A&P II Quiz 2

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1

If transduction does not occur, what do you perceive about a stimulus?

It is as though the stimulus did not take place and you feel nothing

2

Receptor A has a circular receptive field with a diameter of 2.5cm. Receptor B has a circular receptive field of 7.0cm in diameter. Which receptor allows you to more precisely localize a stimulus?

Receptor A

3

Distinguishing facts concerning tonic receptors include all of the following except:

Tonic receptors are active for a short time whenever a change occurs in conditions monitored

4

Which of the following has occurred if you no longer notice the smell of a dirty cat litter box?

Central adaptation

5

Parkinson's disease manifests which of the following abnormalities?

Excitatory neurons in the basal nuclei become more active, leading to faulty control of voluntary movements

6

The cerebellum monitors proprioceptive information for which two senses?

Vestibular and visual

7

Why is cerebellar control over well-practiced movements, such as swinging a baseball bat, important?

Concentrating on voluntary control using the motor cortex disrupts the pattern and rhythm

8

How many motor neurons are required to conduct an action potential from the spinal cord to smooth muscles in the wall of the intestine?

Two

9

What physiological changes occur in someone who is confronted by a large, vicious, growling dog?

Increase in heart rate and blood pressure

10

Which structure contains a modified sympathetic ganglion?

Adrenal medulla

11

How is the adrenal medulla able to affect target cells throughout the body?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine act as hormones and travel through capillaries

12

How does a drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors affect the sympathetic nervous system?

The drug increases sympathetic activity

13

How does a b blocker mediate high blood pressure?

The drug prevents sympathetic stimulation

14

Stimulation of b receptors leads to all of the following except ___?

Constriction of smooth muscle along respiratory passageways

15

Since the sympathetic division travels through T1-L2, how are the organs of the head supplied with sympathetic innervation?

Preganglionic fibers ascend through the sympathetic trunk to cervical sympathetic ganglia

16

What is the function of the auditory tube?

it permits equalization of pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane

17

What is the role of the auditory ossicles in hearing?

They act as levers that conduct vibrations to the inner ear

18

You are attending an incredibly loud rock concert. What is the reaction of your tensor tympani to the noise?

It contracts to pull the malleus medially and stiffens the tympanic membrane

19

Which structures comprise the major subdivisions of the bony labyrinth?

Vestibule, three semicircular canals, and the cochlea

20

Which cranial nerve supplies taste buds located in circumvallate papillae?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

21

Why can corneal transplant surgeries be performed between unrelated individuals without the risk of rejection?

There are no blood vessels in the cornea, so white blood cells cannot attack the foreign tissue

22

Which of the following is correct concerning the function of the uvea (vascular tunic)?

It regulated the amount of light entering the eye

23

Which of these statements correctly describes the location of rods and cones on the retina?

Cones are located at the center of the retina, rods at the periphery

24

Why are rods best suited for night vision?

Rods have a low threshold for activation

25

How does stimulation of muscarinic receptors in cardiac muscle affect the heart?

Decreased heart rate

26

Why is the parasympathetic division sometimes referred to as the "anabolic system"?

Its stimulation increases nutrient content of blood

27

What are the two types of ACh receptors located on postsynaptic membranes of the parasympathetic neurons?

Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors

28

Which of these are not symptoms of muscarine poisoning?

High blood pressure and rapid HR

29

What physiological changes occur in an anxious patient who is about to undergo a root canal procedure?

All of the above

30

Which of the following is correct concerning dual innervation?

Organs receive information for both sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the ANS

31

Harry has a brain tumor that is interfering with the function of his hypothalamus. Could this tumor interfere with autonomic function? Why or why not?

Yes; hypothalamus regulates ANS

32

Which of the following is not a characteristic of higher order functions?

Part of the programmed wiring of the brain

33

As you recall facts while you take your A&P test, which type of memory are you using?

Short term memory

34

Which of these is a fact pertaining to REM sleep?

There is intense inhibition of somatic motor neurons

35

How does LSD affect the brain stem, hypothalamuc, and limbic system? What is the result?

Activated serotonin receptors/hallucinations

36

Why does the smell of formaldehyde seem to dissipate during the time you spend in the dissection lab, yet you are able to detect the cologne of someone who just entered the lab?

Central adaptation has occurred, though olfactory receptors retain sensitivity to other smells

37

What is the consequence if drainage of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus) is blocked?

Intraocular pressure increases, leading to glaucoma

38

Which of the following is true of olfactory discrimination?

There are different types of olfactory receptor cells to detect each type of odorant

39

All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except

primary afferents synapse in the olfactory bulb

40

Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?

Proprioreception

41

A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ____ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.

50 percent

42

How would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor?

All of the answers are correct

43

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of

decidedly bitter

44

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following paces

surface of the tongue

45

An adult has approximately ____ taste buds.

30,000

46

All of the following are terms describing the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except

circumvallate papillae

47

Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)?

glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

48

A patient who experienced head trauma has the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve ____.

XII

49

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of

peppery hot

50

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?

Surface of the tongue

51

An adult has approximately ___ taste buds

3,000

52

All of the following are terms describing the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except

Gustatory papillae

53

Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)?

facial nerve (VII), vagus nerve (X), and glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

54

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve ____.

V

55

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?

peppery

56

The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glucamate is known as

umami

57

The neural tunic of the eye

All of the answers are correct

58

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

changing shape

59

The vitreous body

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina

60

The space between the cornea and the iris is the

anterior chamber

61

The shape of the lens is controlled by the

ciliary muscles

62

The ____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.

conjunctiva

63

The ciliary muscle contracts to

adjust the shape of the lens for near vision

64

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?

excessive production may lead to glaucoma

65

Which of the following description applies to the term myopia?

nearsightedness

66

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?

conjunctiva->cornea->aqueous humor->lens->vitreous body->retina->choroid

67

The ___ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles

outer; middle

68

The external acoustic meatus ends at

the tympanic membrane

69

The auditory ossicles connect the

tympanic membrane to the oval window

70

The vibration received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

auditory ossicles

71

The middle ear communicate with the nasopharynx through the

auditory tube

72

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the

inner ear

73

Standing still in an elevator that suddenly lowers will stimulate receptors in the

utricle and saccule

74

An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of

equilibrium

75

The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in

maculae


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