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Ch 16 The ANS &Higher-Order Functions

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1

1) The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest."

A) sympathetic

B) parasympathetic

C) thoracolumbar

D) visceral

E) somatomotor

B) parasympathetic

2

2) The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?

A) somatic division

B) craniosacral division

C) resting division

D) thoracolumbar division

E) lumbosacral division

D) thoracolumbar division

3

3) Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on

A) postganglionic fibers.

B) visceral reflex responses.

C) motor neurons.

D) ganglionic neurons.

E) afferent neurons

D) ganglionic neurons

4

4) Which statement is true regarding the somatic nervous system as compared to the autonomic nervous system?

  1. A) Both divisions carry outgoing motor information.
  2. B) Both divisions carry information to visceral organs.
  3. C) The somatic NS requires more neurons than the autonomic pathways.
  4. D) There are no reflexes within the somatic NX, while there are many within the autonomic NS.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

A) Both divisions carry outgoing motor information

5

5) Preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in

  1. A) the brain.
  2. B) the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.
  3. C) the posterior gray horns of the spinal cord.
  4. D) both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.
  5. E) the cerebrum

D) both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord

6

6) Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as

  1. A) smooth muscle.
  2. B) cardiac muscle.
  3. C) adipose tissue.
  4. D) glands.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

7

7) The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state?

  1. A) exertion
  2. B) trauma
  3. C) digestion
  4. D) stress
  5. E) exercise

C) digestion

8

8) A visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a(n)________ neuron.

  1. A) upper motor
  2. B) lower motor
  3. C) preganglionic
  4. D) postganglionic
  5. E) somatomotor

C) preganglionic

9

9) Craniosacral division is another name for the

  1. A) sympathetic division of the ANS.
  2. B) parasympathetic division of the ANS.
  3. C) somatic nervous system.
  4. D) afferent nervous system.
  5. E) central nervous system

B) parasympathetic division of the ANS

10

10) Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ________ and have ________ axons.

  1. A) short; myelinated
  2. B) short; unmyelinated
  3. C) long; myelinated
  4. D) long; unmyelinated
  5. E) intermediate; small

A) short; myelinated

11

11) In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located?

  1. A) cervical and sacral segments of the spinal cord
  2. B) sacral segments of the spinal cord
  3. C) brain stem
  4. D) thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
  5. E) cerebellum

D) thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord

12

12) In what ways do the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system interact?

  1. A) One division may counterbalance the other division.
  2. B) Occasionally only one division communicates with an organ.
  3. C) Both divisions may work together for the function of an organ or a process.
  4. D) One division may increase function of an organ, while the other division inhibits it.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

13

13) Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the

  1. A) lateral gray horns of the cervical cord.
  2. B) anterior gray horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord.
  3. C) lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord.
  4. D) anterior gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord.
  5. E) lateral gray horns of T1 to S2 of the spinal cord

C) lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

14

14) Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia.

  1. A) intramural
  2. B) collateral
  3. C) chain
  4. D) prevertebral
  5. E) suprarenal

C) chain

15

15) Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.

  1. A) intramural
  2. B) collateral
  3. C) chain
  4. D) paravertebral
  5. E) suprarenal

B) collateral

16

16) Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the

  1. A) heart.
  2. B) pupils.
  3. C) sweat glands.
  4. D) digestive tract.
  5. E) arrector pili muscles

D) digestive tract

17

17) Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to

  1. A) dilate the right pupil.
  2. B) constrict the right pupil.
  3. C) dilate the left pupil.
  4. D) constrict the left pupil.
  5. E) smile and frown

A) dilate the right pupil

18

18) Postganglionic axons usually are

  1. A) myelinated.
  2. B) unmyelinated.
  3. C) larger than preganglionic fibers.
  4. D) located in the brain.
  5. E) located in the spinal cord

B) unmyelinated

19

19) Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to

  1. A) relaxation of the urinary sphincter.
  2. B) increased heart rate.
  3. C) conversion of liver glycogen reserves into glucose.
  4. D) activation of ventral sweat glands.
  5. E) increased gastric motility

C) conversion of liver glycogen reserves into glucose

20

20) Injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the

  1. A) heart.
  2. B) pupils.
  3. C) salivary glands.
  4. D) lungs.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

21

21) Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?

