exam 3 week 5 lymph system

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Lymphatic system
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1

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

A. keratin B. cilia C. gastric juice D. phagocytes

D. Phagocytes

2

Low-grade fever is an effective defense for short periods of time because it
A. increases iron in the blood.
B. includes pyrogens that destroy the pathogens.
C. increases temperature, which slows the growth of bacteria.
D. slows the attack of phagocytes.
E. forces the person to stay in bed.

C. increases temperature, which slows the growth of bacteria.

3

________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

A. Cytokines B. Perforins C. Interleukin 1 proteins D. Interleukin 2 proteins

A. Cytokines

4

The antibodies produced in allergic reactions
A. are called allergens.
B. are secreted by mast cells.
C. belong to the immunoglobulin E group.
D. attack pathogens or nonself cells.
E. are all of the above

C. belong to the immunoglobulin E group.

5

The formation of lymph increases as a result of
A. increasing osmotic pressure in blood capillaries.
B. increasing hydrostatic pressure in tissue fluid.
C. decreasing volume of tissue fluid.
D. decreasing protein concentration in tissue fluid.
E. increasing the numbers of white blood cells that leave the blood for the lymph

B. increasing hydrostatic pressure in tissue fluid.

6

An antigen is ______, whereas an antibody is ______.
A. a foreign substance such as a protein or a polysaccharide to which lymphocytes respond; a globular protein that reacts with an antigen to eliminate the antigen
B. an immunoglobulin that is produced by lymph nodes in response to bacteria; a foreign protein that enters the body and causes an immune reaction
C. a hapten molecule that is complex in shape; an enzyme produced by the thymus gland that neutralizes antigens
D. only on a pathogen; only in a human body.
E. none of the above

A. a foreign substance such as a protein or a polysaccharide to which lymphocytes respond; a globular protein that reacts with an antigen to eliminate the antigen

7

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits. B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins. C. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling. D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

8

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

A. vasodilation B. vasoconstriction C. phagocyte mobilization D. production of complement and interferon

A. vasodilation

9

When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A. shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage C. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage D. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region

B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage

10

Following a primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells are
A. B cells only.
B. T cells only.
C. both B cells and T cells.
D. neither B cells nor T cells.
E. macrophages and mast cells.

C. both B cells and T cells.

11

Innate defenses are
A. fast and non specific.
B. slow and non specific.
C. fast and specific.
D. slow and specific.
E. obtained by taking vaccines.

A. fast and non specific.

12

Henry has a cut on his thigh that becomes infected. The lymph nodes in his __________ enlarge.
A. cervical region
B. thoracic region
C. inguinal region
D. supratrochlear region
E. trophic region.

c) inguinal region

13

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A.T lymphocytes B.plasma cells C.lymph nodes D.medullary cords

B)plasma cells

14

The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from the

A. scalp and face. B. upper limb and mammary gland. C. thoracic viscera. D. abdominal viscera. E. brain.

B)upper limb and mammary gland

15

T lymphocytes are responsible for

A. programming macrophages. B. producing antibodies. C. cell-mediated immunity. D. humoral immunity. E. producing collectins

C)cell mediated immunity

16

In the cellular immune response

A. B cells produce antibodies directly against antigens. B. T cells produce antibodies directly against antigens. C. T cells attach directly to antigens and destroy them. D. T cells attack healthy body cells. E. T cells activate macrophages.

C. T cells attach directly to antigens and destroy them.

17

Marsha gets a splinter in her finger. What is her body's response to any microbe that might try to enter her body as a result of the splinter breaking the skin?

A. innate defense. B. adaptive defense. C. specific defense. D. cytotoxic T cell response. E. antibody response.

A) innate defense

18

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A.draining excess interstitial fluid B.carrying out immune responses C.transporting dietary fats D.transporting respiratory gases

D)transporting respiratory gases

19

In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

A.antigen B. interferon C.antibody D.complement

A)antigen

20

The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the

A. thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct. B. lumbar duct and left lymphatic duct. C. intestinal duct and left intercostal duct. D. bronchomediastinal duct and subclavian duct. E. none of the above.

A)thorasic duct and right lymphatic duc

21

Stephanie has her cancerous right breast removed, and the surgeon also removes lymph nodes in the axillary region, to prevent spread of the cancer. As a result, Stephanie's right arm

A. loses its blood supply. B. receives too much blood and swells. C. becomes edematous. D. loses tissue fluid. E. becomes paralyzed

C)becomes edematous

22

Clonal selection of B cells ________.

