Chapter 20 Blood Vessels and Circulation

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1

Postcapillary venules are the smallest type of

vein

2

A small artery that empties into a capillary is called an _____

arteriole

3

The three basic types of blood vessels are

veins, arteries, and capillaries

4

List the branches of the aortic arch listing the most proximal branch first and the most distal branch last

braciocephalic trunk

left common carotid

left subclavian

5

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood ___ the heart

away from

6

The narrowest type of vessel in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems that engages in fluid exchanges with surrounding tissues is called _____

capillary

7

Molecules spontaneously move down their concentration gradient during

diffusion

8

______ are microscopic, thin-walled vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins

capillaries

9

Describe the flow of a blood cell through the pulmonary circuit from the right ventricle

pulmonary trunk

pulmonary arteries

lobar arteries

alveolar capillaries

pulmonary veins

left atrium

10

Which of these arteries, that branch from the thoracic aorta, directly supply blood to the muscles, bones, and skin of the chest wall?

superior phrenic arteries

posterior intercostal arteries

subcostal arteries

11

The vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called

veins

12

Capillaries are organized into networks called

capillary beds

13

The accumulation of excess fluid in a tissue is ____

edema

14

Which of the following can easily diffuse through the plasma membrane?

oxygen

carbon dioxide

steroid hormones

15

List the following vessels in order of those that have the highest blood pressure to those that have the lowest blood pressure

aorta

systemic artery

capillary

venule

systemic vein

superior vena cava

16

Identify the three primary branches the celiac trunk

splenic artery

left gastric artery

common hepatic artery

17

The outermost layer of the blood vessel is the tunica ____

externa

18

Name the condition that is caused by a sudden death of brain tissue by ischemia

stroke

19

List the principal regions of the aorta in order of blood flow from the heart

ascending aorta

aortic arch

descending aorta

thoracic aorta

abdominal aorta

20

Which of these arteries, that branch from the thoracic aorta, directly supply blood to the viscera of the thorax?

esophageal arteries

mediastinal arteries

bronchial arteries

21

The smallest resistance arteries are called _____

arterioles

22

Rank the arteries of the upper limb from proximal to distal

axillary artery

brachial artery

radial artery

deep palmar arch

23

Which of the following are examples of sensory structures located inside arterial walls?

baroreceptors and chemoreceptors

24

The common iliac arteries supply blood to the

pelvic wall and lower limbs

25

A chemical that _____ urine output is called a diuretic

increases

26

List the arteries in order as they descend and supply blood to the lower limb

external iliac artery

femoral artery

popliteal artery

anterior tibial artery

dorsal pedal artery

27

Shortly after leaving the aortic arch, the brachiocephalic trunk branches into the

right subclavian artery

right common carotid artey

28

The interosseous arteries of the forearm are located between the bones called the _____ and the _____

radius and ulna

29

The _____ and ____ are drained mainly by three pairs of veins: the internal jugulars, the external jugulars, and the vertebral veins

head and neck

30

Identify the tissues that comprise the capillary endothelium

loose connective

simple squamous epithelium

31

_____ venules receive blood from capillaries

postcapillary

32

The type of blood vessel regarded as capacitance vessels are _____

veins

33

List the arteries, in order, that a RBC must travel to get from the left ventricle to the tongue

aortic arch

brachiocephalic trunk

right common carotid artery

external carotid artery

lingual artery

34

Which of the following are functions of vasoreflexes?

they modify perfusion to an organ or tissue

they help regulate blood pressure

35

The "salt-retaining hormone" _____, primarily promotes sodium retention by the kidneys

aldosterone

36

The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the two _____ veins

brachiocephalic

37

The function of sensory receptors located in major arteries is to

monitor blood chemistry

monitor blood pressure

38

Transient ischemic attacks are characterized by

headache

temporary paralysis

temporary weakness

temporary loss of vision

temporary dizziness

39

A ____ is the sudden death (infarction) of brain tissue caused by ischemia

stroke

40

Systolic pressure is the arterial blood pressure attained during

ventricular contraction

41

The growth of new blood vessels is called

angiogenesis

42

Chemicals given off by the systemic capillary blood to the pervascular tissues often include

hormones

amino acids

oxygen

glucose

43

Name the vein that is formed by the union of the brachial and basilic veins

axillary vein

44

Blood travels to all tissues and organs of the body in the

systemic circuit

45

List the order of veins as blood would flow from the foot to the inferior vena cava

lateral plantar vein

fibular vein

politeal vein

external iliac vein

common iliac vein

inferior vena cava

46

As blood flows through vessels, it encounters forces, caused by several factors, that impede its movement. This opposition to blood flow is called peripheral ___

