Zoology test 2

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Integrated Principles of Zoology
Chapters 11-13, 29, 37, 38
Protozoans, Phylum porifera, phylum cnidaria, support, protection, and locomotion, Animal distribution, Animal Ecology
updated 2 years ago by Adunola_Bello
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1

Animal-like unicellular eukaryotes

Protozoans

2

What are the three domains of life?

Archaea, Eucarya, Bacteria

3

What are the 2 characteristics of a protozoan?

  1. They have no Cell Wall
  2. They are locomotive
4

How do protozoans obtain nutrition?

In many ways..

ie. Heterotrophic and Autotrophic

5

What are Protozoan's symbiotic relationship with other species?

Mutualistic, Commensalistic, Parasitic

6

What are the 4 key features of a Portuguese man of war?

  • Pneumatophore
  • Gastrozooids
  • Dactylozooids
  • Gonophores
7

mention the 2 key features of the Class Scyphozoa.

(form)

(nervous system)

  • It is Medusa dominant, polyp reduced.
  • It has a Rhopalium (sense organ)
8

Are protozoans Monophyletic?

No

9

What are some examples of opisthokontas?

  • Choanflagellates
  • Fungi
10

What are the 5 functional components of protozoan cells?

  1. Nucleus
  2. Hydrogenosomes
  3. Golgi Apparatus
  4. Plastids
  5. Extrusomes
11

What kind of nuclei do ciliate protozoans possess?

macronucleus and micronucleus

12

__________________are polyploid and undergo direct division without mitosis. It controls the non-reproductive cell functions, such as metabolism.

Macronuclei

13

______________________are formed whenever a chromosome or a fragment of a chromosome is not incorporated into one of the daughter nuclei during cell division

Micronuclei

14

What did the Hydrogenosomes in protozoans evolve from

Mitochondia

15

Do Hydrogenosomes require O2?

No

16

What are Golgi apparatus referred to in protozoans.

dicyosomes

17

These organelles contain photosynthetic pigments

Plastids

18

Organelle used to extrude things.

Extrusomes

19

What are Extrusomes referred to as in ciliates?

Trichocyst

20

What are the basic structures of movement in protozoans?

Cilium and Flagellum

21

What are the internal structures of movement in protozoans?

  • Axoneme
  • Kinetosome
22

What is the movement of protozoans based on?

Sliding Microtubule hypothesis.

23

Two little arms are visible in elecron micrographs on each of the pairs of peripheral tubules in axoneme and these bear the enzyme ATPase which cleaves the ATP. When bond energy in ATP is released, the arms "walk-along" one of the microtubules in the adjacent pair, causing it to slide relative to the other tubule. This is known as...

The sliding Microtubule hypothesis

24

Known to have a 9+2 Microtubule arrangement, in which there are 9 doublet microtubule arrangements, and 2 microtubules in the middle.

Axoneme

25

Is located at the base of the Protozoan internal locomotive structure. It is arranged in triplets.

Kinetosome

26

The extension of the cell cytoplasm is known as what?

Psudopodia

27

Cells that possess pseudopodia are generally referred to as...

Amoeboids

28

The Amoeboid cytoplasm is divided into two parts, What are they?

  • Ectoplasm
  • Endoplasm
29

The peripheral layer of gel in the cytoplasm is known as what?

The Ectoplasm

30

The inner portion of fluid sol in a cytoplasm is known as what?

The Endoplasm

31

What are three types of Pseudopodia?

  1. Lobopodia
  2. Filopodia
  3. Axopodia
32

Pseudopodia that is large, bulbous, short and blunt in form.

Lobopodia

33

Pseudopodia that is thin, filiform with pointed ends and consisting mainly of ectoplasm

Filopodia

34

Pseudopodia that is Supported by rods of Microtubules

Axopodia

35

Describe the ways Protozoans receive nutriton?

  • Autotrophic
  • Heterotrophic
36

What Autotrophic way do protozoans receive Nutrition?

Photosynthesis using plastids

37

What Heterotrophic way do protozoans receive Nutrition?