  1. A) thoracic
  2. B) pelvic
  3. C) abdominal
  4. D) craniosacral
  5. E) abdominopelvic

E) abdominopelvic

22

22) Sympathetic nerves

  1. A) provoke feelings of sympathy.
  2. B) allow us to relax, rest, and recover.
  3. C) contains short preganglionic fibers and longer postganglionic fibers.
  4. D) control swallowing.
  5. E) stimulate gastric secretion

C) contains short preganglionic fibers and longer postganglionic fibers

23

23) Preganglionic fibers that innervate the collateral ganglia form the

  1. A) suprarenal medulla.
  2. B) celiac ganglia.
  3. C) sympathetic chain ganglia.
  4. D) inferior mesenteric ganglia.
  5. E) splanchnic nerves.

E) splanchnic nerves

24

24) The celiac ganglia innervate which of the following?

  1. A) liver
  2. B) spleen
  3. C) stomach
  4. D) pancreas

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

25

25) The suprarenal medullae secrete

  1. A) medullin.
  2. B) epinephrine.
  3. C) norepinephrine.
  4. D) renin.
  5. E) both epinephrine and norepinephrine

E) both epinephrine and norepinephrine

26

26) During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs.

  1. A) elevated heart rate
  2. B) elevated blood pressure
  3. C) sweating
  4. D) elevated blood glucose
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

27

27) Specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the

  1. A) intramural ganglia.
  2. B) collateral ganglia.
  3. C) chain ganglia.
  4. D) brain stem.
  5. E) suprarenal medullae.

E) suprarenal medullae

28

28) Postganglionic fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within

  1. A) intramural ganglia.
  2. B) collateral ganglia.
  3. C) sympathetic chain ganglia.
  4. D) suprarenal ganglia.
  5. E) white rami.

C) sympathetic chain ganglia

29

29) Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers except

  1. A) increased sweat secretion.
  2. B) reduced circulation to the skin.
  3. C) decreased heart rate.
  4. D) dilation of the pupils.
  5. E) increased blood flow to skeletal muscles.

C) decreased heart rate

30

30) Splanchnic nerves

  1. A) originate from first-order neurons located in the upper five thoracic segments of the spinal cord.
  2. B) innervate the viscera or internal organs.
  3. C) control sympathetic function of structures in the thorax.
  4. D) connect chain ganglia.
  5. E) are formed of parasympathetic fibers

B) innervate the viscera or internal organs

31

31) Autonomic disorders would not cause

  1. A) excessive perspiration.
  2. B) appetite.
  3. C) sexual arousal.
  4. D) problems in maintenance of blood pressure.
  5. E) problems related to skeletal muscle function

E) problems related to skeletal muscle function

32

32) The celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia are collectively called ________ ganglia.

  1. A) chain
  2. B) collateral
  3. C) intramural
  4. D) paravertebral
  5. E) terminal

B) collateral

33

33) As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed. What organ(s) would you expect to be affected by this injury?

  1. A) left pupil
  2. B) right pupil
  3. C) heart
  4. D) both pupils
  5. E) left pupil and heart

E) left pupil and heart

34

34) A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of

  1. A) sympathetic activation.
  2. B) increased levels of epinephrine in the blood.
  3. C) increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus.
  4. D) the "fight or flight" response.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

D) the "fight or flight" response

35

40) Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem?

  1. A) a drug that blocks alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle
  2. B) a drug that blocks alpha-2 receptors in adipose tissue
  3. C) a drug that increases cAMP levels in cardiac muscle tissue
  4. D) a drug that blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
  5. E) a drug that blocks alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

E) a drug that blocks alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

36

41) Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug?

  1. A) sweating
  2. B) increased heart rate
  3. C) dilation of respiratory passages
  4. D) decreased blood pressure
  5. E) increased blood sugar level

D) decreased blood pressure

37

42) Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating

  1. A) constipation.
  2. B) diarrhea.
  3. C) excessive salivation.
  4. D) excessive heart rate.
  5. E) prostate disorders

D) excessive heart rate

38

43) Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.

