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American Literature Honors/AP Review

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created 2 years ago by Victoria_Serrano
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Grade levels:
11th grade

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1

Which of the following best describes the origins of American literature?

Answer: Oral Tradition

2

Which of the following statements about Eurocentrism is NOT TRUE

Answer: it made the relationship between the natives and the white people better

3

Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the concept of the “noble savage”

That it gave the natives agency.

4

What is the source of the following quotation? “For thousands of centuries—centuries in which human races were evolving, forming communities, and building the beginnings of national civilizations in Africa, Asia and Europe—the continents we know as the Americas stood empty of mankind and its works.” [The story of Europeans in the New World] “is the story of the creation of a civilization where none existed.”

Answer: A 1987 history textbook

5

Stereotypes such as the “Noble Savage,” the “Savage” and the “Exotic Other” can be dangerous to native peoples because

Answer: Denies them agency

6

“…though it is true that they are naked, yet their manners are decorous and praiseworthy.” What concept is reflected in this quotation from Christopher Columbus?

Answer: Noble Savage

7

Which best describes words and language within the oral tradition?

Answer: powerful, magical, sacred

8

“So many goodly cities ransacked and razed; so many nations destroyed or made desolate; so infinite millions of harmless people of all sexes, status, and ages, massacred, ravaged, and put to the sword; and the richest, the fairest, the best part of the world turned upside down, ruined, and defaced for the traffic of pearls and peppers! Oh, mechanic victories, oh base conquest!” This statement by the French essayist, Montaigne, suggests

Answer: European conquests were done for profit and greed.

9

This excerpt from The General History of Virginia reveals which of the following European perspectives? “But when they did see him discharge them [small cannon], being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with icicles, the ice and branches came so tumbling down that the poor savages ran away half dead with fear. But at last we regained some conference with them, and gave them such toys and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents as gave them in general full content…”

Answer: Exotic Other

10

“But now was all our provision spent, the sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned. Each hour [we were] expecting the fury of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted.” This quotation reflects which of the following?

Answer: God’s Providence

11

A 1970s history textbook describes the role of Tisquantum (Squanto) in the Plymouth colony as follows: “A friendly Indian named Squanto helped the colonists. He showed them how to plant corn and how to live on the edge of the wilderness” While this statement is not untrue,

Answer: He denied them agency

12

The following lines from Of Plymouth Plantation illustrate which Puritan belief? And yet the Lord so upheld these persons as in this general calamity they were not at all infected either with sickness or lameness…

Answer: God’s providence

13

What literary/rhetorical device is used by Jonathan Edwards in the following excerpt from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God?” “We find it easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth; so it is easy for us to cut or singe a slender thread that any thing hangs by; thus easy is it for God when he apleases to cast his enemies down into hell…”

Answer: Analogy

14

For what does Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible serve as an allegory?

Answer: The McCarthy era/red scare and mass hysteria

15

The writers and thinkers of the Enlightenment viewed humans as

Answer: Neutral, Tabula Rasa, A blank slate

16

The “Hypocrisy of Democracy” was that the U.S., a nation based on the ideal that “all men are created equal,” was committing national sins, including

Answer: not incorporating Women, Native Americans, African Americans

17

Whereas the Puritans viewed God as actively involved in their daily lives, the writers and thinkers of the Enlightenment viewed God as

Answer: Architect or watchmaker

18

The French Mathematician and Philosopher René Descartes coined this phrase, which serves as the motto for the Age of Reason:

Answer: “I think; therefore, I am”

19

Following the American Revolution, which of the following social realities contradicted the claim that “all men are created equal”?

Answer: not including Women, Native Americans, African Americans

20

Which change of phrasing, which reflects the shift in philosophy from the Puritan view to the Enlightenment view, was made to the Declaration of Independence ?

Answer: Sacred to self evident

property to pursuit of happiness

21

Paul Revere’s engraving “The Bloody Massacre” contains the following words with the image of the incident:

“Unhappy Boston! See thy sons deplore

Thy hallowed walks besmeared with guiltless gore

While faithless Preston and his savage bands

With murderous rancor stretch their bloody hands

Like fierce barbarians grinning o’er their prey

Approve the carnage and enjoy the day.”

