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Non-Vascular & Seedless Vascular plants, & Seed plants

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created 2 years ago by tiffanyxapril
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updated 2 years ago by tiffanyxapril

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1

Cuticle

Waxy layers on plant tissues to prevent water loss

2

Cellulose

Main component of cell walls

3

Rhizoids

single cell filaments that anchor bryophytes (NOT ROOTS!!!)

4

Gymnosperms

seed plants

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Angiosperms

flowering plants

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Strobilus

cone (gymnosperms) or cone-like structure (seedless nonvascular) formed of groups of modified leaves that produce sporangia

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Vascular tissue

tissue specialized for transport of substances

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Xylem

conducts water from roots to leaves

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Phloem

distributes sugars and other organic substances through the plants

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Pollen

a male gametophyte enclosed in a wall produced by the sporophyte

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Ovule

contains the female gametophyte enclosed in a protective layer produced by sporophyte- there may be many ovules in an ovary

12

Seed

an embryo (2n) and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coat

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Double fertilization

occurs in angiosperms- one pollen nucleus fertilizes the egg (creating a zygote= [2n] sporophyte)

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Endosperm

tissue that surrounds embryo that provides nutrients, derived from the triploid cells produced during double fertilization

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Cotyledon

seed leaves produced by the developing angiosperm embryo (within the seed)

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Fruit

a mature ovary encasing mature ovules

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Seed plants

have vascular tissue, can be large, sporophyte is dominant structure, produce pollen and seeds

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Sporophyte

diploid multi-cellular stage, produced by joining sperm and egg. Sporocytes within will undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells (called spores) which are released and will grow into gametophytes

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Megaspore

female

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Microspore

male

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Gametophyte

multicellular, gamete-producing structure. Can produce both eggs and sperm on one structure or may be separate structures. Haploid, produces gametes by mitosis

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mitosis

asexual reproduction

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meiosis

sexual reproduction

24

how do non-vascular plants acquire water?

osmosis

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how do non-vascular plants acquire minerals?

diffusion

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Mosses phyla:

Bryophyta

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Liverworts phyla:

Hepatophyta

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Hornworts phyla:

Anthocerotophyta

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Alternation of generations

1st generation---> gametophytes

2nd generation--->sporophytes (diploid) creates spores (asexual)

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Antheridia

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where males make sperm through mitosis

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Archegonia

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where female makes eggs through mitosis

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non-vascular reproduction

sperm goes down tube into feale where is forms a sporophyte which grows out into a calyptra, underneath forms a capsule full of thousands of diploid spores. when capsule is mature it cracks open and will release if air is humid enough.

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Hepatophyta marchantia

Liverworts

non-vascular

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Anthocerophyta anthoceros

Hornworts

non-vascular

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Non-Vascular

lack vascular tissue, generally small in size, gametophyte is dominant (larger) structure

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Seedless vascular

have vascular tissue, can be large, sporophyte is dominant structure

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Lycophyta selagiella

Spikemoss

seedless vascular

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Bryophyta antheridia

Moss

non-vascular

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Bryophyta archegonial

Moss

non-vascular

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Lycophyta lycopodium

clubmoss

seedless vascular

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41

Dicot

leaves are netlike, 2 first leaves, taproot present, 2 cotyledons, floral parts arranged in 4 or 5, & vascular bundles arranged in a ring.

42

Monocot

leaves run in parallel, 1 first leaf, 1 cotyledons, floral parts arranged in 3, & vascular bundles scattered


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