resistance

47

Rank the type of veins from smallest to largest

postcapillary venules

muscular venules

medium veins

venous sinuses

large veins

48

_____ is a process in which endothelial cells pick up material on one side of the plasma membrane by pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis, transport the vesicles across the cell, and discharge the material on the other side by exocytosis

transcytosis

49

An organ or cell specialized to detect a chemical is a _____

chemoreceptor

50

Name the branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the teeth, maxilla oral cavity, and external ear

maxillary artery

51

_____ venules receive blood from the postcapillary venules

muscular

52

A _____ is a weak, bulging sack that pulsates with each beat of the heart and may eventually rupture

aneurysm

53

Veins have ____ that ensure the one way flow of blood

valves

54

Trace the pathway of blood from the heart to the forehead

aortic arch

brachiocephalic trunk

right common carotid artery

internal carotid artery

ophthalmic artery

55

Among arteries and veins, the tunica _____ is usually the thickest

media

56

A general insufficient blood flow to a tissue is called ______

ischemia

57

Hemodynamics are based mainly on

pressure and resistance

58

List in order from superior to inferior, the arteries that branch off of the abdominal aorta

celiac trunk

superior messenteric artery

renal artery

gonadal artery

common iliac artery

59

Short vessels that link arterioles and capillaries are called

metarterioles

60

Hydrostatic pressure forces a fluid through a selectively permeable membrane during

filtration

61

The femoral artery descends on the medial side of the femur giving rise to the following three arteries

circumflex femoral artery

popliteal artery

deep femoral artery

62

What is the longest vein in the body?

great saphenous vein

63

Also known as large or elastic arteries, ______ arteries are classified as the largest

conducting

64

_____ pressure is the minimum arterial blood pressure occurring during the ventricular relaxation between heartbeats

diastolic

65

The basal lamina is the non-cellular, proteinacious material that surrounds the capillary _____ cells and separates it from adjacent connective tissue

endothelial

66

A ____ is an autonomic, negative feedback response to changes in blood pressure

baroreflex

67

Name the mechanism that describes the ability of a tissue to adjust its own blood supply through vasomotion or angiogenesis

autoregulation

68

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is primarily determined by which protein?

albumin

69

Lower blood pressure during pulmonary circulation is ideal because

it allows more time for gas exchanges and capillaries can engage in absorption to prevent fluid accumulation

70

Vasodilation occurs due to _____ of the tunica media and the outward pressure of the blood exerted against the wall

relaxation

71

An excess of carbon dioxide in the blood is known as

hypercapnia

72

The tunica ____ lines the inside of the vessel and is exposed to the blood

interna

73

Regarding vessel diameter, widespread _____ raises the blood pressure, while widespread _____ lowers it

vasoconstriction

vasodilation

74

The most prominent veins which carry blood from the shoulder region back to the heart are the

subclavian

brachiocephalic

superior vena cava

75

Degenerative changes of blood vessels characterized by the presence of atheromas and often leading to calcification of the vessel wall is known as

atherosclerosis

76

In the coronary blood vessels, _____ and ______ bind to B-adrenergic receptors an cause vasodilation

nonepinephrine and epinephrine

77

The nucleus in the medulla oblongata that transmits efferent signals to the blood vessels and regulates vasomotion is known as the _____ center

vasomotor

78

Blood pressure is determined by which three variables?

blood volume

resistance to flow

cardiac output

79

A collateral route of blood supplied to a tissues is called an

anastomosis

80

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) supplies blood to the

brain

81

The thorax receives blood from several arteries which arise directly from the

aorta

82

A deficiency of oxygen in any tissue is known as

hypoxia

83

If a thrombus blocked blood flow deep in the brachial artery, blood could still reach the forearm via the

superior ulnar collateral artery

brachial artery

84

They physical force exerted by a liquid against a surface such as a capillary wall is called ________ pressure

hydrostatic

85

The left common carotid artery branches off of the

aortic arch

86

The visceral branches of the thoracic aorta include

bronchial arteries

esophageal arteries

mediastinal arteries

87

All of the following are arterial pressure points that are easily palpated EXCEPT

common iliac artery

88

________ are irregular blood-filled spaces in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and some organs

sinusoids

89

Vasoconstriction primarily results from contraction of the tunica

media

90

All forms of circulatory shock fall into two categories

cardiogenic shock

low venous return shock

91

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is called _____ pressure

pulse

92

Which of the following are vasoactive chemicals?

prostaglandins

bradykinin

histamine

93

The flow of blood back to the heart is called

venous return

94

The feedback response to blood chemistry changes is called a

chemoreflex


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