This is an example of:

Answer: Propaganda

22

******“Savages we call them, because their Manners differ from ours, which we think the Perfection of Civility; they think the same of theirs.” “Our laborious Manner of Life, compared with theirs, they esteem as slavish and base; and the Learning, on which we value ourselves, they regard as frivolous and useless.” In these excerpts from Ben Franklin’s “Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America,” the author

Answer: gives them agency. Ben Franklin is putting us in their shoes and comparing them to us in an equal manner

23

“The blood of his children will curse his cowardice, who shrinks back at a time when a little might have saved the whole, and made them happy” contains

Answer: alliteration, personification, pathos, metaphor

24

“Not all the treasures of the world, so far as I believe, could have induced me to support an offensive war, for I think it murder; but if a thief break into my house, burn and destroy my property, and kill or threaten to kill me, or those that are in it, and to “bind me in all cases whatsoever,” to his absolute will, am I to suffer it? What signifies it to me, whether he who does it, is a king or a common man; my countryman or not my countryman? Whether it is done by an individual villain or an army of them? If we reason to the root of things we shall find no difference; neither can any just cause be assigned where we should punish in the one case and pardon in the other” contains all of the following

Answer: includes ethos, metaphor, analogy, pathos, rhetorical question, allusion

25

“…but I should suffer the misery of devils, were I to make a whore of my soul by swearing allegiance to one whose character is that of a sottish, stupid, stubborn, worthless, brutish man” contains

Answer: metaphor, allusion, asyndeton, alliteration

26
  1. “These are the times that try men’s souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it NOW, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: ’Tis dearness only that gives everything its value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and it would be strange indeed, if so celestial an article as FREEDOM should not be highly rated. Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but “to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER,” and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. Even the expression is impious, for so unlimited a power can belong only to GOD.” This opening paragraph of The Crisis, Number 1 employs all of the following rhetorical devices

Answer: includes aphorism, alliteration, appositive, simile, antithesis, metaphor, allusion, epithet

27

“the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph; what we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly” contains

Answer: Antithesis, Aphorism

28

“A noted one [Torie], who kept a tavern at Amboy…finished with this unfatherly expression, ‘Well! Give me peace in my day.’ Not a man lives on the continent but fully believes that a separation must some time or other finally take place, and a generous parent should have said, “If there must be trouble, let it be in my day that my child may have peace;” and this single reflection…is sufficient to awaken every man to duty” contains

Answer: anecdote, emotional appeal/pathos, “awaken” metaphor

29

“But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families…” is an example of

Answer: Analogy

30

*******“In the following pages I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments and common sense …” is an example of

Answer: Ethos, Understatement

31

Which of the following events took place in 1848?

Answer: All events including end of mexican american war, gold rush in california, women rights seneca falls

32

In the New England area between 1840 and 1855, a remarkable body of "classic" American literature was produced; this period is called

Answer: American Renaissance

33

Common subjects of American Romantic literature include all of the following

Included Supernatural, the past, nature, and human nature

34

All of the following are Transcendentalist values

Included simplicity, individualism, non-conformity, self-reliance

35

In Melville’s Moby Dick , the conflict between the logical, rational first mate, Starbuck and the intuitive, emotional Captain Ahab reflects the difference between

Answer: Romanticism vs Age of Reason

36

Which of the following is NOT true about Transcendentalism?

it emphasized material success

37

The lines, “envy is ignorance…imitation is suicide,” and “nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind” are from Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay

Answer: Self-Reliance

38

“Heaven is under our feet as well as over our head” as well as, “ If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears…” is from Henry David Thoreau’s

Answer: Walden

39

“If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution…” This quotation encourages which of the following actions?

Answer: Non-violent civil disobedience

40

The phrase “peaceable revolution…” from the excerpt above is an example of which rhetorical/literary device?

Answer: Oxymoron

41

Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Bells” is a quintessential example of which rhetorical device?

Answer: Onomatopoeia

42

The following quotations can be best related to which concept?

  • “In the faces of men and women I see God.”
  • “The groves were God’s first temples.”
  • “Heaven is under our feet as well as over our head.”

Answer: Oversoul/Transcendentalism

43

Edgar Allan Poe’s poems “The Raven” and “Annabel Lee” both contain within them his reaction to his wife's death

Answer: death of a beautiful women / angelic images of a woman

44

Emerson’s concept of the individual, nature and God converging in an interconnected web is called

Answer: The Oversoul

45

Henry David Thoreau’s influential essay in which he urges passive, non-violent resistance to unjust governmental policies is

Answer: Civil Disobedience

46

Identify the dominant rhetorical device in the following passage: “And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Thrilled me - filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;”

Answer: Alliteration

47

Identify the rhetorical devices in the following passage: “On this home by horror haunted - tell me truly, I implore -
Is there - is there balm in Gilead? - tell me - tell me, I implore!'”

Answer: allusion, rhetorical question, alliteration

48

Identify the rhetorical devices in the following passage:

“What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!
In the startled ear of night
How they scream out their affright!
Too much horrified to speak,
They can only shriek, shriek,”

Answer: alliteration, personification, (onomatopoeia), metaphor

49

The Civil War began on

Answer: April 12th, 1861

50

Which of the following is NOT TRUE about spirituals sung by slaves?

most contained little religious imagery

51

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the slavery accounts by Olaudah Equiano and Julius Lester?

