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Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System

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created 6 years ago by jenkarmata
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2012 Hesi study guide

updated 6 years ago by jenkarmata

Grade levels:
College: Second year

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1

Whole blood consists of

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approx. 55% plasma & 45% formed elements: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) & platelets.

2

What percent of blood is plasma?

55%

3

What percent of blood is formed elements?

45%

4

What does formed elements consist of?

erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets

5

What are erythrocytes?

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Red blood cells (RBC's)

6

What are leukocytes?

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White blood cells (WBC's)

7

What are platelets?

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A small colorless disk-shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting.

8

Visual of Platelet functions -->

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9

Formed elements are produced from

stem cells in red bone marrow.

10

True/ False
Erythrocytes are modified for transport of oxygen.

~TRUE~

11

True/False
Most of the oxygen (from modified erythrocytes) is bound to the pigmented protein hemoglobin.

~TRUE~

12

There are ___ types of leukocytes.

5

13

The 5 different types of leukocytes can be distinguished on the basis of

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size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, presence & absence of visible cytoplasmic granuels.

14

White blood cells are active in

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phagocytosis (neutrophils & monocytes) and antibody formation (lymphocytes).

15

Blood serves to

transport oxygen & nutrients to body cells & to carry away carbon dioxide & metabolic wastes.

16

True/False
Blood carries away carbon dioxide & metabolic waste.

~TRUE~

17

Does blood transport oxygen & nutrients to body cells?

~YES~

18

Plasma contains approx. _a__% proteins, __b__, ___c__, _d___ & __e____, which are dissolved or suspended in water.

a. 10%
b. ions
c. nutrients
d. waste products
e. hormones

19

What happens to the proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products & hormones contained w/in plasma?

They are dissolved or suspended in water.

20

The heart is a __a__ _a__ that sends blood to the __b_ for oxygenation through the __c__ __c__ & to the remainder of the body through the __d_ _d__.

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a. double pump
b. lungs
c. pulmonary circuit
d. systemic circuit

21

Blood is received by the _a__ & is pumped in circulation by the __b__.

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a. atria
b. ventricles

22

True/False
Valves between the atria & ventricles include the tricuspid on the RIGHT SIDE of the heart & the bicuspid on the LEFT SIDE of the heart.

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~TRUE~

23

The valve on the LEFT SIDE of the heart is the___ valve?

BICUSPID

24

The valve on the RIGHT SIDE of the heart is the ___ valve?

TRICSUPID

25

What valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk & the aorta?

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SEMILUNAR VALVES

26

Blood is supplied to the heart muscle (myocardium) by what arteries?

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Coronary arteries

27

What is the myocardium?

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The heart muscle

28

Circulation of blood through the heart- visualization-

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Follow the blood flow path, while looking at the picture to get a better understanding of the pathway our blood travels through our heart.
**Bicuspid valve is also called the mitral valve.

29

Blood drains from the ____a_____ directly into the ___b__ __b__ through the ___c__ __c__.

a. myocardium
b. right atrium
c. coronary sinus

30

The hearts intrinsic beat is initiated by the __a__ _a__ and transmitted along the conduction system through the __b____.

a. Sinoatrial node
b. Myocardium

31

The intrinsic beat intiated by the sinoatrial node along the conduction system through the mycardium -is a wave of electrical activity & is what is measured on a

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ECG- Electrocardiogram

32

The cardiac cycle is the period from the

end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction.

33

True/False
The contraction phase of the cycles is __a__; the relaxation phase is __b__.

a. systole
b. diastole

34

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called

systole

35

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called

diastole

36

The vascular system contains

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arteries, veins & capillaries.

37

Arteries carry blood

AWAY from the heart

38

Veins carry blood

TOWARD the heart

39

Capillaries is where

exchange takes place between blood & cells of the body.

40

True/False
Capillaries are microscopic vessels.

~TRUE~

41

As arteries get farther away from the heart they

become thinner & thinner

42

The smallest arteries are called

arterioles

43

True/ False
The veins parallel the arteries and usually have the same names.

~TRUE~

44

The ___a_________________ are the _b__ _b__ that empty into the __c__ __c__ of the heart.

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a. Superior & Inferior venae cavae
b. large veins
c. right atrium

45

True/ False
The walls of the arteries are thick & elastic, because they carry blood under high pressure.

~TRUE~

46

Vasoconstriction & Vasodilation result from

Contraction & relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls.

47

Vasocontriction is ______ of the smooth muscle in the artery wall.

contraction

48

Vasodilation is ____ of smooth muscle in the artery wall.

relaxation

49

True/False
The contraction & relaxation influence blood pressure & blood distribution to the tissues.

~TRUE~

50

Vein walls are ___a___ & less ___b___ than those of the arteries, because they carry blood under lower pressure.

a. thinner
b. elastic

51

True/False
Arteries are thicker & more elastic than veins because they carry blood under high pressure.

~True~

* veins are the opposite of arteries as far as structure goes.

52

Mechanisms that help draw venous blood back to the heart include:

a. pressure of the skeletal muscles on the veins
b. expansions of the chest in breathing
c. valves in the veins of the legs that keep blood moving in a forward direction.

53

Labled diagram of the heart

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Thank you for using my notecards, I hope they were helpful. Please leave comments and post notecards of your own for others to use. ~ :-) ~

54

Major arteries & veins of the body.
* These are good to know if you are taking A&P.

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Notice the arteries are paralleled w/veins w/the same name (most of them). Example: Femoral artery & Femoral vein.
Arteries in red
Veins in blue


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