  • Through Phagocytosis (Food Vacuole)
  • Through Cytosome (Mouth)
38

What Structure is used for Excretion in Protozoans?

Contractile Vacuole

39

What other thing is the contractile vacuole in protozoans used for?

Osmoregulation

40

What are the two Asexual reproductive factors of Protozoans

  1. They reproduce through Fission
  2. And they have no embryonic Development
41

What is the product of Binary Fission?

2 identical individuals.

42

What is the product for Budding?

The progeny is smaller then the adult.

43

What is the product of Multiple fission?

They form multiple individuals.

44

What is another name for multiple fission?

Schizogeny

45

Describe the division of Multiple Fission.

The Nucleus divides before the Cytoplasm divides.

46

Binary Fission reproduce via..

Mitosis

47

Multiple Fission reproduce via..

Mitosis

48

A gamete that has the same size and structure as the one with which it unites

Isogamete

49

A gamete differing in size or structure from the one with which it unites

Anisogametes

50

The fusion of two gametes in fertilization.

Synagamy

51

Self Fertilization. Gametes arise and fuse within a single parent

card image

Autogamy

52

Sexual process in which two protozoans exchange nuclear material during a temporary union, completely transfer one organism’s contents to the other organism, or fuse together to form one organism.

Conjugation

53

Helps the microbe to disperse easily, from one host to another or to a more favorable environment

Encystment

54

At least how many Protozoan phyla are there?

7

55

How do Euglenazoa move around.

With flagella

56

What are Euglenazoa in terms of nutrient?

Autotrophs and parasites

57

Describe a physical feature of the Euglenazoa.

They have a predominant pellicle.

58

Describe the symbiotic relationship some Euglenazoa have with other organism?

They are parasitic

59

What is an example of a parasitic euglenazoa?

Tryponosoma

60

What is the synapomorphy of the Aveolate clade?

They all have alveoli

61

Membrane bound sac below the cell membrane is known as what?

Alveoli

62

What are the 3 features found in all ciliophora?

  • All have Cilia
  • All are multinucleated
  • All are heterotrophic (some with chloroplasts too)
63

What are two features found in some ciliophora?

  • some have Trichocysts (expel thread)
  • some have Toxicysts (release poison)
64

Trichocysts expel what?

Thread

65

Toxicysts release what?

Poison

66

Describe the locomotion of ciliophora

Free swimming or Stalked

67

What is an example of a symbiotic ciliophora

Ich in the human gut

68

Dinoflagellates are characterized by what?

two flagella

69

Dinoflagellates are symbionts of what?

  • Corals
  • Anemones (zooxanthellae)
70

What type of Dinoflagellates are noctiluca?

Bioluminescent

71

The Dinoflagellate, Pfeisteria does what to fishes?

causes lesions on fish

72

The Paralytic shellfish poisoning, through saxitoxin, is caused by what?

Ciguatera (Dinoflagellate)

73

Which phylum can be classified as being Naked, or with plates, or ornamentation?

Dinoflagellates

74

How do 50% of Dinoflagellates receive nutrients

By autotrophic means

75

Protozoans have no need for what?

respiratory, circulatory, or any other form of organ systems.

76

Describe the life cycle of an Anophele mosquito (Plasmodium)

card image

1. A female Anopheles mosquito transmits a motile infective form (called the sporozoite) to a vertebrate host such as a human

2. A sporozoite travels through the blood vessels to liver cells, where it reproduces asexually, producing thousands of merozoites.

3. These infect new red blood cells and initiate a series of asexual multiplication cycles that produce 8 to 24 new infective merozoites, at which point the cells burst and the infective cycle begins anew.

4. Other merozoites develop into immature gametocytes, which are the precursors of male and female gametes.

5. When a fertilized mosquito bites an infected person, gametocytes are taken up with the blood and mature in the mosquito gut.

6. The male and female gametocytes fuse and form an ookinete—a fertilized, motile zygote

7. Ookinetes develop into new sporozoites that migrate to the insect's salivary glands, ready to infect a new vertebrate host.

8.The sporozoites are injected into the skin, in the saliva, when the mosquito takes a subsequent blood meal.