Both contain detailed accounts of slave life in America in the 19th century

52

In his autobiography, Frederick Douglass states that the turning point of his life as a slave was when

Answer: When he fought his slave owner

53

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, which had a powerful antislavery influence, was

Answer: Uncle Tom’s Cabin

54

“He had rid himself of the red sickness of battle. The sultry nightmare was in the past. He had been an animal blistered and sweating in the heat and pain of war.”

Answer: Personification, metaphor

55

“In thinking of America, I sometimes find myself admiring her bright blue sky, her grand old woods, her fertile fields, her beautiful rivers, her mighty lakes...”

Answer: Anaphora, personification

56

“I was made to drink the bitterest dregs of slavery...”

Answer: Metaphor

57

"No day ever dawns for the slave, nor is it looked for. For the slave, it is all night forever."

Answer: Metaphor

58

“Maintaining slavery is like holding a wolf by the ears: you do not like it much, but you dare not let it go.”

Answer: Analogy

59

“Whosoever of ye raises me a white-headed whale with a wrinkled brow and a crooked jaw; whosoever of ye raises me that white-headed whale, with three holes punctured in his starboard fluke – look ye, whosoever of ye raises me that same white whale, he shall have this gold ounce, my boys!”

Answer: Anaphora

60

“Aye, Starbuck; aye, my hearties all round; it was Moby-Dick that dismasted me; Moby-Dick that brought me to this dead stump I stand on now…it was that accursed white whale that razeed me; made a poor legging lubber of me forever and a day!”

Answer: Anaphora, Metaphor, Exaggeration

61

“Stand up amid the general hurricane, thy one tossed sapling cannot, Starbuck!

Answer: Metaphor, Oxymoron

62

“Aye, aye! and I’ll chase him round Good Hope, and round the Horn, and round the Norway Maelstrom, and round perdition’s flames before I give him up. And this is what ye have shipped for, men! to chase that white whale on both sides of land, and over all sides of earth, till he spouts black blood and rolls fin out.” – Captain Ahab

Answer: Metaphor, Polysyndeton

63

“I am game for his crooked jaw, and for the jaws of Death too, Captain Ahab, if it fairly comes in the way of the business we follow; but I came here to hunt whales, not my commander’s vengeance. How many barrels will thy vengeance yield thee even if thou gettest it, Captain Ahab?”

Answer: Metaphor,

64

“It was a glorious resurrection, from the tomb of slavery…”

Answer: Personification/Metaphor

65

“My natural elasticity was crushed, my intellect languished, the disposition to read departed, the cheerful spark that lingered about my eye died…”

Answer: Asyndeton, Personification

66

“…my love of Country comes over me like a strong wind and bears me irresistibly with all those chains to the battlefield.”

Answer: Metaphor, Simile

67

“It is like a funeral next door. It attracts your attention, but it does not enlist your sympathy. But it is very different when the hearse stops at your front door and the corpse is carried over your own threshold...”

Answer: Analogy

68

“Age, with its miserable train of cares and sorrows and diseases, was remembered only as the trouble of a dream, from which they had joyously awoke.”

Answer: Metaphor, Personification

69

“The house and its inmates had altogether a bad name.”

Answer: Metaphor, Zeugma

70
  1. Identify the rhetorical/literary device in the passage: “Had a roar of laughter burst from the multitude,—each man, each woman, each little shrill-voiced child, contributing their individual parts,—Hester Prynne might have repaid them all with a bitter and disdainful smile.”

contains a metaphor, anaphora, onomatopoeia

71

Identify the rhetorical device: “Thy acts are like mercy…But thy words interpret thee as a terror!”

simile, antithesis.

72
  1. “Hester,” said he, “I ask not wherefore, nor how, thou hast fallen into the pit, or say rather, thou hast ascended to the pedestal of infamy, on which I found thee. The reason is not far to seek. It was my folly, and thy weakness. I,—a man of thought,—the book-worm of great libraries,—a man already in decay, having given my best years to feed the hungry dream of knowledge,—what had I to do with youth and beauty like thine own! Misshapen from my birth-hour, how could I delude myself with the idea that intellectual gifts might veil physical deformity in a young girl’s fantasy!” This passage all of the following rhetorical devices :

does contain metaphor, antithesis?, epistrophe

73

Identify the rhetorical device: “My heart was a habitation large enough for many guests, but lonely and chill, and without a household fire. I longed to kindle one! It seemed not so wild a dream,—old as I was, and sombre as I was, and misshapen as I was,—that the simple bliss, which is scattered far and wide, for all mankind to gather up, might yet be mine. And so, Hester, I drew thee into my heart, into its innermost chamber, and sought to warm thee by the warmth which thy presence made there!”

