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Chapter 4 MASTERING A&P HOMEWORK

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1

Which tissue is correctly paired with its primary cell type?

BONE: OSTEOBLAST

Osteoblasts/cytes are the primary cell type for bone.

2

The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________. ANSWER

Elastic Cartilage

3

What are the three main components of connective tissue?

GROUNND SUBSTANCE, FIBERS, AND CELLS

4

What tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels?

THEY HAVE COMMON ORIGIN, MESENCHYNE.

5

What tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels?

OSSEOUS TISSUE

6

Single row of elongated cells, but some cells don’t reach the free surface

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

7

Commonly possesses cilia that move dust and mucus out of the respiratory airways

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

8

Lines kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands

Simple cuboidal epithelium

9

Provides lining of urethra of males and parts of
pharynx

Stratified columnar epithelium

10

Forms lining of oral cavity, anal canal, and vagina

Stratified squamous epithelium

11

Forms walls of capillaries and air sacs of lungs

Simple squamous epithelium

12

Consists of several layers of cube-shaped, elongated, and irregular cells, allowing an expandable lining

Transitional epithelium

13

is found in soft tissues and does not provide
primary support.

Reticular connective tissue
Muscle tissue

14

Which of the following tissues lines the majority if the digestive tract?

Simple columnar

epithelial tissue lines most of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the anus.

15

A type of connective tissue that provides primary
support and protection for body structures is ____________.

osseous tissue

Because ifits rocklike hardness, bone has an exceptional ability to support and protect body structures.

16

provides contrast to the specimen. Increased contrast
allows for a more precise microscopic study of the sample.

Staining

17

Cells Found in Connective Tissues

fibroblasts
mast cells
macrophages
plasma cell
leukocytes

18

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
TRANSITIONAL
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

secretion and absorption

Protection from wear and tear
STRECH
filtration and diffusion

19

You observe a muscle that has intercalated discs, and contracts under involuntary conditions. What type of muscle must
this be?

Cardiac muscle is characterized by the presence of intercalated discs. Additionally, cardiac muscle is under an involuntary control mechanism. While smooth muscle is indeed regulated by involuntary
mechanisms, it does not contain intercalated disks. Lastly, uterine muscle is smooth muscle so intercalated disks would not be present.

20

The proximal tubule of the nephron (kidney tubule) in the kidney is composed of which type of epithelium?

simple cuboidal epithelium

21

The wall of the alveolus (air sac) in the lung is
composed of which type of epithelium?

simple squamous epithelium

transitional epithelium

simple columnar epithelium

22

You observe a multicellular gland with branched ducts
and saclike secretory areas. What type of gland would this most
likely be?

a compound alveolar exocrine gland

23

Why are histological sections underline stained?

To enhance contrast

24

Select the correct statement regarding the stem cells of
connective tissue.

"Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.

25

The epithelium of the esophagus is composed of which
type of epithelial tissue?

stratified squamous epithelium

26

is classified based upon how many layers of cells are present, and upon the shape of the cells comprising those layers. The number of cell layers and the cells comprising the layers relate to the function of the

Epithelial tissue,epithelial tissue

27

Which part of the neuron (a specialized nerve cell)
receives signals from other cells and is also the main metabolic
region of the neuron?

soma

Correct Yes, the soma cell body receives inputs from other cells and sends the information to the axon. But unlike a dendrite, it also is the main metabolic and nutritional center of the cell.

28

Which of the three muscle cell types has multiple nuclei?

Correct Yes, skeletal muscle cells are elongated and many can be
quite long; therefore, they have multiple nuclei.

29

Which of the following is a single-celled layer of
epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes?

simple squamous

30

Which of the following statements concerning artifacts
is true?

Artifacts are the minor distortions seen in cells from staining procedures.

31

Which muscle cell type has visible striations but is
not under voluntary control?

Correct Yes, cardiac cells, like skeletal cells, have visible striations but are under voluntary control.

32

An infection may occur in a tissue injury. Why?

The increased availability of nutrients allows
microorganisms to replicate. The skin and mucous membranes are
body's first line of defense and are mostly impenetrable to
microorganisms, unless broken or damaged by tissue injury.

33

A many-layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and
flat cells at its surface would be classified as

stratified squamous

34

is a mechanism for the import of materials by certain
cell types. Image A illustrates the export (secretion) of cell
products by the glandular epithelial cells.

Phagocytosis

35

Phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis.

FLASE

36

secretion involves the release of materials from
intracellular secretory vesicles into the duct by exocytosis.

Merocrine

37

Which of the following epithelial tissue types is best
adapted for the rapid transport of materials across its membranes?

Simple squamous epithelial tissue, composed of a single layer of
flattened cells, occurs wherever small molecules must pass through a membrane quickly.

