The structure and function of both male and female reproductive systemes depend on interactions among the
At puberty, extrahypothalamic factors cause the hypothalamus to secrete..... Finish the cycle
When is puberty complete in females and males?
What is the uterus?
What are its three layers?
What is happening in the uterus when a female is going to menstruate?
Ovaries are the site of
The female sex hormones are involved in
Although they are primarly male sex hormones, androgens in women are recursors of female
Estrogen (primarily estradiol) is produced by cells in the developing
Progesterone is produced by cells of the
Menstrual cycle 3 phases
Ovarian events of the menstrual cycle---> gonadotropins and follicular secretion of inhibin
Cyclic changes in hormones levels also cause
Milk production occurs in response to
Describe the hormonal stimulation of the reproductive systems; note characteristics of puberty
Describe the phases of the menstrual cycle, noting its differential hormonal effects
In 95% of cases of delayed puberty,
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
is a condition in which excessive androgen production is triggered by inappropriate secretion of gonadal androgen production is triggered by inappropriate secretion of gonadotropins. This hormonal imbalance prevents ovulation and causes enlargement and cyst formation in the ovaries, excessive endometrial proliferation, and often hirsutism.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
is the cyclic recurrence of physical, psychological, or behavioral changes distressing enough to disrupt normal activities or interpersonal relationships. Emotional symptoms, particularly depression, anger, irritability, and fatigue, are reported as the most distressing symptoms; physical symptoms tend to less problematic. Treatment is symptomatic and includes self-help techniques, lifestyle changes, counseling, and medication.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Benign ovarian cysts develop from
Leiomyomas, also called uterine fibroids
Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrial tissue
Most cancers of the female genitalia involve the
Cervical cancer arises from the cervical epithelium and is triggered by
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include exposure to
risk factors for ovarian cancer include
Urethritis causes urinary symptoms
Phimosis and paraphimosis are
penile disorders involving the foreskin, In phimosis, the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans, in paraphimosis the foreskin is retracted and cannot be reduced (returned to its normal anatomic position overall the galns). Phimosis is causes by poor hygiene and chronic infection and can lead to paraphimosis. Paraphimosis can constrict to penile blood vessels, preventing virulation to the glans
Peyronie diseaase consits of
Priapism is a prolonged q
Priapism is associated with
A varicocele is an abnormal dilation
Cryptorchidism is a congenital condition in which
Testicular torsion is the rotation of the a
Benign prostatic hyperlasia (BPH)
also called benign prostatic hypertrophy
Prostate cancer is the
the most common cancer in American males, and the incidence varies greatly worldwide. Possible causes include genetic predispositon, environmental and dietary factors, inflammation, and alterations in levels of hormones (testosterone, dihydotertosterone, and estradiol)
and growth factors. Incidence is greatest among northwestern European and North American men (particularly black) older than 65 years
Non proliferatic lesions include
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
refers to a heterogeneous group of lesions, presumably malignant epithelial cells, within the ductual system. Because presumably malignant epithelial cells, within the ductal system. Because not all DCIS lesions progress to invasion or become clinically significant, the main concern is which DCIS lesions become invasive. Lobular carcinnoma in situ (LCIS) originates form the duc-lobular unit.
Brest cancer is the most
The major risk factors for breast cancer are
The exact molecular events leading to breast invasion are complex and not completely understood.
Most breast cancers arise from
The first clinical manifestation of breast cancer is
Luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary stimulates the
luteum to secrete
PMS is the
exaggerated feelings of depression with psychosocial
impairment known as
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)
Heavy or irregular bleeding caused by
disturbance of menstrual cycle
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
DUB and amenorrhea
Causes of amenorrhea include
PID is an acute inflammatory process caused by
Most cases of PID are caused by
sexually transmitted microorganisms
that ascend from the vagina to the uterus, fallopian
tubes, and ovaries.
PID is considered a polymicrobial infection with the
majority of cases being caused by gonorrheal or chlamydial
microbes, such as anaerobes and facultative organisms.
These organisms may induce a response that causes
necrosis with repeated infections and may predispose a
woman to PID. After one episode of pelvic infection,
15% to 25% of women experience long-term sequelae
such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain,
and pelvic adhesions. The incidence of complications
increases markedly with repeated infections.
Urethritis is an
inflammatory process usually caused
by sexually transmitted microorganisms
`Symptoms of urethritis include urethral tingling
or itching or a burning sensation during urination.
Frequency, urgency, and purulent or clear mucus-like
discharge from the urethra may occur. Treatment is
appropriate antibiotic therapy for infectious urethritis and
avoidance of mechanical irritation.
Phimosis and paraphimosis are both disorders in
penile foreskin, or prepuce, is “too tight”
to be moved easily over the glans penis. In phimosis,
the foreskin cannot be retracted back over the glans;
in paraphimosis, the foreskin is retracted and cannot
be moved forward to cover the glans. Phimosis can
occur at any age and is most commonly caused by
poor hygiene and chronic infection.
Peyronie disease is a fibrotic condition that causes
Varicocele is an
of a vein within the spermatic cord
is incompetence or congenital absence of
valves in the spermatic veins that normally prevent backflow
of blood. Thus, blood pools in the veins rather than
flowing into the venous system. Decreased blood flow
through the testis interferes with spermatogenesis and
can cause infertility.
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both
testes fail to descend into the scrotum
is associated with lowered
sperm count and impaired fertility. Undescended testes
are susceptible to neoplastic processes. Treatment often
begins with administration of human chorionic gonadotropin.
If hormonal therapy is not successful, the testis is
located and moved into the scrotum surgically.
Torsion of the testis is a condition
wherein the testis
rotates on its vascular pedicle; this position interrupts its
blood supply. Onset may be spontaneous, or torsion may
follow physical exertion or trauma. If the torsion cannot
be reduced manually, surgery must be performed within
6 hours after the onset of symptoms to preserve normal
or inflammation of the epididymis,generally occurs in sexually active young males. In young men, the usual cause is a sexually transmitted microorganism.
Acute and severe scrotal or inguinal pain is caused
inflammation of the epididymis and surrounding tissues.
The individual may have pyuria and bacteriuria and a
history of urinary symptoms, including urethral discharge.
Complications of epididymitis include abscess
formation, infarction of the testis, recurrent infection,
scarring of epididymal endothelium, and infertility.
BPH, formerly called benign prostatic hypertrophy,
causes problems as
Prostatitis is an
or inappropriate lactation, is the persistent
and sometimes excessive secretion of a milky
fluid from the breast of a woman who is not pregnant or
nursing an infant.
excessive prolactin in the blood unrelated
to pregnancy or childbirth. This excess prolactin can be
caused by any factor that stimulates prolactin secretion
from the pituitary gland, that interferes with prolactininhibiting
factor (PIF), which inhibits prolactin secretion
(probable dopamine), or that interferes with pituitary
receptors for PIF.
Gynecomastia is the
overdevelopment of breast tissue
in a male.
Gynecomastia usually involves an imbalance of
estrogen-testosterone ratio. The ratio can be altered by
tumor- and drug-induced hyperestrogenism, which raises
the estrogen levels while testosterone levels remain normal.
Gynecomastia also can be caused by increased breast
tissue responsiveness to estrogen or decreased responsiveness