  1. A) acetylcholine
  2. B) nitric oxide
  3. C) norepinephrine
  4. D) ACh
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

39

44) Stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells results in

  1. A) the decrease in ATP production.
  2. B) increased heart rate and force of contraction.
  3. C) decreased force of contraction.
  4. D) slower heart rate.
  5. E) inhibition of the heart muscle

B) increased heart rate and force of contraction

40

45) The neurotransmitter ACH is

  1. A) always excitatory when used in the synapses of the sympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) secreted by the postganglionic nervous.
  3. C) going to reduce the activity of the other neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
  4. D) broken down by monoamine oxidase.
  5. E) a chemical similar to the structure of adrenalin

A) always excitatory when used in the synapses of the sympathetic nervous system

41

46) Which of the following statements is true?

The stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors can lead to

  1. an increase in metabolic activity.
  2. stimulation of airway smooth muscle.
  3. the breakdown of triglycerides within adipocytes.
  4. A) 1
  5. B) 2
  6. C) 3
  7. D) 1 and 3
  8. E) 1, 2, and 3

D) 1 and 3

42

47) An inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that

  1. A) activates β1 adrenergic receptors.
  2. B) activates β2 adrenergic receptors.
  3. C) activates muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
  4. D) blocks β2 adrenergic receptors.
  5. E) activates β2 adrenergic receptors or activates muscarinic cholinergic receptors

B) activates β2 adrenergic receptors

43

48) Which of the following statements about adrenergic receptors is true?

  1. A) They are G proteins.
  2. B) When activated, cAMP levels are affected.
  3. C) Epinephrine activates both alpha and beta types.
  4. D) Norepinephrine activates both alpha and beta types.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

44

49) Most sympathetic effector junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetylcholine instead. Which of these is an example of an organ of the cholinergic type?

  1. A) the heart
  2. B) a blood vessel in the skin
  3. C) a sweat gland
  4. D) the liver
  5. E) the salivary glands

C) a sweat gland

45

50) A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to ________ receptors.

  1. A) nicotinic cholinergic
  2. B) muscarinic cholinergic
  3. C) alpha-1 adrenergic
  4. D) alpha-2 adrenergic
  5. E) beta-1 adrenergic

E) beta-1 adrenergic

46

51) Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels, are

  1. A) sympathetic blocking agents.
  2. B) sympathomimetic.
  3. C) parasympathetic blocking agents.
  4. D) parasympathomimetic.
  5. E) autonomic blocking agents

B) sympathomimetic

47

52) Sympathomimetic drugs might be used to

  1. A) decrease heart rate.
  2. B) decrease blood pressure.
  3. C) dilate airways.
  4. D) increase gastric motility.
  5. E) reduce blood sugar levels

C) dilate airways

48

53) Disorders involving the vagus nerve might cause

  1. A) food to remain in your stomach longer.
  2. B) a drop in blood pressure.
  3. C) constriction of the pupils.
  4. D) more saliva production.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

A) food to remain in your stomach longer

49

54) The statement "It initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is

  1. A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
  3. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  4. D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
  5. E) true only for the somatic nervous system

A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system

50

55) Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following cranial nerves except

  1. A) III.
  2. B) VII.
  3. C) IX.
  4. D) X.
  5. E) XII

E) XII

51

56) Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the ________ nerve(s).

  1. A) splanchnic
  2. B) facial
  3. C) vagus
  4. D) glossopharyngeal
  5. E) trigeminal

C) vagus

52

57) Which of the following is not a parasympathetic ganglion?

  1. A) ciliary
  2. B) pterygopalatine
  3. C) submandibular
  4. D) otic
  5. E) celiac

E) celiac

53

58) Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except

  1. A) decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.
  2. B) constriction of the pupils.
  3. C) dilation of the airways.
  4. D) stimulation of urination.
  5. E) stimulation of defecation

C) dilation of the airways

54

59) Postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors

  1. A) at distinct synapses.
  2. B) at pearl-like swellings called varicosities.
  3. C) into capillaries within the target organ.
  4. D) at the end plates.
  5. E) at sympathetic chain ganglia

B) at pearl-like swellings called varicosities

55

60) Which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false?