A.occurs during fetal development B.results in the formation of plasma cells C.cannot occur in the presence of antigens D.only occurs in the secondary immune response

B) results in the formation of plasma cells

23

T lymphocytes mature in the thymus in response to

A. cytokines. B. antibodies. C. interferon. D. thymosins. E. thymonucleins.

d thymosins

24

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.

A.regulatory cells B.helper cells C.cytotoxic cells D.plasma cells

c- cytotoxic

25

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

A.carbohydrate structure B.composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains C.three binding sites per antibody monomer D.incapable of being transferred from one person to another

b) composed of heavy and light peptide chains

26

List the functions of the lymphatic vessels.

Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood

Once interstitial fluid enters lymphatics, it is called lymph

Together with lymphoid organs and tissues, provide the structural basis of the immune system

27

Describe the structure and distribution of lymphatic vessels.

1.A network of lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)

One-way valves & Thinner walls than those of veins

2.Lymph 3.Lymph nodes

28

Three layers: Lymph

  1. An endothelial lining (inner)
  2. Smooth muscle (middle)
  3. Connective tissue (outer)
29

Lymph vessels (lymphatics) include

  1. Lymphatic capillaries
  2. Lymphatic collecting vessels
  3. Lymphatic trunks and ducts
30

Lymph is delivered into one of two large ducts

Right lymphatic duct drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax

Thoracic duct arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body

Empties into venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body

31

Capillary blood pressure filters water and small molecules from the plasma.The resulting fluid has:

  1. Much the same consistency as plasma
  2. Contains water and dissolved substances
  3. Contains smaller proteins which create plasma colloid osmotic pressure
32

Lymph Formation

Filtration from the plasma normally exceeds re-absorption, leading to the net formation of tissue fluid

This increases the tissue fluid hydrostatic pressure within interstitial spaces forcing fluid into lymphatic capillaries forming lymph

This process prevents accumulation of excess tissue fluid or edema

33

Lymphatic vessels play a role in____________?

  1. Absorption of dietary fats
  2. Delivering fats to the bloodstream
  3. Collecting of excess interstitial fluids
  4. Delivering excess fluids to the bloodstream
  5. Delivering foreign particles to the lymph nodes
34

Hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid drives the lymph into the lymphatic capillaries. Muscle activity largely influences the movement of lymph through the lymphatic vessels via _____?

  1. Action of skeletal muscles
  2. Respiratory movements
  3. Smooth muscle in the larger lymphatic vessels
  4. Valves in the lymphatic vessels
35

Lymph Nodes

  1. Lymph nodes or lymph glands are located along the lymphatic pathways
  2. They contain lymphocytes and macrophages to fight invading pathogens
36

Lymph nodes are found in groups or chains along the paths of the larger lymphatic vessels throughout the body, including the:

  1. Cervical region Axillary region
  2. Supratrochlear region Inguinal region
  3. Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity
  4. Pelvic cavity
37

Lymph nodes have two primary functions

Filter potentially harmful particles from the lymph

Act with immune surveillance provided by macrophages and lymphocytes

Along with the red bone marrow, the lymph nodes are centers for lymphocyte production

38

T cells and B cells protect against antigens?

Anything the body perceives as foreign: Bacteria and their toxins; viruses & Mismatched RBCs or cancer cells

T-Manage the immune response & Attack and destroy foreign cells(troops) thymus (thymazine)

B-Produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies

39

Macrophages phagocytize foreign substances and help activate

T cells- T helper cells most critical for the immune system

T cells - cytotoxic attack

40

Largest lymphnode

Spleen- left upper quadrant

41

Smallest Lympyh

Tonsils

42

born with

skin

mucous membrane

Innate

43

natural killers - virus and cancer

NK cell

44

mass histamine's

MASS

45

cells capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes

Dendritic

46

cells produce stroma that supports other cells in lymphoid organs

Reticular

47

Which gland?

Replaced by fat and connective tissue in the elderly

Small in an adult (Larger in infancy and during puberty)

Site of T lymphocyte (or T cell) production

Secretes protein hormones called thymosins

Thymus

48

which is the Largest lymph organ?