77

What some common diseases caused by protozoans

African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas' disease, malaria, toxoplasmosis.

78

Which groups are present in the phylum Stramenophiles

  • Actinosphaerium
  • Diatoms
  • Amoebas with radiating axopodia
79

The Apicomplexa is characterized by what?

The presence of an Apical complex

80

All Apicomplexa are what?

Parasitic

81

Are the locomotor structures of the phylum Apicomplexa more or less obvious?

less obvious

82

Describe the life cycle of an apicomplexa.

It is complex. it has Sexual and Asexual stages.

83

Chlorophytes are included in what clade?

Viridiplantae

84

What are 2 key features of Viridiplantae?

  • They have Flagella
  • They are autoptrophic
85

Discribe the cellular form of Viridiplantae.

They have unicellular and multicellular forms .

86

mention the 4 key features of Chlorophytes.

  1. They have Flagella.
  2. They are Autotrophic.
  3. They have both unicellular and multicellular forms.
  4. They can undergo Asexual and sexual reproduction.
87

Testate (shelled) Amoeba belong to what group?

Rhizaria

88

Foraminifera of the Clade Rhizaria, have what kind of tests?

Calcium Carbonate

89

Radiolaria of the clade Rhizaria have what kind of tests?

Silica

90

How do Rhizaria get around

Via Pseudopodia

91

A long, slender, tapering pseudopodium, as found in some protozoans and in embryonic cells.

Filopodia

92

What kind of pseudopodia do Foraminiferans have?

filopodia

93

Describe how Rhizaria recieve Nutrients.

By Heterotrophic means

94

Describe the symbiotic nature of Rhizaria

They can either be Free Living or Parasitic

95

What are the 4 key features of the supergroup Amebozoa?

  1. Naked and shelled Amoebas
  2. They have Pseudopodia.
  3. They are Heterotrophic.
  4. Some are Parasitic.
96

How were multicellular organisms thought to have evolved

They are likely to have evolved from colonial organisms

97

What does multicellularity increase?

Efficiency

98

Single cell organisms are limited in what?

size

99

The metazoa are part of which clade?

Opisthakont.

100

Describe the level of organization of the phylum porifera.

Cell level of organization

101

Describe the organization of the cells of the Porifera.

They are cell aggregates.

102

Do the Porifera have true tissues?

No

103

Describe the level of cell-cell integration in Porifera.

Low level of cell-cell integration.

104

Do Porifera have germ layers?

No

105

The large, central cavity of sponges

Spongocoel

106

Water enters the _____________ through hundreds of tiny pores (Ostia) and exits through the larger opening (osculum).

Spongocoel

107

Are Porifera Multicellular or Unicellular

Multicellular

108

Porifera are multicellular but their cells lack what?

cell-cell adhering junctions.

109

What type of Digestion do Porifera experience?

Intracellular.

110

Do Porifera have germ layers?

No

111

What is the key feature of the Phylum Porifera?

They are pore bearing

112

In terms of colonies, Choanoflagellates are...

Solitary or Colonial

113

Choanoflagellates are similar to what in sponges?

Choanocytes

114

The cell to cell signaling proteins of poriferas are homologous to those of what?

Metazoans

115

The phylum Porifera has how many valid species

8,500

116

Describe the cellular structure of the phylum Porifera.

They are multicellular

117

Describe the tissue of the phylum porifera

They have incipient tissues

118

Describe the body symmetry of the phylum porifera

No body symmetry, sometimes radial.

119

Being fixed in one place or immobile is referred to as....

Sessile

120

What environment are the poriferas found in?

Marine, brakish, freshwater

121

What is the skeletal framework of Porifera?

they consist of spicules

122

What is the Skeletal framework of the desmospongiae (porifera)?

they have silaceous spicules

123

What 3 structures does the Body form of a sponge consist of?

  • Ostium
  • Osculum
  • Mesohyl
124

An incurrent opening (small pores), in sponges, is known as what?

Ostium

125

An Excurrent opening, with large pores in sponges is known as what?

Osculum

126

An extracellular gelatinous matrix in sponges consisting of connective tissue.