38

epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells,
but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.

Pseudostratified columnar

39

Which of the following apical epithelial cell
structures functions in the movement of materials across the
surface of the cell?

The cilia on an epithelium bend and move in coordinated waves,
pushing mucus, and other substances over the epithelial surface.

40

After open heart surgery, the heart's pumping efficiency may be
reduced because

both adhesions and fibrosis will interfere with the
heart's normal pumping activity and reduce its effectiveness

Adhesions are fibrous
scars that form between internal organs, which joins them together
abnormally. When tissue is injured, fibrous connective tissue
reproduces rapidly and forms a scar. This tissue type lacks the
normal function of cardiac tissue.

41

is a water-soluble, complex glycoprotein that is
secreted by goblet cells.

Mucin

42

WHAT is observed in the apical, not basal, layer of cells.

Cell fragmentation

43

are regenerated by division in the basal layer and migrate toward the
apical surface to replace cells lost by fragmentation. Cell division
is indicated by the mitotic phase cells located in the deepest (basal)
layer of the glandular epithelium.

Cells

44

of the kidneys are designed for absorption and secretion.

simple cuboidal and columnar epithelia

45

Pseudostratified
columnar epithelium ciliated variety

lines most of the respiratory tract

46

Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.

Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.

47

is an innervated, avascular tissue that exhibits polarity. Epithelial tissue is also highly regenerative.

Epithelial tissue

48

Which of the following statements about collagen is true?

Collagen is a fibrous protein that provides tensile strength to certain
connective tissues.

Collagen is a protein designed to help tissues retain
fluids for tissue cushioning.

Collagen is a fibrous elastic material that allows
certain connective tissues to resume their original length and
shape upon being stretched.

Collagen is a gel-like substance that is found in the
extracellular matrix of certain connective tissues.

Collagen is a substance that forms delicate networks
around blood vessels.

49

are found in areas subject to wear and tear.

Stratified squamous epithelia

50

derived from mesenchyme
moves blood through the body
moves food through the GI tract
Has a surface to which nothing is attached

Tendon
Cardiac Muscles
Smooth Muscle
SKIN epidermis

51

of skin is designed for protection, not absorption from
the external environment.

The keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

52

is derived from the ectoderm.
is derived from the mesoderm.

Nervous tissue
Connective tissue

53

Heart muscle cells would tend to separate without

intercalated discs

54

Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue?

Collagen fibers provides high tensile strength.

55

forms muscle and connective tissue. Ectoderm forms nervous tissue. Endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm all contribute to formation of epithelia.

Mesoderm

56

The correct order of events in tissue repair, from first to last, is

inflammation, organization, and regeneration

57

How is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage?

Fibers are not normally visible.

58

is produced by goblet cells, which are unicellular glands and lack ducts.

Mucous

59

produce secretions such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, and so on.

Merocrine glands

60

All arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme has a fluid ground substance containing fine sparse
fibers and star-shaped mesenchymal cells. It arises during the
early weeks of embryonic development and eventually differentiates
(specializes) into all other connective tissue cells. However,
some mesenchymal cells remain and provide a source of new cells in
mature connective tissues.

connective tissues

61

is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity (epithe = laid on, covering). In addition to coverings and linings, epithelial cells can also form glands, called glandular epithelium.

Epithelial tissue

62

regulates and controls body functions.

Nervous tissue

63

All connective tissues arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.

TRUE

64

are not included in this view of areolar tissue, a type of connective tissue proper.

Epithelial cells

65

are found in areas involved in filtration.

are designed for filtration and exchange

Simple squamous epithelia

66

are found in areas that stretch, in particular the ureters and urinary bladder. Simple cuboidal epithelia are designed for absorption and secretion (not
stretching). is found in the urinary system. It lines the ureters, bladder and proximal part of the urethra-organs that are subjected to distention or stretching as urine passes through or fills them.

transitional (not simple cuboidal)epithelia

Transitional epithelium

67

Connective tissue matrix is composed of

Fibers and ground substance

68

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as

endocrine

69

would not normally be expected to be found within the ECM of connective tissues

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

70

Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function form

Tissue

71

Which tissue type is responsible for regulating and controlling body functions?

Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system, which regulates and controls body functions. Note: the other control system of the body is the endocrine system, which is primarily composed of glandular epithelial tissue.

72

Which statement best describes connective tissue?

usually contains a large amount of matrix

73

Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ______ connective tissue.

embryonic

74

Which is true concerning muscle tissue?

highly cellular and well vascularized

75

with unbranched ducts are "simple"; those with branched ducts are "compound". Unicellular exocrine glands do not have ducts.

Multicellular exocrine glands

76

which produces and secretes inflammation-triggering chemicals such as histamine. Note the secretory granules within the pictured cell.

mast cell

77

secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities.

glands

78

Which of the following describes a holocrine gland?

Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. Sebaceous (oil) glands are the only example of holocrine glands in the body.

79

Which type of gland produces hormones?

Endocrine glands, which are ductless glands, secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding them. The hormones then diffuse toward and pass through a nearby capillary wall to enter the blood. Circulating throughout the body in the blood stream is how hormones eventually reach their target cells.

80

Arteries, veins, and lymphatics keep clots from sticking as long as their ________ is intact and healthy.

endothelium

81

Without macrophages, wound healing is delayed. Why?

Macrophages phagocytose many foreign materials, as well as cell debris and dead cells. This cleans the wound, allowing granulation tissue to form.

82

Which of the following is true about epithelia?

Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.

83

Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?

simple columnar

84

is a role of some connective tissues, namely adipose tissue.

Insulation

85

Loose connective tissues
Dense connective tissues
Support tissue
Blood and blood forming tissue

(adipose tissue)
(tendon)
(cartilage and bone)
(red marrow)

86

the movement of substances into the body, is a role of epithelial tissue. Roles of connective tissue include: binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation of substances, via blood, within the body.

Absorption

87

Which of the following is not a step in tissue repair?

Formation of new stem cells

88

Mucous cells are

unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucin, a protein that combines with water to form mucus.

89

Cell type not found in areolar connective tissue.

chondrocytes

90

Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands?

Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.

91

The first step in tissue repair involves

Inflammation

92

The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength, which allows them to absorb shock, is because they possess ________.

collagen fibers

93

Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue.

Its primary function is nutrient storage.

94

Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is found in bone?

blood vessels

95

which is defined by the presence of an apical surface and a basal surface that differ in both structure and function.

epithelia exhibit polarity

96

A is a cord of connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones.

tendon

97

is a protein typically found in epithelial tissues, notably the cornified layers of the epidermis. Keratin would therefore not be found in significant quantities in the ECM of connective tissues.

Keratin

98

The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is

collagen

99

Edema occurs when

areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area

100

Choose the answer that shows the correct order for the standard preparation of a histological specimen.

(1) fixation, (2) sectioning, (3)
staining

101

are anchoring junctions-mechanical couplings scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells to prevent their separation. They bind epithelial cells together, but they don't increase their surface area.

Desmosomes

102

The is a non-cellular, adhesive sheet between the epithelium above and
connective tissue below. It acts as a (1) selective filter that determines which molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue are allowed to enter the epithelium, and (2) scaffolding along which epithelial cells can migrate to repair a wound. It does not increase the surface area of the epithelium.

basal lamina

103

are small finger-like projections that greatly increase the surface area of epithelial cells (thus epithelial tissues), an important attribute of tissues that have a role in absorption and secretion.

Microvilli

104

The blast cell for blood production is the

hemocytoblast

105

In adult humans, most cancers are carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. These include cancers of the skin, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. Which of the four basic tissue types is involved, and why?

Epithelial tissue: it is exposed to the environment and is constantly dividing, both factors allowing more opportunity for damage and overcoming growth control mechanisms.

106

The simple columnar epithelium that form absorptive cells of the digestive tract have which characteristic?

dense microvilli

107

The is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous
epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis). Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.

cutaneous membrane

108

Mucous that protects your stomach lining is secreted by which type of epithelial cell?

These specialized simple columnar epithelial cells are goblet cells.

109

Which tissues have little to no functional regenerative capacity?

Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity, and they are routinely replaced by scar tissue.

110

Most (except cartilage) contain blood vessels. A capillary is observed in the
figure of areolar connective tissue.

onnective tissues

111

is caused by the addition of calcium salts to a tissue. This makes the extracellular matrix very hard and rigid.

Calcification

112

Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.

Stratified squamous epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.

113

requires the regeneration of new cells to replace the damaged ones

Tissue repair

114

is normally avascular, so nutrients required for healing must diffuse from distant blood vessels, which delays the healing process.

Cartilage

115

The basement membrane is located between which of the following tissue types?

epithelial and connective tissue Epithelial tissue secretes the superficial basal lamina region of the basement membrane, whereas connective tissue produces the deeper reticular layer of the basement membrane.

116

Which of the following is NOT a function of areolar connective tissue?

ans. . movement of body parts storing nutrients as fat holding body fluids
defending the body against infection support and binding of other tissues.

While areolar connective tissue holds body fluids, stores nutrients, supports and binds other tissues, and defends the body against infection, movement of body parts is a task performed by the three different types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

117

Epithelial cells have all of the following properties EXCEPT

ANS.. poor regeneration specialized contacts polarity a basement membrane Epithelial cells are supported by connective tissue, not adipose tissue

118

The stroma of most lymphoid organs is composed of _________.

reticular connective tissue Reticular connective
tissue forms the stroma, or foundation, of most solid organs.

