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EXAM #1 (notes 6: lymphatic system)

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created 2 years ago by nicolefraserr
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updated 2 years ago by nicolefraserr

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1

what is the order of lymph flow through the lymph vessels?

  1. lymph is collected from the tissues by lymphatic capillaries
  2. the lymphatic capillaries flow into larger lymphatic collecting vessels
  3. the collecting vessels in turn flow into larger lymphatic trunks.
  4. the lymphatic trunks flow into 2 largest lymphatic vessels called the lymphatic ducts
    1. one of these lymphatic ducts is called the "right lymphatic duct"
    2. the other lymphatic duct is called the "thoracic duct"
2

what does the right lymphatic duct carry?

lymph from the right side of your face and neck, right arm and upper portion of the right side of the torso

3

where will all the rest of the lymph drain?

back into the blood by means of the thoracic duct

4

Cisterna chyli

collects lymph from digestive viscera

5

types of lymph nodes

  • inguial nodes
  • axillary nodes
  • cervical nodes
  • deep lymph nodes
6

what system are the tonsils a part of? and what are they important in?

lymphatic system & important in immunity

7

what does "swollen glands" mean to Laymen?

swollen cervical lymph nodes

8

what are the 3 types of salivary glands?

  • parotid
  • sublingual
  • submandibular
9

why is the thymus gland classified as both an endocrine gland and as part of the lymphatic system?

it makes hormones involved with immunity and has other immune system functions

10

lymphatic capillaries

pick up fluid and certain chemicals from the tissues

11

lymphatic collecting vessels

connected to lymph nodes through which lymph percolates, before continuing on through the next collecting vessel on the way to a lymphatic trunk

12

lymphatic trunks

each drain a major portion of the body

13

right lymphatic duct

empties into the right subclavian vein

14

where does lymph originate in the right lymphatic duct?

from the right side of the face and neck, right arm and right side of torso superior to the diaphragm

15

thoracic duct

empties into the left subclavian vein

16

how many lymphatic trunks are there?

6

17

where does the lymph originate in the thoracic duct?

the left side of the body and also the right side of the body below the diaphragm

18

where will drainage of lymph from the digestive organs proceed?

through the cisterna chylii and eventually into the thoracic duct and then the subclavian vein

19

how is the lymph moved along through the vessels without a "lymphatic heart" to pump it?

  • lymph vessels contract to push lymph along back toward the subclavian veins. there are also elastic fibers that can "snap" to move the lymph along through the lymph vessels
  • skeletal muscle movement squeezes on the lymph vessels and pushes lymph toward the subclavian veins
  • the squeezing from lymph vessels themselves and from skeletal muscle movement, causes flow in the vessels in only one direction
    • some of the larger vessels have valves
  • during inhalation, there is a reduction of pressure within the chest, which helps to suck the lymph back toward the subclavian veins
20

what do lymph vessels have that is similar to blood vessels?

a tunica media

21

what do valves prevent in larger lymphatic vessels?

backflow away from the subclavian veins

22

diffuse lymphatic tissue

scattered cells of the lymphatic system

23

what do the diffuse lymphatic tissue include?

  • T-lymphocytes
  • B-lymphocytes
  • Natural killer cells
  • macrophages
24

what are macrophages derived from?

monocytes

25

where are diffuse lymphatic tissue most common?

  • body passages which open to the exterior of the body
  • mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
26

examples of where body passages open to the exterior of the body and what do they all contain?

  • respiratory tract
  • digestive tract
  • urinary tract
  • reproductive tract
  • MUCOSA
27

where does the respiratory tract open?

at nose and mouth

28

where does the digestive tract open?

at mouth and anus

29

where does the urinary tract open?

surface of the body at the urethra

30

where does the reproductive tract open?

in males: at the urethra

in females: at the vagina

31

lymphatic nodules

  • dense congregations of cells of the lymphatic system
  • some nodules come and go
  • other nodules are present all of the time in structures
32

examples of structures where lymphatic nodules are present all of the time

  • lymph nodes
  • tonsils
  • appendix
  • peyer's patches (in the ileum of the small intestine)
33

what is the ileum?

last part of the small intestine and empties into the large intestine

34

list the lymph vessels from smallest to largest

  • lymphatic capillaries
  • lymphatic collecting vessels
  • lymphatic trunks
  • right lymphatic duct
  • thoracic duct
35

how are lymphatic organs different from lymphatic tissues?

they have complete or partial connective tissue capsules that separate them from surround structures

36

where do T and B cells become immunocompetent?

primary lymphatic organs

37

what are T and B cells before they become immunocompetent?

immature and nonfunctional

38

what are the primary lymphatic organs?

  1. red bone marrow
  2. thymus
39

where do B cells become immunocompetent?

red bone marrow

(even though T cells are produced here, they must move else where to become immunocompetent)

40

thymus

large in children and shrinks (involutes) as a person becomes older

41

describe the thymus in adults

extremely small an embedded in fat in adults

42

where do T cells become immunocompetent?

thymus

43

thymus location

anterior to the heart

44

what do the secondary lymphatic organs contain?

lymphocytes that are already immunocompetent

45

examples of secondary lymphatic organs

  • lymph nodes
  • tonsils
  • spleen
46

what are the only organs that filter lymph as it travels through them?

lymph nodes

47

what are the two families of lymph nodes?

