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Crime prevention Test 1 review

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created 2 years ago by naline13
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updated 2 years ago by naline13

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1

List the official measures of crime in the United States.

  • FBI uniform crime (UCR)
  • Criminal court filings
  • Conviction records
  • Jail/prison
2

Describe the most common official measure. make sure that you discuss potential criticisms.

  • Police departments can adjust their figures to enhance image
  • Individual officers have the ability to adjust the crime rate
3

Identify and describe the National data source used to measure victimization in the united states. Make sure that you discuss issues concerning this source.

  • Panel survey of households across the U.S.
  • Household member 12 years old of age and older
  • Reported and unreported crime

Issue:

  • Lack of knowledge of what constitutes a particular crime
  • Memory recall
  • Question wording
4

Define and describe fear of crime

Refers to the fear of being a victim of crime as opposed to the actual probability of being a victim of crime.

5

Describe what is known about the relationship between Fear and Crime

  • Level of fear exceeds actual level of crime
  • people report fear more than crime
  • some support for previous victimization and fear of crime
6

Identify potential explanation for differences in findings concerning victimization

  • Vicarious victimization or vicarious fear
  • perceived vulnerability
  • Incivilities/ Disorder
  • variance in measurement of fear.
7

Define Crime Prevention

Any action designed to reduce the actual level of crime and/ or the percieved fear of crime.

8

Crime prevention

elimination of crime before initial occurrence or further activity

9

Crime Control

Managing of behavior

  • Does not address fear of crime.
10

Describe the Public health model of prevention. Make sure that you identify and describe the different tiers.

  1. Primary
  2. Secondary
  3. Tertiary
11

Primary

Action taken to avoid the initial development of the disease or problem

12

Secondary

Focuses on individual and situations that exhibit early signs of disease

13

Tertiary

Where the disease or problem already manifested itself.

14

Primary Crime Prevention

identifies conditions of the physical and social environment that provide opportunities for precipitate criminal acts.

example:

  • Environment design
  • General deterrence
  • public edication
  • Social crime prevention
15

Secondary Crime Prevention

engages in early identification of potential offenders and seeks to intervene

example:

  • identification and prediction
  • substances abuse
  • community policing
16

Tertiary Crime Prevention

Deals with actual offender and involves intervention... is such a fashion that, they will not commit.

example:

  • Specific deterrence
  • Incapacitation
  • Rehabilitation and treatment.
17

Why are design changes used as a method of crime prevention?

  • More difficult to commit crime
  • Effort greater than the reward
  • mark risky
18

Define Defensible space

A modern which inhibits crime by creating a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself

19

Territoriality

The ability and desire of legitimate users of an area to lay claim to the area

20

Surveillance

Any action that increase the chance that offenders will be observed

21

Image

The outward appearance of an area or property as cared for by whose who belong in the area.

22

Milieu

Idea that placement of a community within a larger low-crime, high-surveillance area will inhibit criminal activity

23

define crime prevention through environmental design. Discuss potential criticisms as well.

Efforts to alter the physical design of an area or location to impact crime and fear of crime.

e.g. House, apartment, building, hotel, parking lots..

24

Discuss how CPTED is supposed to prevent crime

  1. Directly
  2. Indirectly
25

Access Control

Regulation of who is able to come and go from an area or business

example:

  • Gates communities
  • Road closures
  • Cul-de-sacs
  • Dead-end-street
26

Target Hardening

  • Make potential criminal targets more difficult to victimize
  • Increasing effort for offender to commit crime

Example:

  • Locks
  • Bars on window
  • safe
27

Activity Support

  • Encourage law-obiding use of the community and area
  • Functions that enhanced interaction between citizens and legitimate users

Example:

  • Street fairs
  • Community days
  • Farmers market
  • Environmental Programs
28

Describe neighborhood-based interventions. How are they supported to work? Basic goals?

  • Residents attitudes about their community
  • Design to exert contral
  • Community members efforts to reduce and prevent crime

Basic Goals:

  • Community awareness
  • Problem solving
29

Neighborhood and Block Watches

Increase community awareness and problem solving

30

Citizen Patrols

Often a key element of neighborhood watch and represent an active role in surveillance efforts.

31

Discuss the role of guardianship in neighborhood crime prevention.

  • Relies on building guardianship (citizen action)
  • Primary guardians
  • Acting on what's seen

Fails:

  • Individual is interrupted act one of the above stages
32

Describe what research suggests about citizen participation in neighborhood prevention programs.

  1. Impact of activities on crime and fear of crime
  2. Impact of organizing on social cohesion, sense of territoriality and neighborliness
33

What obstacles inhibit neighborhood organization

  • Opportunity [to participate
  • if available, not all participate
  • Variation in participation
  • Difficult to maintain
34

Define and describe Deterrence

  • Influence by fear
  • Major form of crime prevention
  • Corner store of criminal justice
35

Distinct types of deterrence General

Anyone who hasn't done crime

  • Primary prevention
36

Distinct types of deterrence Specific

Those who had contact with criminal justice system (Done crime)

  • Tertiary Prevention
37

Deterrence theory SEVERITY

Pain must offset pleasure of criminal act

38

Deterrence theory CERTAINTY

Chances of being caught and punished for one's behavior

39

Deterrence theory CELERITY

refers to the swiftness of societal response to an offense

40

Define and describe developmental crime prevention

  • Targets the potential of individuals to become criminal
  • Identifying the causes of crime and criminality that are related to an individual's dispusition to commit crime
41

Individual risk factors

  • Low intelligence and attainment
  • Low empathy
  • Impilsiveness
  • Poor social cognitive
42

Family Risk Factors

  • Family criminality
  • Large family size
  • Poor parental supervision
  • Harsh punishment
  • Poor/cold family attachment
  • broken home
  • Child abuse and neglect
43

Skill Training

  • Teach children how to recognize problem situations and react appropriately
  • Self-control anger management, feeling recognition, image building. Identify need ans concerns of others problem solving.
44

Parent Training

Focus on parent's preparation and ability to provide an appropriate environment for children

  • Target pregnant women
  • Target families
45

Preschool Program

Early preparation of children for school to reduce the potential for school problems and delinquency.

46

Discuss how developmental crime prevention fits into the positivist school of criminology

Relies on ideas identifying the causes of crime and criminality that are related to an individual's disposition to commit crime.


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