Mesohyl

127

What is the Asconoid Body plan?

Flagellated spongocoel

128

What is the Syconoid body plan?

Flagellated Canals

129

What is the Leuconoid body plan?

Flagellated chambers

130

What are the three cell types of porifera?

  • Pinacocytes
  • Archeocytes
  • Choanocytes
131

What is the outer layer of the Pinacocyte in sponges called?

Pinacoderm

132

What are three characteristics of pinacocytes in sponges ?

  1. They can ingest food particles through phagocytosis
  2. Some of them are contractile (eg. Myocytes)
  3. They are not tissues so they do not have a basement memebrane
133

What kind of cells are Archaeocytes?

Amoeboid cells

134

What are two characteristics of Archaeocytes?

  1. They can phagocytize and digest
  2. They differentiate into other types of cells
135

What are the three types of cell Archaeocytes differentiate into?

  • Sclerocytes
  • SPongocytes
  • Collencytes
136

What does a sclerocyte secrete?

Spicules

137

What does a spongocyte secrete?

Spongin

138

What does a collencyte secrete?

Collagen

139

Choanocytes are also known as what?

Collar cells

140

Flagellated cells responsible for maintaining the current of water through the sponge, and for processing food particles in the water current

Choanocytes

141

What kind of feeders are sponges?

Suspension feeders

142

These sponges are known to ensnare a prey and phagocitize and digest intercellulary

Carniverous sponges

143

What are the 3 types of reproduction a sponge can undergo?

  • Fragmentation
  • Budding
  • Gemmulation
144

A form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism.

Framentation

145

A form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.

Budding

146

This type of reproduction, begins when aggregates of cells, mostly archaeocytes, which, when they become laden with reserve food granules become isolated at the surface of a sponge and surrounded by a protective covering.

Gemmulation

147

In sponges, gametes arise from what?

Choanocytes

148

Are most sponges monoecious or dioecious?

Monoeicious

149

Describe the sexual reproductive processes in sponges.

  1. The sperm is released
  2. Choanocytes Phagocytize and carry the sperm to oocytes
  3. The egg and sperm are then released and form a ciliated larva called a parenchymula
150

What are the three classes of sponges?

  1. Class calcarea
  2. Class Hexactinellida
  3. Class Desmospongiae
151

What type of spicules does the class calcarea posess?

Calcium Carbonate

152
  1. What type of Spicules does the class desmospongiae posses?
  2. what are they made of?
  1. Silaceous spicules
  2. silica, spongin, or both
153

Sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules

Hexactinellida

154

What type of spicules do the Hexactinellida posses?

Silica

155

Spongin is made up of which macromolecule?

Protein

156

The phylum known to be 'nettle like'.

Phylum Cnidaria

157

What are Protozoan's symbiotic relationship with other species?

Mutualistic, Commensalistic, Parasitic

158

Describe the germ layers of the phylum Cnidaria

  • It is Diploblastic
  • It has no Mesoderm
159

Describe the symmetry of the phylum cnidaria

Radial symmetry

160

Describe the life cycle of the phylum cnidaria.

It has a life cycle with polyp(sessile) and medusa(mobile) forms.

161

What level of organization are Cnidarians?

Tissue.

162

An explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria.

Cnidocyte

163

Some Cnidocytes contain toxic..

Nematocysts

164

What kind of gut does a Cnidaria have?

An incomplete gut (grastrovascular cavity) .

165

The primary organ of digestion and circulation in Cnidaria

grastrovascular cavity

166

In Cnidaria, the ectoderm is also the...

Epidermis

167

What 3 cells does the Ectoderm of a cnidaria consist of?

  1. Epitheliomuscular cells
  2. Interstitial cells
  3. Sensory cells
168

In Cnidarians, cells whose bodies form part of the epithelium but whose bases extend to form muscle fibers in parallel rows

Epitheliomuscular cells

169

In Cnidarians, cells that differentiate into other cells are known as what?

Interstitial cells

170

Cells which detect information such as sounds, light, touch, smell, taste, and temperature through receptors on their surface.

