Bio Exam 3

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1

Purines

have a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring

A & G

2

Pyrimidines

Have a single-six membered ring

T, C, U

3

DNA

Deoxyribose

have two polynucleotides spiraling around an imaginary axis, forming a double helix

the two backbones run in opposite 5¢→ 3¢ directions from each other, an arrangement referred to as antiparallel

1 DNA molecule has many genes

provides directions for its own replication

directs synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and, through mRNA, controls protein synthesis

provides directions for its own replication

4

RNA

Ribose

usually exist as single polypeptide chains

5

Polynucleotide--> nucleotide

Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups

The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group is called a nucleoside

6

Watson and Crick

built models of a double helix to conform to the X-rays and chemistry of DNA

Watson built a model in which the backbones were antiparallel (their subunits run in opposite directions)

7

TH Morgan

shows that genes are located on chromosomes

genes are responsible for inherited traits

Believed that proteins were responsible for inheritance since they are a much more complex molecule than DNA

8

Frederick Griffith

Is it DNA or Protein that carries hereditary information

Worked w/ 2 strains of a bacterium, mixed heat-killed remains of the pathogenic strain w/ living cells of the harmless strain, some become pathogenic

"transformation"= a change in genotype & phenotype due to assimilation of foreign DNA

9

Replication bubble

card image
10

helicase

Helicase unwinds DNA

11

single-strands binding proteins

...

12

topoisomerase

Travels ahead of the replication fork and induces (-) supercoils in the DNA to counteract the (+) supercoils induced by unwinding

13

primase

adds an RNA primer which will be the basis for elongation

14

DNA polymerase III

creates lagging strand

15

DNA polymerase I

can remove RNA nucleotides and fill in the gap with DNA nucleotides

16

Ligase

Ends of Okazaki fragments must be joined together

DNA ligase can join the 5’ end of one DNA molecule with the 3’ end of another

17

Leading

Synthesis of leading strands is continuous in the 5’ to 3’ direction

18

Why is an RNA primer needed to start replication of DNA

...

19

What is an Okazaki fragment and how are they eventually joined together to form a continuous DNA strand

Part of lagging strand that's cut by DNA polymerase III into a series of segments

DNA ligase can join the 5’ end of one DNA molecule with the 3’ end of another

20

Replication of circular vs Linear chromosomes

Bacteria (prokaryotic)

–Circular genome

–Single DNA molecule

–1 origin of replication

Humans (eukaryotic)

–Linear genome

–Multiple linear chromosomes

–Multiple origins of replication on each chromosome

21

What do telomeres do for Eukaryotic chromosomes and why are they necessary

Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules have special repetitive, non-coding nucleotide sequences at their ends called telomeres

Telomeres do not prevent the shortening of DNA molecules, but they do postpone the erosion of genes near the ends of DNA molecules

22

Chromatins

a complex of DNA and protein, is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

Why does the DNA need to be tightly packed: to prepare for cell division/condenses prior to mitosis

What do histone proteins do in the process of packaging DNA into chromatin:

How does chromatin structure affect transcription: Dense packing of the heterochromatin (highly condensed chromatin) makes it difficult for the cell to express genetic information coded in these regions

23

DNA polymerase

Enzymes called DNA polymerases catalyze the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork

Most DNA polymerases require a primer and a DNA template strand

DNA polymerases add nucleotides only to the free 3' end of a growing strand; therefore, a new DNA strand can elongate only in the 5' to 3' direction

24

Lagging strand

To elongate the other new strand, called the lagging strand, DNA polymerase must work in the direction away from the replication fork

Primase must assemble new primers

The lagging strand is synthesized by DNA polymerase III as a series of segments called Okazaki fragments

25

Transcription

...

26

Transcription: Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells

...

27

What is a promoter and what does it do for transcription?

...

28

How does RNA polymerase work?

...

29

Elongation

...

30

Termination

...

31

How are Eukaryotic transcripts modified and for what purpose

...

32

5' Cap

...

33

3' poly-A tail

...

34

What effects can splicing have on potential mRNA molecules

...

35

What is a spliceosome & what role do nRNA molecules play in splicing

...

36

Translation Initiation Complex

...

37

mRNA

Small Subunit of Ribosome

Large Subunit of Ribosome

...

38

What's the first codon that begins translation and how does it define the 5' UTR

...

39

Structure + function of tRNA

How does it bridge the gap between mRNA codons & specific amino acids

...

40

When does translation end and why

...

41

DNA mutations

...

42

What effect does each DNA mutation have on the protein produced from that gene

...

43

Figure out the change in amino acid sequence caused by a specific mutation in a DNA sequence

...

44

Understand the reasons why a cell needs to regulate the expression of the genes contained in its genome

...

45

Know the complexity of gene regulation in Eukaryotes and how it differs from Prokaryotes

...

46

Understand the typical prokaryotic gene regulation mechanisms

...

47

Operon

...

48

How and why is the trip operon regulated

...

49

Understand the many mechanisms for regulating eukaryotic gene expression

...

50

Chromatin structure and DNA availability

...

51

Enhancer regions and combinations of multiple control elements

...

52

The availability of activators for specific control elements

...

53

The importance of differential gene expression to organismal development

...

54

Be familiar with the common mechanisms used in Drosophila development to control differential gene expression and establish polarity and specific developmental patterns

...

55

Understand the relationship between the control of gene expression and cancer

...

56

Know the difference between oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes including important examples of each type

...

57

Be aware of the intrinsic connection between cancer, DNA mutation and the cell cycle

...


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