Chemistry comes alive Study guide

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1

An organic compound is analyzed, and it has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. This compound is most likely

molecule with the formula C5H10O5 is a(n)

Carbohydrates have CHO with a 1:2:1 ratio

CARBOHYDRATE

2
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  1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms.
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  1. COVALENT
3

are not involved directly in the linkage between amino acids.

Removal of a water molecule between each two units

4

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the

R groups of amino acids

5
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Organic molecules contain particular elements. Based on what you know of organic chemistry, find the mismatched pair.

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a. carbohydrate - CHO

b. lipid - CHNOP

c. protein - CHNOPS

d. nucleic acid - CHNOP

6

that dominate the structure of triglycerides are the basis for the efficient and compact energy storage by fat.

hydrocarbon groups

7

The single most abundant protein in the body is

collagen

8

An electron is a(n)

negatively charged subatomic particle

9

The function of microRNA (miRNA) is to

T urn some genes on and others off, thus controlling genetic expression

10

Simple sugars are also known as...

monosaccharides

11

which ranges from 0 to 14, is a logarithmic scale based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

pH scale

12
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Organic chemistry is the chemistry of a.

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carbon compounds

13

The sequence of amino acids in a protein constitutes the __________ structure of the protein.

Primary

14

Atomic number is determined by the number of ___ in each atom.

protons only

15

DNA and RNA are nucleic acids

they are built from nucleotides

16

An atom or a group of atoms possessing a positive or negative electrical charge is called?

ION

17

Prostaglandins are

type of eicosanoids, which are diverse lipids found in the cell membrane.

18

are linked by peptide bonds to form polypeptides.

Amino acids

19
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  • 14Carbon has an atomic number of 6, but has 8 neutrons. How many electrons are present in each atom?
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  • 6
20

The space between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column is
the

mediastinum

21

A pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base are found in a(n)

NUCLEOTIDE

22

All isotopes of a particular element possess

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the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons

23
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Which of the following is a condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction?

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the breakdown of a polymer into monomers

24

Which of the following types of energy moves in waves?

Radiant energy moves in waves

25

Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the

RIBOSOMES

26
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Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?

molecular chaperones

27
  1. Electrically charged particle due to loss of an electron.
  2. Neutral subatomic particle.
  3. Smallest particle of an element that retains its properties.
  4. Smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties
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  1. Cation
  2. Neutron
  3. Atom
  4. Molecule
28

Detoxification of certain potentially poisonous molecules occurs in the

peroxisomes

29
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This organelle is the command and control center of the cell

nucleus

30
  • Molecular chaperones aid in the desired folding of
  • are formed from amino acid building blocks
  • Amino acids are the building blocks or monomers for
  • Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body?
  • all enzymes that have been identified are
  • The basic structural material of the body consists of
  • PROTEIN
31
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  1. Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?
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  1. CH4
32

The difference between a colloid and a suspension is

colloid can undergo sol-gel transformation, whereas a suspension cannot.

33
  1. The mitochondria are organelles that
  2. Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells?
  1. produce ATP from the chemical energy of food
  2. Sodiun (NA)
34

Identify the mismatched pair

a. ribosome synthesis – nucleolus

b. rough endoplasmic reticulum – attached ribosomes

c. Golgi apparatus – lytic enzymes

d. cytoskeleton – microtubules

35
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Proteins that are secreted outside the cell in the process of exocytosis are released by

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secretory vesicles

36

Cilia and flagella are specialized structures used

for locomotion

37
  1. Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell?
  2. The linkage between amino acids is a type of .
  1. 7
  2. covalent bond
38

Why are ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?

Newly synthesized polypeptides can move directly through the ER membrane.

39

Which of the following is an example of a suspension?

BLOOD

40

Enzymes are important as

catalysts for chemical reactions

41
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What is activation energy?

the energy required to start a chemical reaction

42

Enzymes?

lower activation energy requirement

43

The reactants in an enzyme catalyzed reaction are called?

substrates

44
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The information about the synthesis of enzymes comes from

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

45

Lungs, heart, or brain are examples of

organs

46

Circulatory, respiratory, or digestive are examples of

systems

47
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Diffusion is the process by which a substances moves from an area of

higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

48

A diffusion equilibrium is reached when

there is no net movement between two areas

49

Osmosis is a special case of

diffusion that involves the movement of water across a membrane

50

The net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is always

from the hypotonic solution to the hypertonic one

51
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The direction of osmosis is determined by the

concentration of dissolved solutes on both sides of the membrane.