  1. A) Preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and sacral region of the spinal cord.
  2. B) Ganglionic neurons are located in ganglia within or near to effectors.
  3. C) Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long.
  4. D) The actions of the parasympathetic division are more localized than those of the sympathetic division.
  5. E) The ganglionic neurons always release acetylcholine

C) Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long

56

61) Which of the following provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?

A) vagus nerves

B) sciatic nerves

C) glossopharyngeal nerves

D) pelvic nerves

E) cervicothoracocabdominopelvic nerves

A) vagus nerves

57

62) Parasympathetic stimulation

A) increases heart rate.

B) increases gastric motility.

C) causes sweat glands to secrete.

D) causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate.

E) causes the pupils to dilate.

B) increases gastric motility

58

63) Intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ________ nerves.

A) spinal

B) splanchnic

C) chain

D) pelvic

E) collateral

D) pelvic

59

64) Damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve would likely cause

A) increase in heart rate.

B) problems in sexual arousal.

C) a reduction in saliva.

D) visual problems.

E) urine retention

C) a reduction in saliva

60

65) The statement "Its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is

A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.

C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.

E) true only for the somatic nervous system

A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system

61

66) Sweat glands contain ________ receptors.

A) nicotinic cholinergic

B) muscarinic cholinergic

C) alpha

D) beta

E) adregeneric

B) muscarinic cholinergic

62

67) Nicotinic receptors

A) respond to epinephrine.

B) respond to norepinephrine.

C) open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.

D) can be either excitatory or inhibitory in function.

E) are found at synaptic junctions of the sympathetic nervous system

C) open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.

63

68) Muscarinic receptors

A) are normally activated by acetylcholine.

B) are found mostly in autonomic ganglia.

C) always produce an excitatory response.

D) control sodium channels in the affected membrane.

E) are blocked by norepinephrine

A) are normally activated by acetylcholine

64

69) The statement "Preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine" is

A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.

C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.

E) true only for the somatic nervous system

C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

65

70) A neuron with nicotinic receptors is exposed to acetylcholine. This will lead to

A) activation of chemically-gated ion channels.

B) excitation of the neuron.

C) entry of sodium ions into the neuron.

D) depolarization of the neuron.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

66

71) Drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be

A) sympathomimetic.

B) parasympathomimetic.

C) parasympathetic blocking agents.

D) sympathetic blocking agents.

E) autonomic blocking agents

E) autonomic blocking agents

67

72) Parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating

A) heart failure.

B) high blood pressure.

C) urinary incontinence.

D) hyperactivity.

E) All of the answers are correct

C) urinary incontinence

68

73) A doctor places drops in the eyes to dilate the pupils for an examination. The type of drug that is used is a(n) ________ drug.

  1. sympathomimetic
  2. parasympathomimetic
  3. adrenergic activating
  4. cholinergic activating

A) 1, 2

B) 3

C) 4

D) 1, 3

E) 2, 4

D) 1, 3

69

74) Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe?

A) diarrhea

B) salivation

C) very low heart rate

D) sweating

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

70

75) Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

A) two nerves from the spinal cord.

B) both autonomic and somatomotor nerves.

C) both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.

D) nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord.

E) both sensory and motor nerves

C) both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

71

76) The statement "It controls the diameter of the pupil" is

A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.

C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.

E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

72

77) Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the

A) celiac plexus.

B) hypogastric plexus.

C) cardiac plexus.

D) sphenopalatine ganglia.

E) otic ganglia

C) cardiac plexus

73

78) Control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon

A) sympathetic stimulation only.

B) parasympathetic stimulation only.

C) somatomotor stimulation only.

D) both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation.

E) sensory receptors sensitive to changes in lung ventilation

D) both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation

74

79) Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it

A) allows ANS neurons to be silent under normal conditions.

B) allows ANS neurons to increase activity on demand but not decrease their activity.

C) allows ANS neurons to decrease their activity on demand but not increase their activity.

D) allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.