  • superficial lymph nodes
  • deep lymph nodes
48

what do superficial lymph nodes include?

  • cervical lymph nodes
  • axillary lymph nodes
  • Inguinal lymph nodes
  • popliteal lymph nodes
49

what do deep lymph nodes include?

  • thoracic lymph nodes
  • abdominal lymph nodes
  • intestinal lymph nodes
  • mesenteric lymph nodes
50

what does filtering of the lymph expose the lymph to, and alert them to what?

  • white blood cells that inhabit the lymph node
  • presence of cancer cells, bacteria, viruses, toxins
51

afferent lymphatic vessels

a number of these bring lymph to the lymph node

52

efferent lymphatic vessel

one of these draining lymph away from the lymph node

53

ana artery and vein

supplying blood flow the cells of the lymph node

54

hilum

where efferent lymphatic vessel, artery, and vein attach to the lymph node

55

what are lymph nodes inhabited by?

numerous lymphocytes and macrophages (from monocytes)

56

what do the tonsils form?

a "circle" in the back of your throat

57

what are tonsils inhabited by?

white blood cell's in a way similar to in lymph nodes

58

what do tonsils expose?

white blood cell's to inhaled or ingested pathogens

59

one pharyngeal tonsil

when it becomes enlarged and inflamed, it may be removed

(Laymen's "there adenoids out")

60

two palatine tonsils

when these become enlarged and inflamed, they are removed

61

what tonsils are removed in a tonsillectomy?

palatine tonsils

62

numerous lingual tonsils

not usually a problem necessitating removal

63

what organ is located superior to the left kidney?

the spleen

64

what is the largest of the lymphoid organs

spleen

65

structure of the spleen: two types of compartments

  • red pulp
  • white pulp
66

what does the red pulp contain?

numerous red blood cells

67

when does the white pulp contain?

numerous lymphocytes and macrophages

68

functions of the spleen

  1. destroy red blood cell's when they become damaged or when they have reached about 120 days
  2. stores iron (b/c RBC's are stored there)
  3. makes RBC's in the human embryo
  4. attacks pathogens through functioning of the WBC's with regard to immunity
  5. if a person is hemorrhaging, it can contract and push RBC's into circulation
69

what can be stimulated by severe anemia in an adult? why is this interesting?

  • RBC production in the human embryo
    • genes that are turned off after embryonic life, can be reactivated
      • occurs in cancer cells
70

how much blood is moved into circulation by way of the spleen when hemorrhaging?

200 ml to help counteract blood loss

71

immune function of the lymphatic system

WBC's are exposed to contents of lymph and can react to presence of bacteria, viruses, toxins, etc.

72

functions of the lymphatic system

  • immune function
  • fluid balance as related to plasma proteins
  • digestion (in particular absorption of lipids
73

fluid balance as related to plasma proteins

we lose about 3 liters/day in the area around tissues and into cells that is not returned to the bloodstream and has to be picked up by the lymph

74

total volume of water lost per day from the blood vessels into and around cells

20 liters per day

  • 85% (17 L) is returned into the bloodstream by osmosis (presence of albumin)
  • 15% (3 L) is drained away from the tissues by means of the lymph
75

what happens if potential water imbalance isn't corrected?

  • tremendous edema
  • death within a day
  • DOESN'T HAPPEN, just IF
76

3 main types of causes of edema

  • increased capillary filtration
  • reduced capillary reabsorption
  • obstructed lymphatic drainage
77

why are lymph nodes removed in a mastectomy?

cancer may spread from the tumor through lymphatic vessels to a new site

78

where does lymph filter through that pathologists look for cancer?

axillary lymph nodes

79

metastasis

process by which cancerous cells spread to new sites

80

what happens when removing lymph nodes?

lymphatic vessels are often damaged to the extent that drainage of lymph from the arm is impaired and edema in that arm may last awhile.

81

starvation

  • reduces the number of plasma proteins circulating the bloodstream
  • increases fluid in tissues
82

what is one of the reasons bellies of starving people may look "fat"

  • fluid retention (edema)
83

examples of protein deficiencies from starvation

  • liver enlargement with decreased plasma protein production
  • dissension of jugular veins
  • swollen ankles, fingers, and feet due to poor water distribution (edema)
84

ascites

albumin and water in the abdominal cavity

85

what can physically block lymph flow through lymphatic vessels, resulting in what?

parasites (and other sorts of things) resulting in edema

86

what happens to elderly and bed-ridden with reduced mobility?

reduced lymph flow

87

why does reduced lymph flow occur in elderly and bed-ridden individuals?

fewer contractions of the skeletal muscles to move lymph back toward the subclavian veins, fluid accumulates in the lower extremities

88

what percentage of plasma proteins escape the blood stream?

1/25th

  • death would occur in 24 hours from edema
89

lacteal

where lipids are taken up, and then travel through the lymph back to the subclavian and enter the bloodstream

  • lipid digestion
90

what is lymph similar to?

plasma

91

what does lymph transport?

  • water
  • electrolytes
  • proteins
  • hormones
  • nutrients
  • wastes
92

what can also travel through the lymph?

  • white blood cells
  • cancer cells
  • bacteria
  • viruses
93

elephantiasis

when parasites (and other sorts of things too) physically block lymph flow through lymphatic vessels, resulting in edema

94

what is lacteal?

villi of the small intestine


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