Sensory cells

171

The inner layer of cells that serves as a lining membrane of the gastrovascular cavity of Cnidarians

Gastrodermis

172

In Cnidaria, the endoderm is..

The Gastrodermis

173

In Cnidaria, the gland cells do what?

Secrete Digestive enzymes.

174

In Cnidarian, this helps in support and movement.

Hydrostatic Skeleton

175

In the Cnidaria, the water-filled gastrovascular cavity acts as...

Hydrostatic Skeleton

176

In Cnidarians, this pushes contents of the gastrovascular cavity (Hydrostatic Skeleton) and expels undigested material through the mouth.

Nutritive-muscular cells.

177

Nutritive-muscular cells have_____________ fibres

Contractile

178

In Cnidaria, What layer is the Mesoglea?

Gelatenous layer

179

Which kinds of cells may the mesoglea in a Cnidaria contain?

Amoeboid Cells and Fibres

180

What is the function of the Mesglea in Cnidarians

They provide support.

181

In terms of skeletal stucturality, the mesoglea is what?

An elastic skeleton

182

Describe the Body Plan of Cnidarians

  • Epidermis=Ectoderm
  • Gastrodermis=Endoderm
  • Mesoglea=Gelatinous layer
  • Nerve net
  • No Excretory or Respiratory systems
183

Unlike central nervous systems where neurons are typically grouped together, neurons found in _______________are found spread apart.

Nerve nets

184

Describe the feeding of Cnidarians.

  • They are almost all Carniverous
  • They capture their prey with tentacle.
185

In Cnidarians, The medusa form at the mouth at which end?

The end of the manubrium

186

What is the Digestive system in Cnidarians?

Gastovascula cavity (Blind Gut).

187

Describe the Digestion Process in Cnidarians

Extracellular enzymes break down food and small pieces undergo phagocytosis and are digested further intercellularly.

188

In Cnidarians, Extracellular Digestion is achieved through what?

A digestive broth

189

In Cnidarians, Intracellular Digestion is achieved where?

The Gastrodermis

190

How many Cnidarian species have been discovered?

9000+

191

Name the 5 key features the Cnidarians of the Class Anthozoa.

card image
  1. They are sea Anemones and Corals
  2. They have no Medusa stage
  3. They have a gut with septal filaments.
  4. They have a ciliated siphonoglyph
  5. They have a hydrostatic skeleton
192

What is the role of the ciliated siphonoglyph

creates water currents

193

A ciliated groove at one or both ends of the mouth of sea anemones and some corals

card image

Siphnoglyph

194

In class anthozoa, are sea anemones solitary or colonial?

Solitary

195

In class anthozoa, are Corals solitary or colonial?

Colonial

196

Describe the Symbiotic relationship of the class Anthozoa.

Mutualistic

197

The most obvious sensory structures of scyphozoan jellyfish. They include specialized structures for sensing light (eyespots) and movement or direction with respect to gravity (statoliths

Rhopallium

198

The Nerve net is also known as what?

The Rhopallium

199

Describe the 3 Sexual Reproductive aspects of Anthozoans.

  • They are both Monoecious and dioecious
  • Some are serial Hermaphrodites.
  • Some are protandrous. (Male first)
200

Having the male reproductive organs come to maturity before the female.

Protandrous

201

Mention the two types of Asexual Reproduction of Anthozoans.

  1. Reproduction through pedal laceration
  2. Reproduction through fission
202

A type of asexual reproduction in some sea anemones in which parts of the pedal disc break off and are left behind as the anemone move

Pedal laceration

203

What do Hard corals secrete?

A rigid exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate.

204

Octocorallia are also known as what?

Soft Corals

205

Octocorallia is a subclass of what?

Class Anthozoa

206

Describe the 3 key features of the subclass Octocorallia.

  • It has 8 tentacles
  • their Colony is covered by the an epidermis
  • It has an axial rod within the tissue (endoskeleton).
207

Coral reefs are also known as what?

Hermatypic (hard) corals.

208

What do Coral reefs secrete?

A Calcium carbonate exoskeleton.