E) provides for a narrow range of control options that keeps target tissues constantly active

D) allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options

75

80) A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in

A) no change in vessel diameter.

B) a decrease in vessel diameter.

C) oscillation in vessel diameter.

D) a decrease in blood flow through the vessel.

E) an increase in blood flow through the vessel

E) an increase in blood flow through the vessel

76

81) In general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when

A) sympathetic stimulation is increased.

B) sympathetic stimulation is decreased.

C) parasympathetic stimulation is increased.

D) parasympathetic stimulation is decreased.

E) somatomotor stimulation is increased

A) sympathetic stimulation is increased.

77

82) Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex?

A) defecation reflex

B) vomiting reflex

C) pupillary reflex

D) ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

78

83) Which of the following visceral reflexes is not coordinated by the medulla oblongata?

A) swallowing reflex

B) vasomotor reflex

C) coughing reflex

D) cardioacceleratory reflex

E) pupillary reflex

E) pupillary reflex

79

84) Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?

A) gagging on food that does not appeal to you

B) a violent coughing attack in response to an irritant

C) increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

D) dilation of the pupils when you enter a dark room

E) increased salivation when you smell food that appeals to you

C) increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

80

1) The parasympathetic division is also called the ________ division.

A) thoracolumbar

B) craniosacral

C) thoracocranial

D) craniolumbar

E) craniococcygeal

B) craniosacral

81

2) The saying "rest and digest" is the response of the ________ division of the ANS.

A) sympathetic

B) thoracolumbar

C) craniococcygeal

D) sciatic

E) parasympathetic

E) parasympathetic

82

3) The sympathetic division is also called the ________ division.

A) thoracolumbar

B) craniosacral

C) thoracocranial

D) craniolumbar

E) craniococcygeal

A) thoracolumbar

83

4) The ganglia located lateral to the vertebral column are part of the sympathetic

A) chain.

B) tract.

C) decussation.

D) tubes.

E) canal.

A) chain

84

5) Unpaired sympathetic ganglia are called ________ ganglia.

A) contralateral

B) collateral

C) parasympathetic

D) ipsilateral

E) dorsal

B) collateral

85

6) The ________ nervous system stimulates the arrector pili muscles and gives you "goosebumps."

A) parasympathetic

B) afferent

C) dorsal

D) sympathetic

E) somatic

D) sympathetic

86

7) If the receptor on the postsynaptic membrane binds to norepinephrine, the synapse is called

A) cholinergic.

B) anergic.

C) adrenergic.

D) synergic.

E) noradrenergic

C) adrenergic

87

8) Neurons that release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter are called

A) cholinergic.

B) anergic.

C) adrenergic.

D) synergic.

E) noradrenergic.

C) adrenergic

88

9) Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic nerves synapse on neurons located within ________ ganglia.

A) somatic

B) collateral

C) contralateral

D) intramural

E) terminal

D) intramural

89

10) Parasympathetic ganglia that are near the eyes and salivary glands are called ________ ganglia.

A) somatic

B) collateral

C) contralateral

D) intramural

E) terminal

E) terminal

90

11) The level of tonic activity of autonomic neurons determines the ________ of an individual.

A) isotonic tone

B) clonic activity

C) autonomic tone

D) nervous function

E) action potentials

C) autonomic tone

91

12) Most vital organs receive ________ innervation. That is, they receive input from both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

A) single

B) dual

C) biaxial

D) ambitonic

E) autonomic

B) dual

92

13) An autonomic plexus involves

A) both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.

B) ganglia within the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

C) nerve networks.

D) the solar plexus.

E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

93

14) ________ reflexes perform the simplest functions of the autonomic nervous system

A) Somatic

B) Cranial

C) Spinal

D) Visceral

E) Consensual

A) Somatic

94

15) Visceral reflex arcs can bypass CNS neurons in ________ reflexes.

A) short

B) intermediate

C) long

D) hyper

E) spinal

A) short

95

16) The integrative centers for autonomic activity are located in the

A) cerebrum.

B) thalamus.

C) cerebellum.

D) pituitary gland.

E) hypothalamus.

E) hypothalamus


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