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first second and third line of defense

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created 6 years ago by arieldshae

updated 6 years ago by arieldshae

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what is included in the first line of defense

mechanical chemical and microbial


what are some mechanical/ physical defense mechanisms the body has

the skin, epithelial linings, beating actions of ciliated epithelial cells and flowing motion of the mucous, and also the flushing action of the urinary tract. also things like chewing and blinking


what are some chemical defense mechanisms the body has (not used in immune response

1.pH (skin and stomach)
2.lysozyme (tissues and lyse many bacterial cells)
3.beta lysins(in the blood, lyse bacterial cells)
4.sebaceous gland secreations(fatty acids lower pH)
5.lactic acid secreted from many skin normal flora organisms
6.lactoferrin and transferrin


what are lactoferrin and transferrin?

both are sidophores. lactoferrin is sereted in mothers milk and transferrin is located in the blood


what do sidophores do

binds iron to make less available


what is done in microbial defense

our normal flora serves as part of defense due to the fact that competition for nutrients, space and other things creates harsh enviornment (microbial interference)


what is included in the second line of defense

internal and non-specific, involves the immune system (all 3 do really) things like
1. inflammation
2. phagocytosis
3. fever
4. interferon
5. complement


what is inflammation and when does it occur

it is an animals reaction to injury and/or infection and is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain. it occurs due to an increase in blood flow to the area- blood fluids move from vascular system directly into injured/ infected tissue, blood cells (wbc) move into the area, fibrin clot forms to trap microoganisms


how does phagocytosis work

certain wbc engulf foreign particles invading the body. it is a type o endocytosis where cytoplasmic extension form around the particles to be engulfed forming a vesicle. the lysisome is a digestive sac


what is forms when a phagosome fuses with a lysosome.

it forms a phagolysosome so the particles can then be processed, also can destroy by oxidative burst mechanism


what white blood cells are phagocytic

neutrophiles, macrophage, and eosinophiles


what is a fever

an abnormal increase in body temperature


what causes a fever

usually infection or tissue injury and external agents


what can pathogens produce

pyrogenic agents


what are pyrogenic agents

agents that induce fever and they are called exogenous pyrogens


what are endogenous pyrogens

released by certain wbc during phagocytosis


what are the functions of fevers

to accelerate the immune response and raise the temp above optimal growth for pathogens


what are two other defenses used in the second line

1. interferon
2. complement


what are the two major parts that make up blood

1. formed components
2. soluble components


what are formed components

cells (rbc and wbc) and platelets


what are soluble components

antibodies, clotting factors, complement, albumin


where and blood cells produced?

in bone marrow


what are red blood cells

lack a nucleus, carry oxygen, and are not immine cells


what is another name for red blood cells



what are platelets

small cell like, lack nuclei, prevent leakage


what do granulocytes white blood look like

they have a granular appearance because of the large amount of lysosomes


what is a neutrophile (a polymorphonuclear granulocytes)

card image

a phagocytic granulocyte that leaves blood and enters other tissues.


what is a basophile

a non-phagocytic granulocyte that is involved in inflammatory and allergic responses; precursors of mast cell


what is secreated in basophiles

heparin, histamine, serotonin and things like that


what is a eosinophile

a phagocytic granulocyte that can leave blood and enter other tissues (minor role) and involved in allergic response and in helmith infection


what doe agranulocyte wbc look like

they lack granular appearance because of fewer lysosomes


what is a lymphocyte

a non-phagocytic and involved in immune response


where are t cells derived

in the thymus


what are the functions of T lymphocytes

they regulate immune response, and interact specifically with antigens and thee are several different types


where are b cells derived

bone marrow


what are the functions of b lymphocytes

produce antibodies and interact specifically with antigens


what are natural killer cells

precursors of macrophage which are highly phagocytic some are fixed in certain tissues (fixed macrophae) and some move from the blood to the other tissues (wandering macrophage)


what does the immune system do

determines between self and non-self when immune system can't many problems arise. they label things to tell other cells to do it . they act as survalence


what is the job of lymphatic system

to deliver all liquids of blood stream back into the blood stream


what is a macrophage

an antigen presenting cells, bursting


t cells becomes locked on an antigen once eposed and becomes a clone and receptor units surface



what kind of defense is the third line of defense

internal and specific


what is the definition of antibodies

soluble proteins produced in the blood, produced by cells in response to antigens.


what is another name for antibodies



what do b cells have on their membrane and why

antibodies to bind to the antigens to activate antibody production

card image

structure of an antibody?

card image

1. four polypeptide chains
2. variable region
3. constant region


what makes up the four polypeptide region and what are they held together by

held together by disulfide bridges, two light chains and two heavy chains


what makes up the variable region

portion of light and heavy chains where antigen binds, specifically for every Ab therefore vairies in different Ab, each Ab molecule has two Ag binding sites(amino acid sequence is unique because ot contains antigen binding site)


what makes up the constant region

portion of light and heavy chains that is the same for all Ab of the same type (class)(sequence of amino acids is the same


what are the different classes of immunoglobulins

1.IgG -gamma globulin and can cross placenta
2.IgM- 5 antibodies linked
3.IgA- paired or single
4.IgE- exelon
5.IgD- delta function unclear


what is the most common immunoglobulin?

IgG (gamma)


what is the largest immunoglobulin

IgM (mu)


which immunoglobulin is secreted in mothers milk

IgA (alpha)


which immunoglobulin is invloved in allergic response?

