1) What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
A) depth perception
B) color vision
C) vision in dim light
D) accommodation for near vision
2) What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
A) aqueous humor
3) Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
B) semicircular canals
C) tympanic membrane
4) Presbyopia is not ________.
A) the loss of elasticity of the lens
B) the unequal curvature of refracting surfaces
C) common in individuals over 50
D) called ʺold personʹs visionʺ
5) The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.
A) lacrimal glands
B) ciliary gland
D) tarsal glands
6) The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
A) semicircular canals
D) cochlear duct
7) Farsightedness is more properly called ________.
8) Inhibitory cells in the olfactory bulbs are called ________.
A) mitral cells
B) granule cells
C) sustentacular cells
D) basal cells
9) Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
B) external auditory meatus
C) tympanic membrane
D) pharyngotympanic tube
10) Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.
A) go to the superior colliculus only
B) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma
C) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma
11) Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can
be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
A) is not a living tissue
B) has no nerve supply
C) has no blood supply
D) does not contain connective tissue
12) The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?
A) scala vestibuli
B) external auditory meatus
C) pharyngotympanic tube
D) scala tympani
13) There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form
the optic nerves?
A) bipolar cells
B) ganglion cells
C) cone cells
D) rod cells
14) The first ʺway stationʺ in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial
crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.
A) superior colliculi
B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
C) visual cortex
D) temporal lobe
15) As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.
A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
B) outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
C) inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
D) inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
16) Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?
A) In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic.
B) The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli.
C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
D) All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation.
17) Taste buds are not found ________.
A) in fungiform papillae
B) in filiform papillae
C) in circumvallate papillae
D) lining the buccal cavity
18) Select the correct statement about olfaction.
A) Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.
B) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
C) Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.
D) Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.
19) Photoreceptors ________.
A) replicate to replace damaged cells, in order to maintain normal vision
B) package visual pigment in membrane-bound discs, which increases the efficiency of
C) possess an inner segment, which is the receptor region
D) called cones possess a short conical inner segment
20) Olfactory glands function to ________.
A) produce olfactory cells
B) assist in detection of odors
C) produce Ca+ ions that are taken up by the olfactory receptor cells for their use
D) secrete mucus
21) U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.
22) The ciliary body does not ________.
A) belong to the anterior chamber of the eye
B) pull on the ciliary zonule
C) secrete aqueous humor
D) attach to the iris
23) What is a modiolus?
A) bone in the center of a semicircular canal
B) bone around the cochlea
C) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
D) a bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves
24) Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
A) The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.
B) Vitamin supplements will reverse degenerative changes.
C) Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.
D) The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function.
25) Dark adaptation ________.
A) is much faster than light adaptation
B) results in inhibition of rod function
C) involves improvement of acuity and color vision
D) involves accumulation of rhodopsin
26) Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.
B) occipital lobe of the cortex
D) superior colliculus
27) The optic radiations project to the ________.
A) medial retina
B) lateral geniculate body
C) primary visual cortex
D) optic chiasma
28) Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.
A) pretectal nuclei
B) lateral geniculate body
C) superior colliculi
D) suprachiasmatic nucleus
29) Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
A) motor cortex
B) visual cortex
C) brain stem reflex centers
D) back muscles
30) Motion sickness seems to ________.
A) respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins
B) respond best to medication that ʺboostsʺ vestibular inputs
C) result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem
D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
31) In the uterus ________.
A) the fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made
B) the fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are
C) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are
D) scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy
32) Most newborns ________.
A) are myopic
B) often use only one eye at a time
C) see in tones of red and green only
D) cry with copious tears
33) The blind spot of the eye is ________.
A) where more rods than cones are found
B) where the macula lutea is located
C) where only cones occur
D) where the optic nerve leaves the eye
34) The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.
B) optic discs
C) optic vesicles
D) optic cups
35) Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?
A) frequency: loudness
B) quality: multiple frequencies
C) frequency: pitch
D) frequency: wavelength
36) Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
A) substances in solution
B) stretching of the receptor cells
C) the movement of otoliths
D) movement of a cupula
37) Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?
A) macula lutea
B) optic chiasma
C) fovea centralis
D) optic disk
38) The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.
A) rods and cones
B) bipolar cells
C) ganglion cells
D) amacrine cells
39) During dark adaptation ________.
A) the sensitivity of the retina decreases
B) the rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated
C) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
D) the cones are activated
40) Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.
A) Ménièreʹs syndrome
D) motion sickness
41) Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?
A) They are ciliated.
B) They are unipolar neurons.
C) They are chemoreceptors.
D) They have a short life span of about 60 days.
42) An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.
A) spiral organ (of Corti)
C) scala media
43) Which of the following is true about light and vision?
A) Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.
B) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for
the color being experienced.
C) Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium of
relatively less density.
D) The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of
44) The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.
A) is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate
B) is connected to the superior rectus muscle
C) is connected to the levator palpebrae
D) assists in the act of winking
45) Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?
A) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
B) In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.
C) Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.
D) If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color
perceived is black.
46) Select the correct statement about equilibrium.
A) The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the
maculae is responsible for static equilibrium.
B) Cristae respond to angular acceleration.
C) Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate
of impulse transmission.
D) Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body
continues at a constant rate.
47) The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.
A) lateral rectus
B) superior oblique
C) inferior oblique
D) medial rectus
48) The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.
A) basal cells
B) gustatory hairs
C) fungiform papillae
D) taste buds
49) Light passes through the following structures in which order?
A) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
C) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor
D) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor
50) Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.
D) pupil constriction
51) Which statement about sound localization is not true?
A) It requires processing at the cortical level.
B) It requires input from both ears.
C) It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.
D) It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.
52) As sound intensity increases, we hear the sound as a louder sound at the same pitch. This
suggests that ________.
A) 540-Hz-receptive cells are particularly refractory
B) cochlear cells that respond to the same pitch vary in responsiveness
C) the timing of the cochlear vibrations encodes the pitch
D) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are building up in the auditory cortex
53) Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?
A) impacted cerumen
B) middle ear infection
C) cochlear nerve degeneration
54) Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
A) depth perception
B) high-acuity vision
C) night vision
D) movement perception
55) ________ is a disorder of the olfactory nerves.
A) Uncinate fits
56) Visible light fits between ________.
A) X rays and UV
B) gamma rays and infrared
C) microwaves and radio waves
D) UV and infrared
57) Ceruminous glands are ________.
A) saliva glands found at the base of the tongue
B) modified apocrine sweat glands
C) glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
D) modified taste buds