52

is the process by which the undigested contents of food vacuoles are removed from the cell.

Exocytosis

53
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A cell placed in a beaker of sea water will

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shrink due to the loss of water by osmosis

54

When a neuron is stimulated and Na+ ions move through an open Na+ channel, the process is

facilitated diffusion

55

A hypothetical “microbullet” shot through a phospholipid bilayer would pass the components in which order?

a. polar >>> nonpolar>>>polar>>>nonpolar

b. polar>>>polar>>>nonpolar>>>nonpolar

c. nonpolar>>>polar>>>polar>>>nonpolar

d. polar>>>nonpolar>>>nonpolar>>>polar

56

Identify the mismatched pair:

a. hydrophilic – polar molecules

b. hydrogen ion – proton

c. acid solution – pH more than 7

d. water – universal solvent

57

Which of the following statements is true about a solution with a pH of 9, one with a pH of 2 and one with a pH of 7?

The pH 2 solution has a higher hydrogen (H+) ion concentration than the pH 7 solution.

58
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The relationship between mass and volume could best be described as

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Increasing volume results in an increase of mass

59

An atom whose atomic number is 10 has how many electrons in its outermost energy level?

8

60

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in their

Number of Neutrons

61
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Which of the following are found in the nucleus of an atom?

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Protons & Neutrons

62
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An element with 22 protons, 22 neutrons, and 22 electrons would have an atomic number of

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22

63
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Which of the following results from the making of a bond?

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Atoms become more stable

64

For an atom to be considered an ion

Protons can outnumber electrons

65
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An atom becomes an ion when

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It gains or loses electrons

66

Hydrogen bonds are very important in the functional shape of

Proteins & Nucleic acids

67
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The symbol 3CO2 represents

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3 molecules of carbon dioxide

68
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In a bottle of water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen of 1 atom and

An oxygen atom in a different molecule

69

Which of the following is not a compound?

Sodium

70

Atoms form bonds to

Fill their outer shells with electrons

71

Water is a polar molecule because

Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen

72

Potassium has one electron in its fourth shell, and chloride has seven electrons in its third shell. Which of the following is most likely to be true?

Potassium will give an electron to chloride to form an ionic bond

73

You mix sugar in water and stir until it’s completely dissolved. In this system, the water is the ______, the sugar is the______ and the end result is a _______.

Solvent; solute; solution

74
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Each element has a unique_________, which refers to the number of protons present in its atoms.

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Atomic number

75
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A molecule is ________.

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A bonding together of two or more atoms

76
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If lithium has an atomic number of 3, and an atomic mass of 7, it has________ neutron(s) in its nucleus.

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4

77
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Substances that are nonpolar and repelled by water are ________.

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Hydrophobic

78

A hydrogen bond is _________.

Formed when an electronegative atom of a molecule weakly interacts with a hydrogen atom that is already participating in a polar covalent bond

79
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An ionic bond is one in which ________.

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Two charged atoms have a mutual attraction due to electron transfer or donation

80
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A covalent is one in which?

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Two charged atoms have a mutual attraction due to electron transfer

81

Lipids ______.

Include triglycerides that serve as energy sources

82

is energy directly involved in moving matter.

Mechanical energy

83

DNA _______.

Contains protein-building instructions

84

The building blocks of RNA and DNA are

nucleotides

85
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A nonpolar covalent bond implies that ________.

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There is no difference in charge at the ends (the two poles) of the bond

86

A solution with a pH of 11 is ______ times as basic as one with.

1,000

87

Carbon is part of so many different substances because _______

A carbon atom generally forms four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms

88

A solution with a pH of 4 has_________.

More H+ ions than OH- ions

89

Hydrolysis could be correctly described as the ________

Breaking of a long-chain compound into its subunits by adding water molecules to its structure between the subunits Process of condensation in reverse.