209

Which single-celled protozoans are able to live in symbiosis with coral reefs?

Zooxanthellae

210

mention the 2 key features of the Class Scyphozoa.

  • It is Medusa dominant, polyp reduced.
  • It has a Rhopalium (sense organ)
211

What 3 structures are present in the schyphozoan Rhopalium?

  • Statocyst
  • Sensory pits
  • Ocelli in some
212

Describe the Feeding behavior of jellyfish

Carnivorous, jellyfish mostly eat plankton and larval fish. After stunning prey with their tentacles, jellyfish use their oral arms to bring the food to their mouth.

213

Are Scyphozoans Dioecious or Monoecious?

Dioecious.

214

A form of asexual reproduction consisting of the spontaneous transverse segmentation of the body

Strobilation

215

What does the life cycle of the class scyphozoa involve?

Strobilation

216

What are the 4 classes of Phylum Cnidaria?

  1. Hydrozoa
  2. Scyphozoa
  3. Cubozoa
  4. Anthozoa
217

Class Cubozoa are also known as what?

Box Jellies

218

Describe the shape of the bells of the Cubozoan.

card image

Square shaped

219

Describe the nervous system of the Class cubazoa.

It has a complex Rhopalia

220

Describe the five key features of the class cubozoa.

  • Bells are square
  • Complex Rhopalia
  • Mostly marine
  • most are colonial
  • Some are solitary
221

What are the 5 anatomical characteristics of cubozoans?

  • They can be Thecate
  • They can be Athecate
  • They have an Obelia colony
  • They have Gastrozooids
  • They have Gonangium
222

The Gastrozooids are know as what?

Feeding Polyps.

223

The Gonangium is known as what?

Reproductive Polyp.

224

What molecule triggers feeding in Cubozoans?

Glutathione

225

Describe 3 features of the Class Hydra.

(reproductive)

(forms)

(Solitary or Colonial)

  • Solitary
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Some lack Medusa
226

What is an example of a colonial Hydrozoan?

Physalia.

227

What is an example of the colonial Hydrozoan (physalia).

Portuguese man of war

228

What are the 4 key features of a Portuguese man of war?

  • Pneumatophore
  • Gastrozooids
  • Dactylozooids
  • Gonophores
229

What is an another example of the colonial Hydrozoan (Physalia).

Fire Coral

230

The Phylum Ctenophora is known as what?

The comb jellies.

231

How many species of the phylum Ctenophora are there.

150

232

Describe the 6 key features of the phylum ctenophora.

(digestion)

(how does it attack its prey?)

  1. 8 comb rows
  2. 2 tentacles-do not sting
  3. They use colloblasts (a sticky substance) to capture their prey.
  4. They have a complete gut
  5. Undergo Extracellular digestion
  6. They are bioluminescent
233

What are the 6 functions of the integument?

  • Protection from Bacteria, Parasite, Disease, Sun.
  • Sensory
  • Temperature regulation
  • Nutrient storage
  • Prevents water loss
  • Excretion
234

Which organisms have integuments?

  • Unicellular Animals
  • Most invertebrates
235

The Phylum Platyhelminthes includes which organisms.

Flatworms

236

What kind of integument do some phylum platyhelminthes have (some flatworms).

Syncytial Tegument.

237

What does the epidermis of the phylum Anthropoda secrete?

Cuticle.

238

What are the key features of a vertebrate integument.

(skin)

(color)

  • The Epidermis (Ectoderm) undergoes keratinization in the stratum corneum
  • The Epidermis also has chromatophores that contain pigments
  • The dermis(Mesoderm) may contain dermal bone
239

Fish scales and horns are equivalent to what?

bone in the dermis

240

Scales, claws, nails are equivalent to what?

Keratinized epidermis.

241

The Skeletal system in which muscles contract a fluid filled space (coelomic cavity).

Hydrostatic skeletons.

242

What are the three types of skeletons?

  • Hydrostatic
  • Exoskeletan
  • Endoskeletan
243

What are the two types of rigid skeletons?

  • Exoskeleton
  • Endoskeleton
244

Supportive axial rod (chorodates) is known as what?

