated
  3. C) leak
  4. D) regulated
  5. E) local

C) leak

53

61) Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes

  1. A) depolarization.
  2. B) repolarization.
  3. C) hyperpolarization.
  4. D) increased negative charge inside the membrane.
  5. E) inhibition.

A) depolarization

54

62) Voltage-gated channels are present

  1. A) at the motor end plate.
  2. B) on the surface of dendrites.
  3. C) in the membrane that covers axons.
  4. D) on the soma of neurons.
  5. E) along the perikaryon of neurons.

C) in the membrane that covers axons

55

63) The sodium-potassium ion exchange pump

  1. A) must reestablish ion concentrations after each action potential.
  2. B) transports sodium ions into the cell during depolarization.
  3. C) transports potassium ions out of the cell during repolarization.
  4. D) moves sodium and potassium opposite to the direction of their electrochemical gradients.
  5. E) depends on a hydrogen gradient for energy.

D) moves sodium and potassium opposite to the direction of their electrochemical gradients

56

64) Integral membrane proteins that connect electrical synapses are called

  1. A) connexons.
  2. B) receptors.
  3. C) desmosomes.
  4. D) sodium channels.
  5. E) synapsins.

A) connexons

57

65) The equilibrium potential for potassium ion occurs at approximately

  1. A) -90 mV.
  2. B) -70 mV.
  3. C) +66 mV.
  4. D) 0 mV.
  5. E) +30 mV.

A) -90 mV

58

66) ________ open or close in response to binding specific molecules.

A) Leak channels

B) Activated channels

C) Chemically gated channels

D) Voltage-gated channels

E) Voltage-gated and chemically gated channels

C) Chemically gated channels

59

67) ________ channels open or close in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface.

  1. A) Voltage-gated
  2. B) Chemically gated
  3. C) Active
  4. D) Mechanically gated
  5. E) Leak

D) Mechanically gated

60

68) Any stimulus that opens a ________ ion channel will produce a graded potential.

A) voltage-gated

B) chemically gated

C) sodium

D) mechanically gated

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

61

69) If the permeability of a resting axon to sodium ion increases,

  1. A) the membrane potential will repolarize.
  2. B) the membrane potential will hyperpolarize.
  3. C) inward movement of sodium ion will increase.
  4. D) outward movement of sodium ion will decrease.

E) inward movement of sodium will increase and the membrane will depolarize

E) inward movement of sodium will increase and the membrane will depolarize

62

70) Which of the following is not involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron?

A) diffusion of potassium ions out of the cell

B) diffusion of sodium ions into the cell

C) membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions

D) membrane permeability for potassium ions greater than sodium ions

E) The interior of the plasma membrane has an excess of negative charges.

C) membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions

63

71) If the sodium-potassium pumps in the plasma membrane fail to function, all of the following occur except

  1. A) the intracellular concentration of potassium ions will increase.
  2. B) the neuron will slowly depolarize.
  3. C) the membrane will slowly lose its capacity to generate action potentials.
  4. D) the inside of the membrane will have a resting potential that is more positive than normal.
  5. E) the intracellular concentration of sodium ions will increase.

A) the intracellular concentration of potassium ions will increase

64

72) Graded potentials

  1. A) produce an effect that increases with distance from the point of stimulation.
  2. B) produce an effect that spreads actively across the membrane surface.
  3. C) may be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization.
  4. D) are often all-or-none.

E) cause repolarization

C) may be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization.

65

73) When potassium channels open and the ions diffuse through the membrane,

  1. A) the inside of the membrane will become more positive.
  2. B) the inside of the membrane will become more negative.
  3. C) there will be almost no effect on transmembrane potential.
  4. D) the membrane will become depolarized.

E) the membrane will depolarize to threshold

B) the inside of the membrane will become more negative

66

74) Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways?

  1. A) through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential
  2. B) through passive or leak channels
  3. C) by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump
  4. D) through chemically gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

67

75) Raising the potassium ion concentration in the extracellular fluid surrounding a nerve cell will have what effect?

  1. A) depolarize it
  2. B) hyperpolarize it
  3. C) increase the magnitude of the potassium equilibrium potential
  4. D) decrease the magnitude of the potassium equilibrium potential
  5. E) both hyperpolarize it and decrease the magnitude of the potassium equilibrium potential

E) both hyperpolarize it and decrease the magnitude of the potassium equilibrium potential

68

76) Voltage-gated sodium channels have both an activation gate and a(n) ________ gate.

