The sonographic and Doppler evaluation of the female pelvis
The full bladder _____ the bowel and its contained gas from the field of view and ____ the anteflexed uterus slightly so that it is more perpendicular to the transducer angle.
The bladder shape may be helpful because a well distended bladder typically has a ____ or elongated shape on midline scans.
The ___ vessels can be used as a landmark to identify the lateral adnexal borders.
Right upper quadrant; renal
If pathology is present, documentation of the ____ (morison's pouch and subphrenic area) and bilateral ____ areas must be obtained.
In transvaginal scanning, it is necessary to advance the transducer slightly, angling ___ to visualize the fundus, and to withdraw slightly, away from the external os, while angling ____ to see the cervix and the rectouterine recess.
Lenth; width; axial
These measurements of the uterus and ovaries should be documented: _____, ____, and ______.
The thickness of the endometrium should be measured in the ____ plane.
Pelvic muscles may be mistaken for ovaries, fluid collections, or masses. A ____ bilateral arrangement indicates that they are muscles
Sonographically, sections of the ____ muscle are seen at the posterior lateral corners of the bladder at the level of the vagina and cervix.
The muscle that is best visualized sonographically in a transverse plane with caudal angulation at the most inferior aspect of the bladder is the ____ muscle.
The muscles that are located on either side of the midline posterior to the upper half of the uterine body and fundus are the ____ muscles.
To asses the uterine vessels, the sonographer interrogates just ___ to the cervix and lower uterine segment of the level of the internal os.
A ____, highly resistive flow pattern in the ovary is show during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
At ovulation, the maximum velocity increases and the RI _____.
The middle uterine layer is the ____ of the uterus; this layer should have a homogenous echotexture with smooth-walled borders.
The ____ of the uterus is hypoechoic and surrounds the relatively echogenic endometrial stripe, creating a subendometrial halo.
Calcifications may be seen in the ____ arteries in post-menopausal women and appear as peripheral linear echoes with shadowing.
The body of the uterus is separated from the cervix by the isthmus at the level of the ____ and is identified by narrowing of the canal.
The axis of the uterine body relative to the cervix is referred to as the ____, whereas ______ refers to the axis of the cervix relative to the vagina.
The best way to measure the cervical fundal dimension of the uterus in the longitudinal plane is the _____ technique.
During menstruation (days 1-4) the ____ canal appears as a hypoechoic central line representing blood and tissue reaching 4-8 mm, including the basal layer in this measurement.
As menses progress (days 3-7), the hypoechoic echo that represented blood disappears, and the endometrial stripe is a discrete thin _____ line that is usually only 2-3 mm long.
In the early proliferative phase (days 5-9), the endometrial canal appears as a ____ stripe.
The layer that is seen as a hyperechoic halo encompassing the stripe is the ____ layer.
The layer of the endometrium that represents the thin surrounding hyperechoic outermost echo is the ____ layer.
During the ____ (luteal) phase (days 15-28), the endometrium is at its greatest thickness and echogenicity with posterior enhancement.
Sonographically, the post-menopausal endometrial complex is seen as thin ____ line measuring less than 8 mm, unless a hormone regimen is being followed.
If the tubes are distended with or surrounded by a sufficient amount of _____, they can be easily outlined by the contrasting fluid.
Typically, the ovary is located just ___ to the uterus and ____ to the internal iliac vessels, which can be used as a landmark to localize the ovary.
The best sonographic marker for the ovary is identification of a ____, which has the classic appearance of being thin walled and anechoic with through-transmission posteriorly.
The posterior cul-de-sac, or _____, is the most posterior and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity. It is located between the rectum and vagina and is also known as the pouch of Douglas.
_____ involves the instillation of sterile saline solution into the endometrial cavity.