119

Polarity is a property of all normal epithelial tissues.

TRUE See page 118. All normal epithelia exhibit polarity. Polarity is
defined by the presence of an apical and basal surface. Sometimes
cancer cells lose polarity characteristics.

120

What type of tissue forms tendons?

Dense regular connective tissue forms tendons

121

Epithelial tissues are innervated and usually vascularized.

TRUE ---Epithelial tissue is an innervated but typically avascular
tissue. Epithelial tissue is also highly regenerative.

122

Which of the following types of epithelial tissue provides the greatest amount of protection from rubbing, wear, and tear?

Stratified squamous is the thickest form of epithelial tissue and is composed of
multiple layers of flat cells.

123

Which of the following is NOT a function of epithelial tissues?

protection filtration control secretion ion transport

124

A is a cord of connective tissue that attaches bones to each other.

ligament

125

Which of the following sets the stage for tissue repair?

The steps in tissue repair are inflammation,organization, and regeneration.

126

Connective tissue that contains a large amount of elastic fiber is known as, is almost identical to cartilage, and can have underline; many forms.

elastic connective tissue

127

A flat sheathlike tendon that connects muscle to bone is known as __________.

An aponeurosis is a flat sheathlike tendon that connects muscle to muscle or bone.

128

Which of the following are functional characteristics of epithelial tissue?

secretion, protection, absorption, filtration.

All of these are functional characteristics of epithelial tissue.

Epithelial tissue functions in protection, secretion, ion transport, and
filtration, but control is the primary responsibility of nervous tissue.

129

Nervous tissue develops solely from embryonic ectoderm, while epithelial tissues develop from

ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm embryonic tissue

130

Embryonic ectoderm develops into which of the following major tissue types?

epithelial tissue and nervous tissue Nervous tissue develops solely from embryonic ectoderm, while epithelial tissues develop from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm embryonic tissue.

131

cartilage has a weak regenerative ability

Skeletal Muscle

132

Which of the following increases the surface area of certain epithelial tissues?

microvilli

133

Microvilli are found on the ________ of the epithelial cells.

apical surface Microvilli are present on the free surface of the cell, which is the apical surface.

134

________ are highly phagocytic cells that are a part of the body's defense system. These cells can be localized (fixed), or they can wander throughout the body.

Macrophages

135

Why are adipose, blood, and bone all considered to be connective tissues?

They have a common origin, mesenchyme

136

Is a tissue which doesn't match the characteristics of other connective tissues. Its cells are close together, and its matrix is sparse. Fat cells (adipocytes) are filled with a lipid vacuole which almost completely occupies their cytoplasm. It is found in fat pads and in subcutaneous fat which function as insulation and shock absorption, as well as nutritional storage.

Adipose tissues

137

Which of the following describes a holocrine gland?

Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing.

138

In connective tissue, the role of collagen fibers is to

provide tensile strength

139

is the tissue that regulates and controls body functions.

Nervous tissue

140

Which is the most atypical connective tissue since it does not connect things or provide structural support?

BLOOD

141

is found where tensile strength is important, such as tendons and ligaments.
There are few fibroblasts and many dense bundles of inelastic collagen fibers.

Dense regular tissue

142

What is the most obvious structural feature of areolar connective tissue?

the loose arrangement of its fibers

143

has elastic fibers which are flexible. It is found where flexibility and recoil
are important, such as in the walls of arteries (for the expansion and contraction with the pulse) and the stroma or internal support of the lungs (for recoil during expiration).

Elastic connective tissues

144

is found in the outer dermis of the skin beneath the epidermis, in serous membranes of the body, and is the major interstitial tissue, the tissue which binds cells together. Its intercellular matrix contains most of the body's water.

Areolar tissue

145

is found in the outer dermis of the skin beneath the epidermis, in serous membranes of the body, and is the major interstitial tissue, the tissue which binds cells together. Its intercellular matrix contains most of the body's water.

Areolar tissue

146

Connectve tissues

primarily consist of extracellular matrix

147

found in large amounts beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and in serous membranes throughout the body. It is rich in blood vessels as seen in this highly magnified view.

Adipose tissue

148

The role of microvilli is to _________.

increase surface area

See page 118. Microvilli are small finger-like projections that greatly increase the surface area of certain epithelial tissues. They are especially important in epithelial tissues that have a role in absorption and secretion.

149

also known as fibrous connective tissue, or inelastic tissue. It has bundles of inelastic collagen fibers, seen in the high power view above. It is found in the inner dermis of the skin as well as tendons, ligaments, and connective fascia.

Dense regular

150

forms the internal support of most of the soft epithelial organs, glands,

Reticular connective tissue


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