Metaphor, epistrophe

74
  1. “Why dost thou smile so at me?” inquired Hester, troubled at the expression of his eyes. “Art thou like the Black Man that haunts the forest round about us? Hast thou enticed me into a bond that will prove the ruin of my soul?” This passage contains all of the following :

Contains rhetorical question, simile, metaphor, euphemism

75

Identify the rhetorical/literary device: Notwithstanding his high native gifts and scholar-like attainments, there was an air about this young minister,—an apprehensive, a startled, a half-frightened look,—as of a being who felt himself quite astray and at a loss in the pathway of human existence, and could only be at ease in some seclusion of his own.”

Asyndeton, epistrophe

76

“It might be, too,—doubtless it was so, although she hid the secret from herself, and grew pale whenever it struggled out of her heart, like a serpent from its hole,—it might be that another feeling kept her within the scene and pathway that had been so fatal. There dwelt, there trode the feet of one with whom she deemed herself connected in a union, that, unrecognized on earth, would bring them together before the bar of final judgment, and make that their marriage-altar, for a joint futurity of endless retribution.”

simile, metaphor

77

“It was no wonder that they thus questioned one another’s actual and bodily existence, and even doubted of their own. So strangely did they meet, in the dim wood, that it was like the first encounter, in the world beyond the grave, of two spirits who had been intimately connected in their former life, but now stood coldly shuddering, in mutual dread; as not yet familiar with their state, nor wonted to the companionship of disembodied beings. Each a ghost, and awe-stricken at the other ghost.” This passage contains:

simile metaphor

78

“But of late, since the night of his vigil, all her sympathies towards [Dimmesdale] had been both softened and invigorated. She now read his heart more accurately. She doubted not, that the continual presence of Roger Chillingworth,—the secret poison of his malignity, infecting all the air about him,—and his authorized interference, as a physician, with the minister’s physical and spiritual infirmities,—that these bad opportunities had been turned to a cruel purpose.” This passage contains:

Metaphor, epistrophe

79

“They sat down again, side by side, and hand clasped in hand, on the mossy trunk of the fallen tree. Life had never brought them a gloomier hour; it was the point whither their pathway had so long been tending, and darkening ever, as it stole along;—and yet it enclosed a charm that made them linger upon it, and claim another, and another, and, after all, another moment. The forest was obscure around them, and creaked with a blast that was passing through it. The boughs were tossing heavily above their heads; while one solemn old tree groaned dolefully to another, as if telling the sad story of the pair that sat beneath, or constrained to forbode evil to come.” This passage contains:

Personification, metaphor, polysyndeton, simile

80

“But Hester Prynne, with a mind of native courage and activity, and for so long a period not merely estranged, but outlawed, from society, had habituated herself to such latitude of speculation as was altogether foreign to the clergyman. She had wandered, without rule or guidance, in a moral wilderness; as vast, as intricate and shadowy, as the untamed forest, amid the gloom of which they were now holding a colloquy that was to decide their fate. Her intellect and heart had their home, as it were, in desert places, where she roamed as freely as the wild Indian in his woods. For years past she had looked from this estranged point of view at human institutions, and whatever priests or legislators had established; criticizing all with hardly more reverence than the Indian would feel for the clerical band, the judicial robe, the pillory, the gallows, the fireside, or the church. The tendency of her fate and fortunes had been to set her free. The scarlet letter was her passport into regions where other women dared not tread. Shame, Despair, Solitude! These had been her teachers,—stern and wild ones,—and they had made her strong, but taught her much amiss.” This passage contains:

Metaphor, simile, asyndeton, personification, epistrophe

81
  1. “She barely looked the idea in the face, and hastened to bar it in its dungeon. What she compelled herself to believe,—what, finally, she reasoned upon, as her motive for continuing a resident of New England,—was half a truth, and half a self-delusion. Here, she said to herself, had been the scene of her guilt, and here should be the scene of her earthly punishment; and so, perchance, the torture of her daily shame would at length purge her soul, and work out another purity than that which she had lost; more saint-like, because the result of martyrdom.” This passage contains all of the following :

does contain personification, metaphor, and antithesis

82
  1. “Hester caught hold of Pearl, and drew her forcibly into her arms, confronting the old Puritan magistrate with almost a fierce expression. Alone in the world, cast off by it, and with this sole treasure to keep her heart alive, she felt that she possessed indefeasible rights against the world, and was ready to defend them to the death.” In this passage how does the metaphor function?