  1. A) inactivation
  2. B) ion
  3. C) swinging
  4. D) repolarization
  5. E) threshold

A) inactivation

69

77) If acetylcholine (ACh) causes inhibition of a postsynaptic neuron, to what type of membrane channel did the ACh bind?

  1. A) mechanically-regulated channel
  2. B) voltage-regulated sodium channel
  3. C) voltage-regulated calcium channel
  4. D) chemically-regulated potassium channel
  5. E) chemically-regulated sodium channel

D) chemically-regulated potassium channel

70

78) A stimulus that changes a postsynaptic neuron's membrane from resting potential to -85 mV is a(n) ________ stimulus.

  1. A) excitatory
  2. B) depolarizing
  3. C) temporal
  4. D) saltatory
  5. E) inhibitory

E) inhibitory

71

79) If the axolemma becomes more permeable to potassium ion,

  1. A) the membrane will depolarize to threshold.
  2. B) a stronger stimulus will be required to cause an action potential.
  3. C) the membrane will depolarize to +30 mV.
  4. D) sodium ions will enter the cell to replace the lost potassium ions.
  5. E) the inside of the membrane will have a positive charge.

B) a stronger stimulus will be required to cause an action potential.

72

80) The following are the main steps in the generation of an action potential.

  1. Sodium channels are inactivated.
  2. Voltage-gated potassium channels open and potassium moves out of the cell, initiating repolarization.
  3. Sodium channels regain their normal properties.
  4. A graded depolarization brings an area of an excitable membrane to threshold.
  5. A temporary hyperpolarization occurs.
  6. Sodium channel activation occurs.
  7. Sodium ions enter the cell and depolarization occurs.

What is the proper sequence of these events?

  1. A) 4, 6, 7, 3, 2, 5, 1
  2. B) 4, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 5
  3. C) 6, 7, 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
  4. D) 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 3, 5
  5. E) 4, 2, 5, 6, 7, 3, 1

B) 4, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 5

73

81) The all-or-none principle states that

  1. A) all stimuli will produce identical action potentials.
  2. B) all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
  3. C) the greater the magnitude of the stimuli, the greater the magnitude of the action potential.
  4. D) only sensory stimuli can activate action potentials.

E) only motor stimuli can activate action potentials

  1. B) all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
74

82) The same ________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ________.

  1. A) neurotransmitter; receptor
  2. B) receptor; neurotransmitter
  3. C) substrate; receptor
  4. D) hormone; neurotransmitter
  5. E) propagation; neurotransmitter

A) neurotransmitter; receptor

75

83) Which of the following statements about the action potential is false?

  1. A) The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions.
  2. B) During the repolarization phase, sodium channels close and potassium channels open.
  3. C) During the depolarization phase, membrane potential becomes positive.
  4. D) During the hyperpolarization phase, the ion pumps re-establish the sodium and potassium concentrations across the cell membrane.
  5. E) Repolarization occurs as potassium ions leave the axon.

A) The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions

76

84) How would the absolute refractory period be affected if voltage-regulated sodium channels failed to inactivate?

  1. A) It would last indefinitely.
  2. B) It would be much briefer.
  3. C) It would be basically unaffected.

A) It would last indefinitely

77

85) During repolarization of a neuron

  1. A) sodium ions move out of the cell.
  2. B) potassium ions move out of the cell.
  3. C) potassium ions move into the cell.
  4. D) both sodium and potassium ions move into the cell.
  5. E) sodium ions move into the cell.

B) potassium ions move out of the cell

78

86) How would a chemical that prevents the opening of voltage-regulated Na+ channels affect the function of a neuron?

  1. A) The neuron will only be able to hyperpolarize.
  2. B) The neuron will depolarize more rapidly.
  3. C) Action potentials will lack a repolarization phase.
  4. D) The neuron will automatically and repeatedly produce graded potentials.

E) The neuron will only be capable of producing graded potentials.

E) The neuron will only be capable of producing graded potentials

79

87) A threshold stimulus is the

  1. A) depolarization necessary to cause an action potential.
  2. B) peak of an action potential.
  3. C) hyperpolarization of an axon.
  4. D) resting potential.

