Non-Vascular & Seedless Vascular plants, & Seed plants
Waxy layers on plant tissues to prevent water loss
Main component of cell walls
single cell filaments that anchor bryophytes (NOT ROOTS!!!)
cone (gymnosperms) or cone-like structure (seedless nonvascular) formed of groups of modified leaves that produce sporangia
tissue specialized for transport of substances
conducts water from roots to leaves
distributes sugars and other organic substances through the plants
a male gametophyte enclosed in a wall produced by the sporophyte
contains the female gametophyte enclosed in a protective layer produced by sporophyte- there may be many ovules in an ovary
an embryo (2n) and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coat
occurs in angiosperms- one pollen nucleus fertilizes the egg (creating a zygote= [2n] sporophyte)
tissue that surrounds embryo that provides nutrients, derived from the triploid cells produced during double fertilization
seed leaves produced by the developing angiosperm embryo (within the seed)
a mature ovary encasing mature ovules
have vascular tissue, can be large, sporophyte is dominant structure, produce pollen and seeds
diploid multi-cellular stage, produced by joining sperm and egg. Sporocytes within will undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells (called spores) which are released and will grow into gametophytes
multicellular, gamete-producing structure. Can produce both eggs and sperm on one structure or may be separate structures. Haploid, produces gametes by mitosis
how do non-vascular plants acquire water?
how do non-vascular plants acquire minerals?
Alternation of generations
1st generation---> gametophytes
2nd generation--->sporophytes (diploid) creates spores (asexual)
where males make sperm through mitosis
where female makes eggs through mitosis
sperm goes down tube into feale where is forms a sporophyte which grows out into a calyptra, underneath forms a capsule full of thousands of diploid spores. when capsule is mature it cracks open and will release if air is humid enough.
lack vascular tissue, generally small in size, gametophyte is dominant (larger) structure
have vascular tissue, can be large, sporophyte is dominant structure
leaves are netlike, 2 first leaves, taproot present, 2 cotyledons, floral parts arranged in 4 or 5, & vascular bundles arranged in a ring.
leaves run in parallel, 1 first leaf, 1 cotyledons, floral parts arranged in 3, & vascular bundles scattered