It shows how important Pearl is

83

“God gave me the child!” cried she. “He gave her, in requital of all things else, which ye had taken from me. She is my happiness!—she is my torture, none the less! Pearl keeps me here in life! Pearl punishes me, too!” This passage contains:

Anthesis, metaphor

84
  1. “But, partly that she dreaded the secret or undisguised interference of old Roger Chillingworth, and partly that her conscious heart imparted suspicion where none could have been felt, and partly that both the minister and she would need the whole wide world to breathe in, while they talked together,—for all these reasons, Hester never thought of meeting [Dimmesdale] in any narrower privacy than beneath the open sky.” This passage contains:

Anaphora

85

“The decision once made, a glow of strange enjoyment threw its flickering brightness over the trouble of his breast. It was the exhilarating effect—upon a prisoner just escaped from the dungeon of his own heart—of breathing the wild, free atmosphere of an unredeemed, unchristianized, lawless region.” This passage contains:

Metaphor, asyndeton, personification, analogy

86

“All these giant trees and boulders of granite seemed intent on making a mystery of the course of this small brook; fearing, perhaps, that, with its never-ceasing loquacity, it should whisper tales out of the heart of the old forest whence it flowed, or mirror its revelations on the smooth surface of a pool. Continually, indeed, as it stole onward, the streamlet kept up a babble, kind, quiet, soothing, but melancholy, like the voice of a young child that was spending its infancy without playfulness, and knew not how to be merry among sad acquaintance and events of sombre hue.” This passage contains:

Simile, personification, metaphor

87

“Pearl resembled the brook, inasmuch as the current of her life gushed from a well-spring as mysterious, and had flowed through scenes shadowed as heavily with gloom. But, unlike the little stream, she danced and sparkled, and prattled airily along her course.” This passage contains:

Simile, polysyndeton

88

Everybody loved to have him around, too; he was sunshine most always…

Answer: Metaphor

89

I went out in the woods and cooked a supper, and I had about made up my mind I would stay there all night when I hear a plunkety-plunk, plunkety-plunk, and says to myself, horses coming...”

I went out in the woods and cooked a supper, and I had about made up my mind I would stay there all night when I hear a plunkety-plunk, plunkety-plunk, and says to myself, horses coming...”

90

He was most fifty, and he looked it. His hair was long and tangled and greasy, and hung down, and you could see his eyes shining through like he was behind vines. It was all black, no gray; so was his long, mixedup whiskers. There warn’t no color in his face, where his face showed; it was white; not like another man’s white, but a white to make a body sick, a white to make a body’s flesh crawl – a tree-toad white, a fishbelly white. As for his clothes – just rags, that was all. He had one ankle resting on t’other knee; the boot on that foot was busted, and two of his toes stuck through, and he worked them now and then. His hat was laying on the floor – an old black slouch with the top caved in, like a lid. Well, after a long time I heard the clock away off in the town go boom— boom—boom—twelve licks; and all still again – stiller than ever Two or three days and nights went by; I reckon I might say they swum by, they slid along so quiet and smooth and lovely.

Answer: Metaphor, Simile, Personification, Onomato

91

Then pretty soon Sherburn sort of laughed; not the pleasant kind, but the kind that makes you feel like when you are eating bread that’s got sand in it.

Answer: Simile

92

Wake up by and by, and look to see what done it, and maybe see a steamboat coughing along up-stream, so far off towards the other side you couldn’t tell nothing about her . . .

Answer: Personification,

93

. . . and there was things enough on that table for seven families – and all hot, too; none of your flabby, tough meat that’s laid in a cupboard in a damp cellar night and tastes like a hunk of old cold cannibal in the morning.

Answer: Metaphor

94

When he got a-front of us he lifts his hat ever so gracious and dainty, like it was the lid of a box that had butterflies asleep in it and he didn’t want to disturb them . . .

Answer: Simile

95

“Cuss the doctor! What do we k-yer for him ? Hain’t we got all the fools in town on our side? And ain’t that a big enough majority in any town?”

Gullibility of Society

96

“We catched fish, and talked, and we took a swim now and then to keep off sleepiness. It was kind of solemn, drifting down the big still river, laying on our backs looking up at the stars, and we didn’t ever feel like talking loud, and it warn’t often that we laughed, only a little kind of a low chuckle.”

Difference between the river and the shore/love for nature

97

“Do you reckon Tom Sawyer would ever go by this thing? Not for pie, he wouldn’t. He’d call it an adventure—that’s what he’s call it; and he’d land on that wreck if it was his last act. And wouldn’t he throw style into it?—wouldn’t he spread himself, nor nothing? Why you’d think it was Christopher C’lumbus discovering Kingdom-Come. I wish Tom Sawyer was here.”