E) electrical current that crosses the synaptic cleft

A) depolarization necessary to cause an action potential

80

88) Which of the following is true about threshold for an action potential?

  1. A) It is more positive than the resting potential.
  2. B) Voltage-gated potassium channels begin to close.
  3. C) Voltage-gated potassium channels begin to open.
  4. D) The membrane begins to hyperpolarize.

E) Threshold for a typical neuron is approximately -30 mV

A) It is more positive than the resting potentia

81

89) Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?

  1. A) Neurons would depolarize more rapidly.
  2. B) Action potentials would lack a repolarization phase.
  3. C) The absolute refractory period would be shorter than normal.
  4. D) The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.
  5. E) None, because the chemically gated sodium channels would still function.

D) The axon would be unable to generate action potentials

82

99) Rapid impulse conduction from "node" to "node" is called

  1. A) spatial propagation.
  2. B) saltatory propagation.
  3. C) divergent propagation.
  4. D) synaptic transmission.
  5. E) continuous propagation.

B) saltatory propagation

83

100) Which of the following does not influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be transmitted?

  1. A) length of the axon
  2. B) presence or absence of a myelin sheath
  3. C) diameter of the axon
  4. D) presence or absence of nodes
  5. E) whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS

E) whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS

84

101) Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation?

  1. A) type A
  2. B) type B
  3. C) type C
  4. D) type D
  5. E) type E

A) type A

85

102) Type ________ fibers have the largest diameter axons.

  1. A) S
  2. B) F
  3. C) A
  4. D) B
  5. E) C

C) A

86

103) Sensory information from skeletal muscles travels over ________ fibers.

  1. A) type A
  2. B) type B
  3. C) type C
  4. D) type D
  5. E) type E

A) type A

87

104) In which of the following would the rate of impulse conduction be the greatest?

  1. A) a myelinated fiber of 10-µm diameter
  2. B) a nonmyelinated fiber of 20-µm diameter
  3. C) a myelinated fiber of 1-µm diameter
  4. D) a nonmyelinated fiber of 10-µm diameter

E) It would be the same in all because of the all-or-none principle

A) a myelinated fiber of 10-µm diameter

88

105) A neuron that receives neurotransmitter from another neuron is called

  1. A) the presynaptic neuron.
  2. B) the motor neuron.
  3. C) an oligodendrocyte.
  4. D) a satellite cell.

E) the postsynaptic neuron

E) the postsynaptic neuron

89

106) Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system?

  1. A) chemical
  2. B) electrical
  3. C) mechanical
  4. D) processing
  5. E) radiative

A) chemical

90

107) The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) calcium.
  4. D) chloride.
  5. E) magnesium.

C) calcium

91

108) Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter

  1. A) norepinephrine.
  2. B) adrenalin.
  3. C) serotonin.
  4. D) acetylcholine.
  5. E) GABA.

D) acetylcholine

92

109) The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse. What is the correct sequence for these events?

  1. Chemically-gated sodium channels on the postsynaptic membrane are activated.
  2. Calcium ions enter the synaptic terminal.
  3. Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes acetylcholine.
  4. An action potential depolarizes the synaptic terminal at the presynaptic membrane.
  5. The pre-synaptic terminal reabsorbs choline.
  6. Acetylcholine is released from storage vesicles by exocytosis.
  7. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
  8. Calcium ions are removed from the cytoplasm of the pre- synaptic terminal.
  1. A) 4, 2, 6, 7, 8, 5, 3, 1
  2. B) 4, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5
  3. C) 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5
  4. D) 2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3
  5. E) 6, 4, 2, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5

B) 4, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5

93

110) If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,

  1. A) synaptic transmission would fail.
  2. B) release of neurotransmitter would stop.
  3. C) smaller action potentials would result.
  4. D) the presynaptic membrane would be unable to reach threshold.
  5. E) the presynaptic neuron would release a different neurotransmitter.

A) synaptic transmission would fail

94

111) The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on the

  1. A) frequency of neurotransmitter release.
  2. B) nature of the neurotransmitter.
  3. C) characteristics of the receptors.
  4. D) quantity of neurotransmitters released.