The largest lymphatic organ upper left abdominal quadrant

Has sinuses filled with blood

Contains two tissue types:

White pulp (lymphocytes)

Red pulp (red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages)

Spleen

49

First responder

Neutrophil

50

***Simplest lymphoid organs****

Form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx

  1. Palatine tonsils—at posterior end of the oral cavity
  2. Lingual tonsils—grouped at the base of the tongue
  3. Pharyngeal tonsil—in posterior wall of the nasopharynx
  4. Tubal tonsils—surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx

Tonsils

51

The body can prevent entry of pathogens or destroy them with defense mechanisms such as

Innate defenses :

Phagocytes

NK cells Inflammation Antimicrobial proteins Fever

Surface barriers

Mucous membranes Skin

  • These are general defenses
  • They protect against many pathogens

Adaptive defenses:

Humoral immunity

  • B cells
  • Cellular immunity T cells
  • Known as immunity
  • More specific and precise targeting specific antigens
  • Are carried out by lymphocytes
52

Surface barriers

Skin, mucous membranes, and their secretions

  1. Keratin is resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxins
  2. Physical barrier to most microorganisms

–Mucosae provide similar mechanical barriers

53

What is Necessary if microorganisms invade deeper tissues?

  1. Phagocytes FEVER
  2. Natural killer (NK) cells
  3. Inflammatory response (macrophages, mast cells, WBCs, and inflammatory chemicals)
  4. Antimicrobial proteins (interferons and complement proteins)
54

Natural Killer (NK) Cells

  • NK cells are a small population of lymphocytes defending against viruses and cancer by secreting cytolytic substances called perforins that destroy the infected cell
  • NK may also enhance inflammation
55
  • Triggered whenever body tissues are injured or infected
  • Prevents the spread of damaging agents
  • Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
  • Sets the stage for repair

Inflammation

56

1.Redness- Erythromin

2.Heat- Calor

3.Swelling- edema

4.Pain- dolor

5. Impairment of function

Cardinal signs of acute inflammation

57

removes foreign particles from the lymph

  • are also in the blood vessels and in the tissues of the spleen, liver or bone marrow
  • The most active phagocytic cells are neutrophils and monocytes: neutrophils are most phagocytic
  • Chemicals attract these phagocytic cells to the injury and this is called chemotaxis

Phagocytosis

58
  1. Phagocyte adheres to pathogens or debris.
  2. Phagocyte forms pseudopods that eventually engulf the particles forming a phagosom.
  3. Lysosome fuses with the phagocytic vesicle, forming a phagolysosome.
  4. Lysosomal enzymes digest the particles, leaving a residual body.
  5. Exocytosis of the vesicle removes indigestible and residual material

Events of phagocytosis

59

A ______ begins when a viral or bacterial infection stimulates lymphocytes to proliferate, producing cells that secrete a substance called interleukin-1 (IL-1)

fever

60
  • This is the third line of defense and known as immunity
  • It is resistance to particular pathogens or to their toxins or metabolic by-products
  • It is based on the ability to distinguish molecules that are part of the body (“self” from “non-self”)
  • Antigens are molecules that can elicit an immune response

Adaptive (Specific) Defenses or Immunity

61
  • Proteins
  • Polysaccharides
  • Glycoproteins
  • Glycolipids
  • The most effective antigens are large and complex
  • Haptens are small molecules that are not antigenic by themselves, but when they combine with a large molecule can stimulate an immune response

Antigens

62
  • Immunoglobulins—gamma globulin portion of blood
  • Proteins secreted by plasma cells
  • Capable of binding specifically with antigen detected by B cells

Antibodies

63

first antibody released FIRST TO FIGHT INFECTION

Potent agglutinating agent

Readily fixes and activates complement

IgM

64

in mucus and other secretions

Helps prevent entry of pathogens

MUCUS

IgA (Secretions)

65

Monomer attached to the surface of B cells

Functions as a B cell receptor

FOUND ON B

IgD

66

Monomer; 75–85% of antibodies in plasma

From secondary and late primary responses

Crosses the placental barrier

GIRL -PLACENTAL/IMMUNITY TO FETUS

IgG (GIRL)

67

Active in some allergies and parasitic infections

Causes mast cells and basophils to release histamine

ALLERGY

IgE

68
  • B cells can be activated when an antigen fits the shape of its receptor
  • Most of the time B cell activation requires T cells
  • T cells release cytokines that stimulate B cells
  • Some B cells may become memory B cells while others differentiate into plasma cells and produce and secrete large globular proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins

B Cells and the Humoral Immune Response

69
  • Naturally acquired—response to a bacterial or viral infection
  • Artificially acquired—response to a vaccine of dead or attenuated pathogens

Occurs when B cells encounter antigens and produce specific antibodies against them : Two types ?