Answer: Huck’s Admiration of Tom

98

“Next Sunday we all went to church, about three mile, everybody a-horseback. The men took their guns along, so did Buck, and kept them between their knees or stood them handy against the wall. The Shepherdsons done the same. It was pretty ornery preaching -- all about brotherly love, and such-like tiresomeness; but everybody said it was a good sermon, and they all talked it over going home, and had such a powerful lot to say about faith and good works…”

Answer: Hypocrisy of Religion

99

“Now I say it ain’t agoin’to be more’n two hours befo’ this wrack breaks up and washes off down the river. See? He’ll be drownded, and won’t have nobody to blame for it but his own self. I reckon that’s a considerable sight better’n killin’ of him. I’m unfavorable to killin’ a man as long as you can git around it; it ain’t good sense, it ain’t good morals. Ain’t I right”

“Now I say it ain’t agoin’to be more’n two hours befo’ this wrack breaks up and washes off down the river. See? He’ll be drownded, and won’t have nobody to blame for it but his own self. I reckon that’s a considerable sight better’n killin’ of him. I’m unfavorable to killin’ a man as long as you can git around it; it ain’t good sense, it ain’t good morals. Ain’t I right”

100

“En all you wuz thinkin’bout wuz how you could make a fool uv ole Jim wid a lie. Dat truck dah is trash ; en trash is what people is dat puts dirt on de head er dey fren’s en makes ‘em ashamed.”

Jims Agency/Huck’s Unlearning

101

“I did wish Tom Sawyer was there, I knowed he would take an interest in this kind of business, and throw in the fancy touches. Nobody could spread himself like Tom Sawyer in such a thing as that.”

Hucks Admiration of Tom

102

“There was empty drygoods boxes under the awnings, and loafers roosting on them all day long, whittling them with their Barlow knives; and chawing tobacco, and gaping and yawning and stretching -- a mighty ornery lot. They generly had on yellow straw hats most as wide as an umbrella, but didn't wear no coats nor waistcoats, they called one another Bill, and Buck, and Hank, and Joe, and Andy, and talked lazy and drawly, and used considerable many cuss words. There was as many as one loafer leaning up against every awning-post, and he most always had his hands in his britches-pockets, except when he fetched them out to lend a chaw of tobacco or scratch.”

idleness of Society

103

“Well, the men gathered around, and sympathized with them, and said all sorts of things to them, and carried their carpet bags up the hill for them, and let them lean on them and cry, and told the king all about his brother’s last moments, and the king he told it all over again on his hands to the duke, and both of them took on about that dead tanner like they’d lost the twelve disciples. Well, if ever I struck anything like it, I’m a nigger. It was enough to make a body ashamed of the human race.”

Hucks humanity and compassion

104

“It didn't take me long to make up my mind that these liars warn't no kings nor dukes at all, but just low-down humbugs and frauds. But I never said nothing, never let on; kept it to myself; it's the best way; then you don't have no quarrels, and don't get into no trouble. If they wanted us to call them kings and dukes, I hadn't no objections, 'long as it would keep peace in the family.”

Answer: Huck’s practicality and shrewdness

105

“Now was the first time that I begun to worry about the men—I reckon I hadn’t had time to, before. I begun to think how dreadful it was, even for murderers, to be in such a fix. I says to myself, there ain’t no telling but I might come to be a murderer myself, yet, and then how would I like it?”

Hucks compassion and Humanity

106

“And pretty soon you’d hear a loafer sing out, ‘Hi! so boy! Sick him, Tige!’ and away the sow would go, squealing most horrible, with a dog or two swinging to each ear, and three or four dozen more a-coming; and then you would see all the loafers get up and watch the thing out of sight, and laugh at the fun and look grateful for the noise. Then they’d settle back again till there was a dog-fight. There couldn’t anything wake them up all over, and make them happy all over, like a dog-fight—unless it might be putting turpentine on a stray dog and setting fire to him, or tying a tin pan to his tail and see him run himself to death.”

Cruelty of Humanity

107

In this description of the town and people of Bricksville, Arkansas, Twain is commenting on all of the

following EXCEPT

the gullibility of society

108

“They went off, and I got aboard the raft, feeling bad and low, because I knowed very well I had done wrong, and I see it warn’t no use for me to try to learn to do right; a body that don’t get started right when he’s little, ain’t got no show—when the pinch comes there ain’t nothing to back him up and keep him to his work, and so he gets beat. Then I thought a minute, and says to myself, hol on,--s’pose you’d a done right and give Jim up; would you felt better than what you do now? No, says I, I’d feel bad—I’d feel just the same way I do now. Well, then, says I, what’s the use you learning to do right, when it’s troublesome to do right and ain’t no trouble to do wrong, and the wages is just he same? I was stuck. I couldn’t answer that. So I reckoned I wouldn’t bother no more about it, but after this always do whichever come handiest at the time.”

Hucks Practical Morality

109

“The pitifulest thing out there is a mob; that’s what an army is—a mob; they don’t fight with the courage that’s born in them, but with courage that’s borrowed from their mass, and from their officers. But a mob without any man at the head of it, is beneath pitifulness. Now the thing for you to do, is to droop your tails and go home and crawl in a hole.”