90
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Genetic instructions are encoded in the base sequence of________; molecules of _________ function in processes using genetic instructions to construct proteins

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DNA;RNA

91

Membranes consist of ___________.

a. A phospholipid bilayer

b. proteins c. glycolipids and glycoproteins

d. cholesterol

e. all of the above are correct

92

The nucleolus is the site where

The protein and RNA subunits of ribosomes are assembled

93

Which of the following forms of energy travels in varying wavelengths, such as visible light, infrared waves, radio waves, ultraviolet waves, and X-rays?

electromagnetic energy

94
  1. refers to radiant light and heat from the sun.
  1. Solar energy
95

The _________ is free of ribosomes and curves through the cytoplasm like connecting pipes; the main site of lipid synthesis.

Smooth ER

96
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Mitochondria convert energy stored in ______ to forms that the cell can use, principally ATP.

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Carbon compounds

97

______are sacs of enzymes. They digest or break down worn out organelles so that the material can be recycled and reused by the cell.

Lysosomes

98

Two classes of cytoskeletal elements underlie nearly all movements of eukaryotic cells; they are __________

Microtubules and microfilaments

99
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White blood cells use________ to devour disease agents invading your body.

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Phagocytosis

100
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In a lipid bilayer, tails point inward and form a(n) _______ region that excludes water.

Hydrophobic

101

Which of the following is not a form of active transport?

Bulk flow

102

Which of the following is not a form of passive transport?

Exocytosis

103

O2, CO2, H2O, and other small, electrically neutral molecules move across the cell membrane by________.

Passive transport

104

Ions such as H+, Na+, K+, and Ca++ move across cell membranes against its concentration gradient by_________.

Active transport

105

An enzyme is best described as _________.

Protein & Fat

106

Which is not true of enzyme behavior?

An individual enzyme can catalyze a wide variety of different reactions

107
  • When NAD+ combines with hydrogen, the NAD+ is __________.
  • A substance that gains electrons is ________.
  • Reduced
108

As to major function, NAD+, FAD, and NADP+ are classified as _________.

cofactors that function as coenzymes

109

When a phosphate bond is linked to ADP it then makes ATP, this bond __________.

releases a large amount of usable energy when the phosphate group is split off during hydrolysis

110

Glycolysis would quickly halt if the process ran out of _________, which serves as the hydrogen and electron acceptor.

NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

111

The ultimate electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is _________.

Oxygen (O2)

112

When glucose is used as an energy source, the largest amount of ATP is generated by the ________ portion of the entire respiratory process.

electron transport chain

113
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What is the name of the process by which reduced NADH transfers electrons along a chain of acceptors to oxygen so as to form water and in which the energy released along the way is used to generate ATP?

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the electron transport chain

114
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Pyruvic acid can be regarded as the end product of _________.

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glycolysis

115

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) production by chemiosmosis involves __________.

a. H+ concentration and electric gradients across a membrane

b. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) synthesis

c. formation of ATP in the inner mitochondrial compartment

d. all of the above

116

During the fermentation pathways, a net yield of two ATP is produced from __________; the NAD+ necessary for _________ is regenerated during the fermentation reactions.

glycolysis; glycolysis

117

The replication of DNA occurs

between the growth phase of interphase

118
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is o carry out the genetic instruction (provided by DNA) for protein synthesis

major function of RNA

119

Diploid refers to ______.

having two chromosomes of each type in somatic cells

120

Somatic cells are __________ cells; germ cells are _________ cells.

BODY; MEIOTIC

121

If a parent cell has sixteen chromosomes and undergoes mitosis, the resulting cells will have__________ chromosomes.

c. sixteen

122

The correct order of the stages of mitosis is.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

123

The nuclear envelope breaks completely into numerous tine, flattened vesicles. Now the chromosomes are free to interact with microtubules that are extending toward them, from the poles of the forming spindle.” These sentences describe the __________ of mitosis.

prophase

124

During ______, sisters chromatids of each chromosome are separated from each other, and those former partners, now chromosomes move to opposite poles.

anaphase

125

In the process of cytokinesis, cleavage furrows are associated with _______ cell division, and cell plate formation is associated with ______ cell division.

animal; plant

126

Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating ________.

sugar and phosphate molecules

127

In DNA, complementary base-pairing occurs between.

adenine and thymine

128
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The chemical symbol O:O means.

the atoms are double bonded

129

Adenine and guanine are _________.

double-ringed pyrimidines

130
  1. in which electrons are shared unequally is termed a polar covalent bond.
  1. covalent bond
131
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Transcription _________.