70

Spare us the symptoms of the primary response

Provide antigenic determinants that are immunogenic and reactive

Target only one type of helper T cell, so fail to fully establish cellular immunological memory

Active Humoral Immunity : Vaccines

71

B cells are not challenged by antigens

Immunological memory does not occur

Passive Humoral Immunity

72

1.Naturally acquired—antibodies delivered to a fetus via the placenta or to infant through milk

2.Artificially acquired—injection of serum, such as gamma globulin

Protection is immediate but ends when antibodies naturally degrade in the body

Passive Humoral Immunity (2 types)

73
  • A lymphocyte must be activated before it can respond to an antigen
  • T cell activation requires antigen-presenting cell (accessory cell) and may include macrophages, B cells and several other types of cells
  • Requires major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or human leukocyte antigens (HLA) to recognize “non-self”
  • T cells can synthesize and secrete polypeptides called cytokines

T Cells and the Cellular Immune Response

74

Major types of T cells

CD4 cells become helper T cells (TH) when activated

CD8 cells become cytotoxic T cells (TC) that destroy cells harboring foreign antigens

Other types of T cells

Regulatory T cells (TREG) Memory T cells

Cell-Mediated Immune Response

75

Occurs on the first exposure to a specific antigen

Lag period: three to six days

Peak levels of plasma antibody are reached in 10 days

Antibody levels then decline

Primary immune response

76

Occurs on re-exposure to the same antigen(SECONDARY)

Sensitized memory cells respond within hours

Antibody levels peak in two to three days at much higher levels

Antibodies bind with greater affinity

Antibody level can remain high for weeks to months

Secondary immune response

77

Immune responses to a perceived (otherwise harmless) threat

Causes tissue damage

Different types are distinguished by Their time course

Whether antibodies or T cells are involved

Antibodies cause immediate and subacute hypersensitivities

T cells cause delayed hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivities

78
  1. Immediate-reaction allergy
  2. Occurs minutes after contact with allergen

Symptoms include hives, hay fever, asthma, eczema, gastric disturbances, and anaphylactic shock

  1. Acute (type I) hypersensitivities (allergies) begin in seconds after contact with allergen
  2. Initial contact is asymptomatic but sensitizes the person
  3. Reaction may be local or systemic

Type I allergic reaction

79
  1. Antibody-dependent cytotoxic reaction
  2. Takes 1-3 hours to develop
  3. Transfusion reaction
  4. (BLOOD TRANSFUSION)

Type 2 allergic reactions

80
  1. Immune-complex reaction
  2. Takes 1-3 hours to develop
  3. Antibody complexes cannot be cleared from the body
  4. Damage of body tissues (LUPUS)

Type 3 allergic reactions

81
  • Delayed-reaction allergy
  • Results from repeated exposure to allergen
  • Eruptions and inflammation of the skin
  • Takes about 48 hours to occur ( POISON IVY)

Type 4 allergic reactions

82
  1. Systemic response to allergen that directly enters the blood
  2. Basophils and mast cells are enlisted throughout the body
  3. Systemic histamine releases may cause

Constriction of bronchioles

Sudden vasodilation and fluid loss from the bloodstream

Hypotensive shock and death

  • Treatment: epinephrine

Anaphylactic Shock (type 1)

83
  1. Caused by IgM and IgG transferred via blood plasma or serum
  2. Slow onset (1–3 hours) and long duration (10–15 hours)
  3. Cytotoxic (type II) reactions

Antibodies bind to antigens on specific body cells, stimulating phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis of the cellular antigens

Example: mismatched blood transfusion reaction

Subacute Hypersensitivities (type 2 )

84

Antigens are widely distributed through the body or blood

Insoluble antigen-antibody complexes form

Complexes cannot be cleared from a particular area of the body

Intense inflammation, local cell lysis, and death may result

Example: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Immune complex (type III) hypersensitivity: Subacute Hypersensitivities

85
  • Slow onset (one to three days)
  • Mechanism depends on helper T cells
  • Cytokine-activated macrophages and cytotoxic T cells cause damage
  • Example: allergic contact dermatitis (e.g., poison ivy)