Answer: Twain’s Satire on Mob Mentality

110

“I went to sleep, and Jim didn’t call me when it was my turn. He often done that. When I waked up, just at daybreak, he was setting there with his head down betwixt his knees, moaning and mourning to himself. I didn’t take notice, nor let on. I knowed what it was about. He was thinking about his wife and his children, away up yonder, and he was low and homesick; because he hadn’t ever been away from home before in his life; and I do believe he cared just as much for his people as white folks does for theirn. It don’t seem natural, but I reckon it’s so.”

Jims Manipulation of Huck and Unlearning

111
  1. "Dah you goes, de ole true Huck; de on'y white genlman dat ever kep' his promise to ole Jim."

Answer: Jim’s Manipulation of Huck

112

“Now she had got a start, and she went on and told me all about the good place…I asked her if she reckoned Tom Sawyer would go there, and she said, not by a considerable sight. I was glad about that, because I wanted him and me to be together.”

Hucks Admiration of Tom

113

“I don’t care whether ‘twas little or whether ‘twas big, he’s here in our house and a stranger, and it wasn’t good of you to say it. If you was in his place, it would make you feel ashamed; and so you oughtn’t to say a thing to another person that will make them feel ashamed.”

Answer: Role reversals (irony)

114

“So, in two seconds, away we went, a sliding down the river, and it did seem so good to be free again and all by ourselves on the big river and nobody to bother us. I had to skip around a bit, and jump up and crack my heels a few times, I couldn’t help it; but about the third crack, I noticed a sound that I knowed mighty well,--and held my breath, and listened and waited—and sure enough, when the next flash busted out over the water, here they come! –and just laying to their oars and making their skiff hum! It was the king and the duke. So I wilted right down on to the planks then, and give up; and it was all I could do to keep from crying.”

Answer: Symbol of raft and river motif

115

"Please take it," says I, "and don't ask me nothing -- then I won't have to tell no lies."

Hucks Practicality

116

“Well, one thing was dead sure; and that was, that Tom Sawyer was in earnest, and was actuly going to help steal that nigger out of slavery. That was the thing that was too many for me. Here was a boy that was respectable, and well brung up; and had a character to lose; and folks at home that had characters; and he was bright and not leather-headed; and knowing, and not ignorant; and not mean, but kind; and yet here he was, without any more pride, or rightness, or feeling, than to stoop to this business, and make himself a shame, and his family a shame, before everybody. I couldn’t understand it, no way at all. It was outrageous, and I knowed I ought to just up and tell him so; and so be his true friend, and let him quit the thing right where he was, and save himself.”

Unlearning, Toms conformity to society and Huck comparing himself to Tom

117

“Then I told him the whole thing, and he said it was smart. He said Tom Sawyer couldn't get up no better plan than what I had.”

Hucks admiration of Tom

118

“It was fifteen minutes before I could work myself up to go and humble myself to a nigger—but I done it, and I warn’t ever sorry for it afterwards neither. I didn’t do him no more mean tricks, and I wouldn’t done that one if I’d a knowed it would make him feel that way.”

Answer: Huck’s unlearning

119

“I got into my old rags, and my sugar-hogshead again and was free and satisfied. But Tom Sawyer, he hunted me up and said he was going to start a band of robbers, and I might join if I would go back to the widow and be respectable. So I went back.”

Toms conformity to society and Hucks rejection of Society, Hucks admiration of Tom

120

“It was kind of lazy and jolly, laying off comfortable all day, smoking and fishing, and no books nor study. Two months or more run along, and my clothes to be all rags and dirt, and I didn’t see how I’d ever got to like it so well at the widow’s, where you had to wash, and eat on a plate, and comb up, and go to bed and get up regular, and be forever bothering over a book and have old Miss Watson pecking at you all the time. I didn’t want to go back no more. I had stopped cussing, because the widow didn’t like it; but now I took to it again because pap hadn’t no objections. I was pretty good times up in the woods there, take it all around.”

Hucks appreciation of Nature and Rejection of Society

121

“I went to the cavern to get some, and found a rattlesnake in there. I killed him, and curled him up on the foot of Jim’s blanket, ever so natural, thinking there’d be some fun when Jim found him there…He was barefooted, and the snake bit him right on the heel. That all comes of my being such a fool as to not remember that wherever you leave a dead snake its mate always comes there and curls around it.”

Answer: Admiration of Tom Sawyer, “Envy is ignorance, imitation is suicide”. When trying to be Tom Sawyer bad things happen

122

“It was a close place. I took it up, and held it in my hand. I was trembling, because I’d got to decide, forever, betwixt two things, and I knowed it. I studied it a minute, sort of holding my breath, and then says to myself: ‘All right, then, I’ll go to hell’—and tore it up.”

Unlearning

123

“Well, I did. I said I wouldn’t, and I’ll stick to it. Honest injun I will. People would call me a low down Abilitionist and despise me for keeping mum—but that don’t make no difference. I ain’t agoing to tell, and I ain’t agoing back there anyways.”