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occurs during the synthesis of any type of RNA by use of a DNA template

132

________ carry(ies) amino acids to ribosomes, where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide.

tRNA Transfer ribonucleic acid

133
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  1. The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is the
  1. tRNA
134

Transfer RNA differs from other types of RNA because it ___.

carries an amino acid at one end

135
  1. The important cholesterol-based molecules are
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  1. steroids
136
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______ and ______ are found in RNA but not in DNA.

Uracil; ribose

137
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You notice that you cannot read your book through a test tube of patient fluid held against the print, making it so blurred as to be unreadable. There is no precipitant in the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days in a rack. What type of liquid is this?

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colloid

138

are built from nucleotide building blocks.

Nucleic acids

139

are two of the three major types of lipids.

Triglycerides and phospholipids

140
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  1. are built from monosaccharide building blocks.
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  1. Carbohydrates
141
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  1. The genetic information is coded in DNA by the.
  2. is atomic number 6 and has four electrons in its outermost (valence) electron shell.
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  1. sequence of the nucleotides
  2. Carbon
142
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Which of the following is not true of proteins?

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Their function depends on their three-dimensional shape.

They appear to be the molecular carriers of coded hereditary information.

They have both functional and structural roles in the body..

They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity.

143
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  1. TRUE regarding the pH of a solution?
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  1. Proteins
  2. The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution is.
144
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contains a carboxyl group (-COOH), which may ionize to form an acidic solution.

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R group of amino acid

145
  1. Foods are broken down into their building blocks by adding water. This would be an example of which characteristic of water?
  2. Buffers tend to prevent dramatic changes in the pH when __________ are added to a solution.
  1. Water acts as a reactant.
  2. proton donors or proton acceptors
146
  1. If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have which of the following?
  2. Select the correct statement about isotopes.
  3. The chemical symbol O=O means
  1. 74 protons
  2. Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic masses.
  3. the atoms are double bonded
147
  1. Which of the following is a property of matter?
  2. is determined by the total number of protons and neutrons
  1. Matter can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states.
  2. Atomic mass
148

Which of the following is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?

ATP

149

are necessary for salivary amylase to hydrolyze starch to glucose in your mouth. Thus, water acts as an important reactant.

water molecules

150
  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a form of matter?
  1. X rays are a type of energy.
151

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the

removal of a water molecule between each two units

152

What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix

secondary structure

153

In plasma, a typical body fluid, protein floating around would be considered to be which of the following?

a solute, specifically both a colloid and an electrolyte.Colloids are large particles dispersed in body fluids. Since most proteins have a negative charge, they are also considered to be electrolytes.

154

Cortisol is a type of lipid hormone. Which type of lipid would cortisol be classified as?

cortisol is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol.

155

Electrolytes are charged particles called ions that are dissolved in body fluids. Which of the following ions would be considered a major anion in the body?

chloride is a major extracellular anion (negative ion).

156

Cell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community include all of the following except?

peroxisomes

157

Which statement about enzymes is false?

Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.

158

which are capable of conducting an electrical current?

ions, which are capable of conducting an electrical current.

159

is a reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

substrate

160

Which of the following does NOT represent an accurate hierarchy in the natural combination of matter?

When two or more similar kinds of atoms bind, they form an isotope.

161

In order for the DNA molecule to get "short and fat" to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called

histones

162
  1. Sugars contain all & EXCEPT

.

  1. CHO- carbon hydrogen oxygen EXCEPT calcium
163
  1. Some hormones enter cells via
  2. Sucrose is a
  1. receptor-mediated endocytosis
  2. disaccharide
164

Which of the following is true regarding the generation of a membrane potential?

Both potassium and sodium ions can "leak" through the cell membrane due to diffusion

165

Transcytosis is?

transporting an endosome from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by exocytosis

166
  1. The drug Procaine (also known as Novocaine) blocks sodium (Na+) channels in plasma membranes. Given this information, which one of the following statements is most likely true about a cell bathed in a solution that contains Procaine?
  1. Na+ will be unable to cross the membrane by facilitated diffusion.
167
  1. Why are free radicals so dangerous to cells, and how are they dealt with by the body?
  1. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that cause havoc in any cellular environment by reacting with things they should not. Cells with peroxisomes have enzymes specific to reducing free radicals into less reactive chemicals.
168
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  1. Which of the following is not an electrolyte?
  2. HCO3-.
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  1. H2O
  2. a bicarbonate ion

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