Delayed Hypersensitivities (Type IV)

86

1) Initial B cell contact with allergen

2)Plasma cell secretes antibodies

3)Antibodies attach to mast cell

4)Subsequent contact with allergen

5)Mast cell releases allergy mediators

6)Histamine and other chemicals

7) Allergic reaction

Steps to an allergic reaction

87
  1. A virus particle attaches to a host cell.
  2. The particle releases its genetic instructions into the host cell.
  3. The injected genetic material recruits the host cell's enzymes.
  4. The enzymes make parts for more new virus particles.
  5. The new particles assemble the parts into new viruses.
  6. The new particles break free from the host cell.HIV enters the body and binds to dendritic cells (orange cells with projections) which carry the virus to CD4+ T cells in lymphoid tissue establishing the infection.
  7. Virus replication accelerates producing massive viremia and wide dissemination of virus throughout the body's lymphoid tissues.
  8. An immune response against virus causes some protection but a chronic persistent infection is established.
  9. The production of cytokines and cell divisions that regulate the immune response for protection also cause HIV replication.
  10. There is a rapid turnover of CD4+ T cells that ultimately leads to their destruction and to a change in lymphoid tissues that prevent immune responses.

Explain the ways in which H.I.V attacks a cell and infects tissue

88

IMMUNOGLOBULIN

Y

89

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN: AFFERENT / EFFERENT

AFFERENT: LYMPH ENTERS LYMPH NODE

EFFERENT: LYMPH LEAVES LYMPH NODE

90

LARGEST CLUSTER OF LYMPH GLANDS

INGUINAL

91

LYMPH LEAVING RIGHT SIDE OF HEAD

RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT

92

IMMUNE GLAND OVER AORTIC ARCH

THYMUS - BIGGER ON A CHILD

93

CELLS THAT ARE SMALL IN NUMBER BUT ARE NEEDED TO KILL VIRUS OR CANCER

NATURAL KILLER CELLS

94

INVOLVED IN PASSIVE IMMUNITY

IGG

95

CHRONIC INFECTION; WHICH WHITE BLOOD CELL?

MACROPHAGES

96

WHAT STOPS VIRAL REPLICATION

INTERFERONS

97

MOST CRITICAL CELL IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

T CELL- T HELPER CELL

*** NO T - HELPER CELLS = AIDS W/ A COUNT LESS THAN 300

98

WHICH CELLS ATTACK VIA CYTOTOXIC ?

T CELLS

99

4 TYPES OF LEUKEMIA (ESSAY)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); is a FAST -growing form of cancer of the blood and bone marrow.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (SLOW GROWING )form of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) blood cancer that results when abnormal white blood cells (leukemia cells) accumulate in the bone marrow.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) too many abnormal lymphocytes grow, crowding out normal blood cells and making it difficult for the body to fight infection.

100

1) viral genome and reverse transcriptase enter the cell

2) DNA copy synthesized by reverse transcriptase, this is the site of action of AZT and other reverse transcriptase inhibitors

3) RNA degraded; second DNA strand synthesized

4) DNA circularize (unintegrated provirus) or intergrase functions to incorporate DNA into host cell genome(integrated provirus), this is the site of action of antiretrovial drugs under development

5) With host cell activation, viral DNA is transcribed, yielding messenger RNAs and viral genome RNA

6) Viral RNAs are translated, yielding viral enzymes(including protease) and structural proteins, this is the site of action of protease inhibitor

7)in HIV replication. Viral membrane proteins are transported to host cell membrane

8) in HIV replication. Final viral assembly and budding takes place

STEPS OF HIV : ESSAY

101

LEUKOPENIA VS. LEUKOCYTOSIS

Leukopenia ( WBC DOWN) is a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. As the principal function of white cells is to combat infection, a decrease in the number of these cells can place patients at increased risk for infection EXAMPLE= FLU
Leukocytosis (WBC HIGH) is an elevation of the WBC count above the normal range. The normal adult human leukocyte count in peripheral blood is 4.4-10.8 x 103/L. A white blood count of 11.0 or more suggests leukocytosis. EXAMPLE : STREP HIGH
very common in acutely ill patients. It occurs in response to a wide variety of conditions, including viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection, cancer, and exposure to certain medications or chemicals : first indication of neoplastic growth of leukocytes.