Unlearning, Low Self Image, Practicality?

124

“Then she told me all about the bad place, and I said I wished I was there. She got mad, then, but I didn’t mean no harm. All I wanted was to go somewheres; all I wanted was a change, I warn’t particular. She said it was wicked to say what I said; said she wouldn’t say it for the whole world; she was going to live so as to go to the good place. Well, I couldn’t see no advantage in going where she was going, so I made up my mind I wouldn’t try for it. But I never said so, because it would only make trouble, and wouldn’t do no good.”

Hucks practicality and Literal Mindedness, Huck’s low self image

125

“When we was ten foot off, Tom whispered to me an wanted to tie Jim to the tree for fun; but I said no; he might wake and make a disturbance, and then they’d find out I warn’t in. Then Tom said he hadn’t got candles enough, and I said Jim might wake up and come. But Tom wanted to resk it; so we slid in there and got three candles, and Tom laid five cents on the table for pay. Then we got out, and I was in a sweat to get away; but nothing would do Tom but he must crawl to where Jim was, on his hands and knees, and play something on him.”

Toms Cruelty and Conformity to Society

126

“Then Miss Watson she took me in the closet and prayed, but nothing come of it. She told me to pray every day, and whatever I asked for I would get it. But it warn’t so. I tried it. Once I got a fish-line, but no hooks. I warn’t any good to me without hooks. I tried for the hooks three or four times, but somehow I couldn’t make it work. By and by, one day, I asked Miss Watson to try for me, but she said I was a fool. She never told me why, and I couldn’t make it out no way.”

Literal Mindedness and Low Self Image?

127
  1. “It’s a dead man. Yes, indeedy; naked too. He’s ben shot in de back. I reck’n he’s ben dead two er three days. Come in, Huck, but doan’ look at his face---it’s too ghastly.”

Jim's Manipulation of Tom, Jim as a father figure

128

“The boys jumped for the river—both of them hurt—and as they swum down the current the men run along the bank shooting at them and singing out, ‘Kill them, kill them!’ It made me so sick I most fell out of the tree. I ain’t agoing to tell all that happened—it would make me sick again if I was to do that. I wished I hadn’t ever come ashore that night, to see such things. I ain’t ever going to get shut of them—lots of times I dream about them.”

Hucks Compassion and Humanity, Cruelty of Humanity

129

“After all this long journey, and after all we’d done for them scoundrels, here was it all come to nothing,everything all busted up and ruined, because they could have the heart to serve Jim such a trick as that, and make him a slave again all his life, and amongst strangers, too, for forty dirty dollars.”

Unlearning, Cruelty of Society, Hucks Compassion and Humanity

130

"My plan is this," I says. "We can easy find out if it's Jim in there. Then get up my canoe to-morrow night, and fetch my raft over from the island. Then the first dark night that comes steal the key out of the old man's britches after he goes to bed, and shove off down the river on the raft with Jim, hiding daytimes and running nights, the way me and Jim used to do before. Wouldn't that plan work?"

Hucks practicality

131

"I know what you'll say. You'll say it's dirty, low-down business; but what if it is? I'm low down; and I'm a-going to steal him, and I want you keep mum and not let on. Will you?"

Hucks low self image, Change of Identity

132

"Pooty soon I'll be a-shout'n' for joy, en I'll say, it's all on accounts o' Huck; I's a free man, en I couldn't ever ben free ef it hadn' ben for Huck; Huck done it. Jim won't ever forgit you, Huck; you's de bes' fren' Jim's ever had; en you's de only fren' ole Jim's got now."

Jims manipulation of Huck

133

While I was at it he asked me what my name was, but before I could tell him he started to tell me about a bluejay and a young rabbit he had catched in the woods day before yesterday, and he asked me where Moses was when the candle went out. I said I didn't know; I hadn't heard about it before, no way.

"Well, guess," he says.

"How'm I going to guess," says I, "when I never heard tell of it before?"

"But you can guess, can't you? It's just as easy."

" Which candle?" I says.

"Why, any candle," he says.

"I don't know where he was," says I; "where was he?"

"Why, he was in the dark! That's where he was!"

"Well, if you knowed where he was, what did you ask me for?"

Literal Mindedness

134

Two or three days and nights went by; I reckon I might say they swum by, they slid along so quiet and smooth and lovely…Next we slid into the river and had a swim, so as to freshen up and cool off; then we set down on the sandy bottom where the water was about knee deep, and watched the daylight come. Not a sound anywheres -- perfectly still -- just like the whole world was asleep, only sometimes the bullfrogs a-cluttering, maybe… then the nice breeze springs up, and comes fanning you from over there, so cool and fresh and sweet to smell on account of the woods and the flowers…

Hucks appreciation of Nature, Freedom of the River


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