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

95

112) When cholinergic receptors are stimulated,

  1. A) sodium ions enter the postsynaptic neuron.
  2. B) sodium ions leave the postsynaptic neuron.
  3. C) chloride ions enter the postsynaptic neuron.
  4. D) chloride ions leave the postsynaptic neuron.

E) norepinephrine deactivates acetylcholine

A) sodium ions enter the postsynaptic neuron.

96

113) If the axon terminal of a motor neuron suddenly became permeable to calcium ion,

  1. A) the neuron will fire an action potential.
  2. B) the motor end plate will be depolarized.
  3. C) the motor end plate will be hyperpolarized.
  4. D) neurotransmitter release will be blocked.
  5. E) the neuron will become unable to stimulate the muscle cell.

B) the motor end plate will be depolarized.

97

114) Each of the following is an example of a synapse between neurons and effector cells except the junction between a neuron and a(n)

  1. A) skeletal muscle cell.
  2. B) smooth muscle cell.
  3. C) endocrine gland cell.
  4. D) exocrine gland cell.
  5. E) nerve cell.

E) nerve cell

98

115) What triggers the release of acetylcholine from a synaptic terminal?

  1. A) release of calcium ions from the synaptic vesicles
  2. B) graded potentials in the synaptic terminal
  3. C) synaptic vesicles fuse to dendrites
  4. D) diffusion of sodium ions out of the synaptic terminal
  5. E) diffusion of calcium ions into the synaptic terminal

E) diffusion of calcium ions into the synaptic terminal

99

116) Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter

  1. A) acetylcholine.
  2. B) norepinephrine.
  3. C) dopamine.
  4. D) serotonin.
  5. E) GABA.

B) norepinephrine

100

117) Which of the following is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain that is important in learning and memory?

  1. A) glutamate
  2. B) gamma aminobutyric acid
  3. C) serotonin
  4. D) noradrenaline

E) glycine

A) glutamate

101

118) Which of the following is not a possible drug effect on synaptic function?

  1. A) interfere with neurotransmitter synthesis
  2. B) interfere with neurotransmitter reuptake
  3. C) prevent neurotransmitter inactivation
  4. D) block neurotransmitter binding to receptors
  5. E) change the type of receptor found in the postsynaptic membrane

E) change the type of receptor found in the postsynaptic membrane

102

119) Opioids relieve pain by blocking the release of

  1. A) substance O.
  2. B) substance P.
  3. C) substance Q.
  4. D) substance X.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

B) substance P.

103

120) Which of the following is a recognized class of opioid neuromodulators?

  1. A) endorphins
  2. B) enkephalins
  3. C) endomorphins
  4. D) dynorphins

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

104

121) Active neurons need ATP to support which of the following?

  1. A) the movement of materials to the soma by axoplasmic transport
  2. B) the synthesis of neurotransmitter molecules
  3. C) the movement of materials from the soma by axoplasmic transport
  4. D) the recovery from action potentials
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

105

122) After acetylcholinesterase acts, the synaptic terminal

  1. A) reabsorbs the acetylcholine.
  2. B) reabsorbs the acetate.
  3. C) reabsorbs the choline.
  4. D) reabsorbs axoplasm.

E) pinches off and a new terminal grows

C) reabsorbs the choline

106

123) A postsynaptic neuron will have an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) when

  1. A) chemically regulated potassium channels are open and potassium is diffusing out of the cell.
  2. B) more calcium ions than usual diffuse into the neuron.
  3. C) chemically regulated sodium channels are open and sodium is diffusing into the cell.
  4. D) the neuron is hyperpolarized.

E) more potassium ions than usual diffuse out of the neuron

C) chemically regulated sodium channels are open and sodium is diffusing into the cell.

107

124) Presynaptic facilitation by serotonin is caused by

  1. A) increased extracellular concentration of sodium ion.
  2. B) increased extracellular concentration of potassium ion.
  3. C) blockage of calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane.
  4. D) calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane remaining open longer.
  5. E) temporal summation.

D) calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane remaining open longer.

108

125) The site in the neuron where EPSPs and IPSPs are integrated is the

  1. A) chemical synapse.
  2. B) electrical synapse.
  3. C) axon hillock.
  4. D) dendritic membrane.
  5. E) synaptic terminal.

C) axon hillock

109

126) EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when

  1. A) more potassium ions than usual leak out of a cell.
  2. B) more calcium ions than usual leak out of a cell.
  3. C) chloride ions enter a cell.
  4. D) extra sodium ions enter a cell.
  5. E) hyperpolarizations occur.