Notochord

245

What are the 2 key features of cartilage.

(cartilage type)

  • Blood vessels are absent
  • it is either Hyaline, fibrous, or elastic.
246

What does the Bone Matrix contain?

Calcium salts. (Hydroxyapetite)

247

What is a key feature of the bone?

It is highly vascularized.

248

What are the two ways that Bone forms?

  • Endochondrial Bone
  • Intramembranous bone
249

How does the endochondrial bone develop?

The cartilage model ossifies.

250

How does the intramembranous bone develop?

It forms in the dermis.

251

A network of irregularly-shaped sheets and spikes

Spongy

252

Noncancellous portion of bone that consists largely of concentric lamellar osteons and interstitial lamellae.

Compact bone

253

The Osteon is also known as what?

The Haversion system

254

Where is the osteocyte located?

in the lucunae

255

What is the role of the canaliculi?

It connects the lucuna

256

What is the role of the osteoblast?

It buids bone

257

What is the role of the osteoclast?

absorb bone

258

What are the three main types of Animal movement?

  1. Pseudopodia
  2. Ciliary and flagellar
  3. Muscular
259

Which form of movement is characterized by a propulsion parallel to long axis (perpendicular to cell).

Flagellum

260

Which form of movement is characterized by propulsion perpendicular to long axis (parallel to cell).

Cilia

261

What are the three types of muscles?

  1. Skeletal
  2. Cardiac
  3. Smooth
262

Describe the skeletal muscle

(nucleus)

(attachment)

  • Striated
  • Multinucleate
  • It is attached to the skeleton for movement
263

Mention the 4 features of the Cardiac muscle.

  • striated
  • Uninucleate via branching cells
  • Heart
  • Involuntary control
264

Describe the smooth muscles

  • Not striated
  • Uninucleate
  • typically around organs
  • involuntary
265

What kind of muscle do invertebrates have?

smooth and striated.

266

Mention 3 structures of the striated muscle.

(unit)

(make up)

  • It has Fascicles
  • Muscle fibers
  • Sarcomere
267

A bundle of muscle fibers are known as what?

Fascicles.

268

Each muscle fiber is comprised of what?

many myofibrils

269

Myosin are made up of what?

myosin molecules with heads

270

Functional unit of a muscle is known as what?

Sarcomere

271

What are the keys features of actin filaments?

(attachment)

  • It is attached to the Z line
  • It has a Tropomyosin filament with a troponin complex
  • The troponin complex covers active sites
272

What does the Myosin filaments consist of?

Myosin molecules with heads

273

Describe the sliding filament Hypothesis.

(time)

(energy source)

1. Action Potential; influx of calcium

2. Active site exposed

3. Myosin bind; Requires ATP to move head cross-bridge cycling; 50-100x/sec

4. The energy source is glucose (aerobic), glycogen, and creatine phosphate.

274

Describe the slow oxidative fibers.

  • They have a high blood supply
  • Myoglobin
  • Slow sustained contraction
275

Describe the fast fibers.

  • Fast glycolytic fiber (White muscle; anaerobic).
  • Burst of speed; requires rest
276

Describe the fast oxidative fibers.

  • Aerobic
  • Rapid, Sustained Activities
277

Describe the invertebrate muscle fuction.

  • Molluscs= Striated fast; Slow Sustained
  • Insects= Fibrillar High Frequency
278

The layer of the earth that supports life is known as what?

The Biosphere

279

Name four of the earth's layer.

  • Lithosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Troposphere
280

The solid outer section of Earth, which includes Earth's crust (the "skin" of rock on the outer layer of planet Earth), as well as the underlying cool, dense, and rigid upper part of the upper mantle

card image

The Lithosphere

281

The total amount of water on a planet. This includes water that is on the surface of the planet, underground, and in the air.

card image

Hydrosphere

282

The global Hydrological cycle is know as what?

Hydrosphere

283

The layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity

The atmosphere

284

The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere and site of all weather on Earth.

card image

Troposphere

285

How high is the Atmosphere?

3500 km above the earth

286

How high is the troposphere?

