Coastal Management: Hard Engineering

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Define the term hard engineering.

Hard engineering is the usage of made made structures such as rock armour and groynes to combat coastal erosion


Give some examples of hard engineering

-Rock Armour
-Sea Wall


How do people use rock armour?

By using large boulders, wave energy can be dispersed before it hits the coast


What are the advantages of using rock armour?

:) Allows beach to build up
:) Effective absorbs wave energy


What are the disadvantages of using rock armour?

:( Expensive to obtain and transport rocks


How do people use sea walls?

A sea wall designed to absorb the impact of a wave, it it is curved, the energy of the wave can be reflected back


What are the advantages of using sea walls?

:) Effectively protects land, cliffs and buildings
:) Can sometimes prevent coastal flooding


What are the disadvantages of using sea walls?

:( Expensive to maintain, after repeated impacts by waves the wall may be eroded and repairs are costly


How do people use gabions?

By filling wish meshes with small rocks and boulders that help absorb wave impact


What are the advantages of using gabions?

:) Cheap and efficient


What are the disadvantages of using gabions?

:( Visually unappealing


What are the general advantages of using hard engineering ?

:) More reliable compared to soft engineering
:) Does not need as much maintenance compared to soft engineering
:) More effective at combating coastal erosion


What are the general disadvantages of using hard engineering ?

:( Expensive to maintain
:( Usually a short term method
:( Visually unattractive

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