D) extra sodium ions enter a cell

110

127) IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

  1. A) are local depolarizations.
  2. B) are local hyperpolarizations.
  3. C) increase membrane permeability to sodium ions.
  4. D) block the efflux of potassium ions.

E) block the efflux of calcium ions.

B) are local hyperpolarizations

111

128) When a second EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential) arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?

  1. A) spatial summation
  2. B) temporal summation
  3. C) inhibition of the impulse
  4. D) hyperpolarization
  5. E) decrease in speed of impulse transmission

B) temporal summation

112

129) Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

  1. A) spatial summation.
  2. B) temporal summation.
  3. C) inhibition of the impulse.
  4. D) hyperpolarization.
  5. E) impulse transmission.

A) spatial summation

113

1) The nervous tissue outside of the central nervous system composes the ________ nervous system.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) peripheral
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) afferent
  5. E) parasympathetic

B) peripheral

114

2) The ________ division of the peripheral nervous system brings sensory information to the central nervous system.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) peripheral
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) afferent
  5. E) parasympathetic

D) afferent

115

3) The ________ division of the nervous system carries motor commands to muscles and glands.

  1. A) spinal
  2. B) peripheral
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) afferent
  5. E) efferent

E) efferent

116

4) The ________ nervous system provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) peripheral
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) afferent
  5. E) motor

C) autonomic

117

5) ________ carry motor information to peripheral effectors.

  1. A) Motor neurons
  2. B) Efferent neurons
  3. C) Multipolar neurons
  4. D) Afferent neurons

E) Interneurons

B) Efferent neurons

118

6) ________ nerves are nerves that connect to the spinal cord.

  1. A) Spinal
  2. B) Cranial
  3. C) Afferent
  4. D) Multipolar
  5. E) Autonomic

A) Spinal

119

7) ________ nerves are nerves that connect to the brain.

  1. A) Spinal
  2. B) Unmyelinated
  3. C) Myelinated
  4. D) Cranial
  5. E) Interneural

D) Cranial

120

8) ________ monitor the position of skeletal muscles and joints

  1. A) Proprioceptors
  2. B) Internoceptors
  3. C) Photoreceptors
  4. D) Exteroceptors
  5. E) Pressoreceptors

A) Proprioceptors

121

9) ________ carry sensory information to the CNS.

  1. A) Motor neurons
  2. B) Efferent neurons
  3. C) Multipolar neurons
  4. D) Afferent neurons
  5. E) Interneurons

D) Afferent neurons

122

10) ________ provide information about the external environment.

  1. A) Spinal nerves
  2. B) Anaxonic neurons
  3. C) Internoceptors
  4. D) Exteroceptors

E) Proprioceptors

D) Exteroceptors

123

11) ________ monitor the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems.

A) Spinal nerves

B) Unipolar neurons

C) Internoceptors

D) Exteroceptors

E) Proprioceptors

C) Internoceptors

124

12) The plasma membrane of an axon is called the

  1. A) axon terminal.
  2. B) neurilemma.
  3. C) myelin sheath.
  4. D) sarcolemma.
  5. E) axolemma.

E) axolemma

125

13) The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the

  1. A) neuron.
  2. B) axon.
  3. C) nerve.
  4. D) glial cell.

E) receptor

A) neuron

126

14) The most common neuron of the nervous system is the

  1. A) interneuron.
  2. B) externoceptor.
  3. C) bipolar neuron.
  4. D) unipolar neuron.

E) microglial cell.

A) interneuron.

127

15) Most neurons lack ________ and so are permanently blocked from undergoing cell division.

  1. A) ribosomes
  2. B) endoplasmic reticula
  3. C) a nucleus
  4. D) centrioles
  5. E) cytoplasm

D) centrioles

128

16) Products from the soma of a neuron are transported to the synaptic terminals by ________ transport.

  1. A) anterograde
  2. B) retrograde
  3. C) osmotic
  4. D) active
  5. E) passive

A) anterograde

129

17) A change in the conditions in the synaptic terminal can influence the soma as a result of ________ transport.