8-15 km

287

The heating of the atmosphere to to an increase in CO2 is known as what?

The greenhouse effect.

288

An interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

Glacial cycles

289

How long are glacial cycles?

20,000-100,000 years

290

What effect can the climate have of animal?

Their distribution

291

How does the earth's environment vary?

  • Solar radiation
  • rainfall
  • temperature
  • oceanic currents
292

When the earth's rotation deflects air in each hemisphere, it is called what?

The Coriolis effect.

293

What are the 6 Terrestial Biomes of the earth?

  1. Tundra
  2. Coniferous forest
  3. Deciduous forst
  4. Grassland
  5. Desert
  6. Tropical forest
294

Describe the environment of Tundra

  • Treeless
  • Bogs
  • Grasses
  • < 25cm rain
  • -10C
295

Describe the environment of the Coniferous Forest.

  • Taiga
  • < 100 cm rain
  • 0C
  • Mixed temperature
  • southern evergreen
  • pacific rain forest
296

Describe the environment of the grassland.

  • 40-80cm of rain
  • 10-20C
297

Describe the environment of the desert.

  • <25 cm/year
298

Describe the environment of the tropical forest.

  • High rainfall (>200 cm/yr)
  • Temperature avg. 17C
  • High Diversity
  • Stratification of Species
299

What percent of the earth's water is fresh water?

2.5%

300

What percent of the earth's water is accessible water?

0.1%

301

Describe the nature of Lentic water.

It is still

302

Describe the nature of Lotic water.

It is flowing

303

The near shore area where sunlight penetrates all the way to the sediment and allows aquatic plants (macrophytes) to grow.

Littoral zone

304

The well-lit, open surface waters in a lake, away from the shore.

Limnetic zone

305

The ecological region at or near the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake.

card image

Benthic

306

A deep zone of an inland body of freestanding water, such as a lake or pond, located below the range of effective light penetration.

Profundal zone

307

Describe the animals in the Benthic Zone.

They are submerged; usually attached to a substrate.

308

Describe the animals in the pelagic zone.

They live free in open waters

309

Everything except areas near the coast and the sea floor is called the..

Pelagic zone

310

Which two animals are examples of animals in the Pelagic zone?

  1. Plankton
  2. Nekton
311

Describe the Photic zone.

  • ocean environment
  • up to 200m below the surface of the water
  • 90% of marine life live here
  • ~98% of marine life are in the benthic zone
  • 2% live in the pelagic zone
312

Surface layer of the ocean that receives sunlight.

Photic zone

313

Describe the continental shelf.

card image
  • 200 m
  • Exclusive Economic zone
314

Mention the pelagic realms in order

card image
  • Epipelagic
  • Mesopelagic
  • Bathypelagic
  • Abyssopelagic
315

What are the components of the ocean habitat?

  • Rocky Habitat
  • Rocky Subtidal
  • Salt Marsh
  • Mangrove
  • Sea grass
316

What are the components of the rocky subtidal?

  • Kelp Forest
  • Coral reefs
317

Descirbe key aspects of coral reefs.

  • <0.1% of the ocean
  • 25% marine species
318

How are animals dispersed?

  • Dispersal (move from place to place)
  • Vicariance ( physical barrier; Environment changes)
319

What are 3 examples of Vicariance?

  1. Plate techtonics
  2. Continental drift
  3. Vicariant distribution
320

What are some examples of animals that have underwent Vicariance.

  • Marsupials
  • Lungfishes
  • Flightless Birds
321

What two land bridges have caused for the dispersal of animals?

  1. Great American interchange
  2. Bering land bridge
322

When did the great Amricaan interchange occur?

3.5 MY before the present

323

Which Animals in the Bering land bridge responsible for Dispersing?

  • Paddlefish
  • Carp
  • Sucker
  • Hellbender Salamanders
324

The Study of distribution of plant and Animals is know as what?

Bigeography

325

Regions with distinct faunal diversity is know as what?

Biogeographic realm

326

Realm in which inhabitants insome regions are more closely related to eachother.

Biogeographic Realm.

327

A faunal boundary line that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.

Wallace's line


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