IgE (exelon)


true or false antibodies last forever in the blood

false- the levels decrease over time however b cells produce them do remain and will quickly produce antibodies on a second exposure to an Ag


what is it called when Ab are produced in response to being exposed a second time to an Ag. what is it called the first time?

1. secondary immune response
2. primary immune response


what is an antigen

substance that reacts with Ab or Ag-specific receptors on T cells and they cause a immune response


what is the difference between a Hapten and a complete antigen

~ hapten las lower molecular weight, Ab will combne wiwht a Hapten ut Haptens do no by themselves induce Ab formaton and are often part of an antigen
~ a complete antigen will iduce Ab formation, Immunogen


why do protiens make the best antigens

because of their diverse structure


what are types of haptens

sugars, amino acids etc.


what are types of immunogens

proteins, lipoprotiens, polysaccharides, some nucleic acids, teichoic acids


what are antigenic determinants( epitopes)?

portions of the antigen that Ab or T cell receptors are directed at


how do antigenic determinants contribute to haptens and antigens?

haptens are usually epitopes and antigens have several


what are lattices

secondary Ag-Ab complexes, primary Ag-Ab complexes are smaler and are not lattices


what are Ag-Ab complexes formed with crosslinking

called lattices, and is a large complex made of a lattuce of Ab and Ag connected together


why do lattices form

because an A molecule has two Ag binding sites and many Ag have more than one epitope


why type of Ag-Ab complexes are there?

Neutralization, precipitation, and agglutination


what happens in Neutralization?

neutralizes toxins and viruses by Ab binding to toxins and the active of the toxin being blocked (called antitoxins)


what happens in precipitation? where does this occur

soluble Ag is removed from solution as a result of the Ag-Ab lattice that form and a precipitate results (called precipitins)and occurs on the laboratory


what happens in Agglutination?

Ag is a whole cell or particle and the Ag-Ab complexes clump together forming aggregates (called Agglutinins)


wht i a specific type of agglutination?

Hemagglutinaton - ag are rbc, serves as the asis behind blood typing becaue Ab are against different surface Ag on rbc


what is the clinical significance of Ag-Ab reactions?

1. testing drugs in urine (agglutination)
2. blood typing (agglutination)
3. pregnancy test(agglutination)
5. immunofluorescence
6. radioimmunoassays
7.test for exposure to certain pathogens


what hapens in ELSIA ?

enzymes linked to immunosorbent assay, Ab are linked with enzymes. acolor change (reaction) will occcur of you add a secific substrate and it allowas you to visualize the results of ag-Ab complexes that would otherwise be too small of difficult to visualize


what is an immunofluorescence test

Ab are linked with a flurescent tag so we can visualize the reaction


what is a radioimmunoassay test

Ab is linked with a radioscope, deeloped on x-ray film to visualize


what does complement define

a group of protiens


where is complement located

in blood serum


what is a complement cascade

group of many protiens that interact with one another, exist in inactive forms and must be activated, they bring abut or complement the immune response . not antibodies


what are the functions of complements?

1. lysis of Ab coated cells
2. mediate inflammatory response
3. opsonins- stimulate phagocytic cells (also involved in apoptosis)


how are complements activated in the classical pathway

1. Ab binds to Ag
2. recognition of Ag-Ab complex t one complement component (protein)occurs and that component becomes active
3. complement proteins each stimulate the activation of thee next complement


once complements are activated what can form?

MAC (memory attack complex)


what is anaphylaxis

a type of allergic reaction


what is a cell mediator

they trigger an extreme hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity=allergy, an allergy is an extreme immune response


what is involved in anaphylaxis

components of complement cascade


what is complement fixation

when a complement binds to an Ag-Ab complex it is fixed or used up and is no longer available. can use to detect Ab eqpecially in low concentrations (remember example)very sensetive


when using sheep rbc and Ag and Ab, how do you interpret results

if sheep rbc lyse: + for Ab
if sheep rbc do notlyse: - for Ab


what is humoral immunity and when is it effective most

protection that involves antibodies produced in response to antigens. most effective for bacterial toxins, bacteria and viruses prior to entering cells


what is cell mediated immunity and when is it effective most

protection involves t-cells produced in response to antigens and is more effective than humoral wen antigen is inside host cell


what is innate immunity

immunity you are born with. typically involves 1st and 2nd response. (also born with the ability to acquire immunity)


what is acquired immunty

obtained througout lifetime in other way than heredity due to exposure


what is active immunity

individual produces Ab against the Ag


what are the types of active immunity

- naturally acuqired active immunity- contact wih Ag by normal activities or exposure
- artifically acquired active immunity- vaccine


how does a vaccine work

take toxin,disarm it but keep enough so that your immune system recognizes it as the same thing so it can build up a resistance


what are some artifically acquired active immune things used

-killed irulent cells or virus
-living attenuated (weakened) cells or virus (whole cells)
- cell or viral component- a cellular and better than living attenuated
-toxoids- inactive bacterial toxins


what is passive immunity

individual does not produce Ab so they are passively recieved


what are the types of passive immunity

- naturally acuqired active immunity- transfer of Ab from one individual to another, Ab across placenta or in milk secretions
- artifically acquired active immunity- produced Ab( in another animal or by laboratory methods) introduced into individual short lived response, but immdiate.


why doesn't injected passive immunity last long

because individual does not produce it so their is no memory cell to reproduce it after use

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