102

CLONES REPLICATING ANTIBODIES BC OF ORIGINAL B CELL EXPOSURE TO A NEW ANTIGEN

PLASMA

103

ATTRACT ALL WBC BC OF CHEMICAL MEDIATORS

CHEMOTAXIS

104

TIGHT SPACE

MARGINIZATION

105

EDEMA AND SWELLING

SEROUS FLUID

106

Where does the lymphatic duct drain into?

RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

107

Where lymphoid stem cells : production of pre-T cells and natural killer cells (NK lymphocytes), production and maturation of B lymphocytes (B cells)?

RED BONE MARROW

108

What are the primary lymphatic organs?

RED BONE MARROW AND THYMUS GLAND

109

reticular fibers that trap microbes and abnormal cells. Microbes and abnormal cells ( phagocytized by dendrite cells and macrophages.)

STROMA

110

What are the Chemical Barriers of the Innate Resistance?

Lysozymes, Sebum,& Gastric Juice

111

What is Specificity

response of immune system tailored to one particular antigen

112

What is Memory

vigorous, speedy response to subsequent exposure to the same antigen

113

What is MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)molecules?

Self-antigens on cell membranes, unique to each person

114

What cell remains for years after initial infection?

MEMORY T CELLS

115

This stimulates immunological memory to an artificially- introduced, non-pathogenic antigen or to a weakened or killed pathogen

VACCINATION

116

Having a normally functioning immune system

Immunocompetent

117

Immediate response to antigen (within minutes) due to IgE antibodies and basophils (release histamine)

Anaphylaxis

118

Is lymph more similar to blood plasma or to interstitial fluid? Why?

interstitial fluid because the protein contents of lymph is low

119

What type of cells are Antigen presenting cells, and where in the body are they found?

Epitopes are small immunogenic parts of a larger antigen; hapten are small molecules that become immunogenic only when they attach to a body protein.

120

What are some examples of endogenous antigens?

Endogenous antigens include viral proteins, toxins from intracellular bacteria, and abnormal proteins synthesized by a cancerous cell.

121

The Enlarged Terminus of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the digestive viscera ?

( digestive / large)

Cisterns Chyli

122

Rapidly dividing B cells a.k.a. globular masses

Germinal center

123

Arterial : Heart via duct via trunk via node via collecting duct w valve to the lymph capillary( DTNC)

Venous : capillary via collection duct w valve via node via trunk via duct to heart( CNTD)

Lymph via blood flow arterial vs venous

124

Interlockin

growth factor

tumor nucrosis (TNF)

TNF

125

Internal jugular and subclavical

All veins lead to _______?

126

What is the back flow of lymph?

LYMPHNODEM

127

First lymphnode to detect cancer at the lymph system

(surrounded by a fibrous capsule )

SENTINAL NODE

128

ARTERIAL / ICS -> GAP-> AFFERENT -> LYMPH

->NODE -> EFFERENT-> VESSEL -> TRUNK ->

COLLECTING DUCT

FLOW OF LYMPH

129

INTESTINAL

Back of throat

Upper back- throat

Below diaphragm

Between lungs

Ileum peyerspatches

Lingual tonsil

Palatine tonsil

Spleen

Thymus

130

What are some examples of endogenous antigens?

Viral proteins

Toxins intracellular level

Abnormal proteins synthesized by a cancerous cell

Ie: virus/ICB/Cancer

131

3 important characteristics of the immune response are its:________ __________&_________

Memory

Specificity

Ability to differentiate self/non self

Autoimmune: is a defect in the bodies ability to do this

132

B cell clone- memory b or antibody making plasma

Gamma goblin - plasma proteins /5 classes of immunoglobulin

B cell =blood/bone -->>>humoral immunity

T = cytotoxic (virus)

Helper-activate

Suppressor-inhibit immune response

Antibodies

133

All lymphoid tissue except ____________ &

_____________ contain both b/t cell dependent region

Thymus and bone marrow

134

What is the white area of the spleen ?

Lymphocytes suspended reticular fibers (white pulp)

Clustered around central arteries

135

Reticular tissue and macrophages

Red pulp spleen

Venous sinuses

Splendid cords

136

______are released by activated T cells & macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes not the area .

Cytokines

137

B cell contact w/ allergen

Plasma secretes antibodies

Antibodies-->>> mast cells

Contact w/ allergen

Mast cells -->>> MEDIATORS

HISTAMINE & CHEMICALS

ALLERGIC REACTION

Steps to an allergic reaction


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