  1. A) anterograde
  2. B) retrograde
  3. C) osmotic
  4. D) active
  5. E) passive

B) retrograde

130

18) Neuron cell bodies in the PNS are clustered together in masses called

  1. A) fibers.
  2. B) tracts.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) nuclei.

E) ganglia

E) ganglia

131

19) The tiny gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called

  1. A) neurillema.
  2. B) nodes of Ranvier.
  3. C) axolemma.
  4. D) terminals.

E) vesicles.

B) nodes of Ranvier

132

20) Regions of the CNS with an abundance of myelinated axons constitute the ________ matter.

  1. A) gray
  2. B) white
  3. C) neural
  4. D) brain
  5. E) ganglion

B) white

133

21) Regions of the CNS where neuron cell bodies dominate constitute the ________ matter.

  1. A) white
  2. B) gray
  3. C) neural
  4. D) brain
  5. E) ganglion

B) gray

134

22) A movement of charges in response to a potential difference is called

  1. A) current.
  2. B) depolarization.
  3. C) hyperpolarization.
  4. D) action potential.

E) electricity

A) current

135

23) The separation of positive and negative charges across the membrane creates a ________ difference, or voltage.

  1. A) thermodynamic
  2. B) permeability
  3. C) dialysis
  4. D) electrochemical
  5. E) potential

E) potential

136

24) The sum of the electrical and chemical forces acting on an ion is known as its

  1. A) permeability gradient.
  2. B) thermodynamic difference.
  3. C) electrochemical gradient.
  4. D) action potential.

E) summation difference

C) electrochemical gradient

137

25) A shift of the resting transmembrane potential toward 0 mV is called

  1. A) potential difference.
  2. B) depolarization.
  3. C) hyperpolarization.
  4. D) polarization.
  5. E) repolarization.

B) depolarization

138

26) The minimum stimulus required to trigger an action potential is known as the

  1. A) threshold.
  2. B) all-or-none response.
  3. C) potential.
  4. D) incentive.
  5. E) summation.

A) threshold

139

27) The ________ principle states that the size and speed of the action potential are independent of the stimulus strength.

  1. A) threshold
  2. B) all-or-none
  3. C) summation
  4. D) polarization

E) potential

B) all-or-none

140

28) The period during which an excitable membrane cannot respond to further stimulation is the ________ period.

  1. A) relative refractory
  2. B) absolute refractory
  3. C) resting
  4. D) lag
  5. E) stationary

B) absolute refractory

141

29) The period during which an excitable membrane can respond again, but only if the stimulus is greater than the threshold stimulus, is the ________ period.

  1. A) relative refractory
  2. B) absolute refractory
  3. C) resting
  4. D) lag
  5. E) stationary

A) relative refractory

142

30) The presence of ________ dramatically increases the speed at which an action potential moves along an axon.

  1. A) a capsule
  2. B) plasma protein
  3. C) neurilemma
  4. D) glial cells
  5. E) myelin

E) myelin

143

31) The sensory loss and muscle weakness associated with multiple sclerosis are a consequence of

  1. A) excessive myelin layers around the axonal fibers.
  2. B) demyelination.
  3. C) a neuron not having a myelin sheath.
  4. D) a neuron without a neurilemma.

E) too few nodes of Ranvier

B) demyelination

144

32) At a(n) ________ synapse, a neurotransmitter is released to stimulate the postsynaptic membrane.

  1. A) electrical
  2. B) cell
  3. C) chemical
  4. D) osmotic
  5. E) gap

C) chemical

145

33) In a(n) ________ synapse, current flows directly between cells.

  1. A) electrical
  2. B) cell
  3. C) chemical
  4. D) osmotic
  5. E) gap

A) electrical

146

34) Compounds that alter the rate of neurotransmitter release by the presynaptic neuron or change the postsynaptic cell's response to neurotransmitters are called

  1. A) anticholinergics.
  2. B) cholinergic chemicals.
  3. C) amines.
  4. D) neuromodulators.
  5. E) adrenergic chemicals.

D) neuromodulators

147

35) The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive in rapid succession is called ________ summation.

  1. A) temporal
  2. B) spatial
  3. C) electrical
  4. D) chemical

E) perforal

A) temporal

148

36) The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive at several places on the neuron is called ________ summation.

  1. A) temporal
  2. B) spatial
  3. C) electrical
  4. D) chemical
  5. E) perforal

B) spatial


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