Biology Chapter 9

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1

Which stage is most associated with a cell that is unstable to divide again, such as a muscle or nerve cell?

G0 phase

2

Eukaryotic chromosomes:

A. Consist of both DNA and protein
B. May occur as chromatin
C. Contain his tones responsible for packaging DNA to fit into a small space
D. All of the choices are correct

3

Interphase:

A. Occupies the majority of the cell cycle
B. Includes G1, S and G2 stages
C. Results in an increase in cell size
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

4

Oncogenes are all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Mutated proto-oncogenes
B. Cancer causing genes
C. Genes that stimulate uncontrolled cell divisions
E. Tumor suppressor genes

5

What is (are) the structures designated by the letter 'A'

A. Spindle fibers
B. Centrioles
C. Chromosomes
D. Kinetochores

6

In some organisms, mitosis occurs before cytokinesis. The result is:

A. Cell death
B. A multinucleated cell
C. Cells arrested in the G0 phase
D. Cells with no nucleus
E. Uncontrolled cell division

7

Which is Not true about the chromosomes of a multicellular organism?

A. They are made up of DNA and protein
B. Each chromosome is replicated into two chromatids during S phase of interphase
C. Each chromosome separates into two daughter chromosomes by binary fission
D. All cells contain chromosomes that carry the same genetic information

8

Below the skin are "stem cells" that divide, with some cells continuing the stem cell line and others being pushed towards the surface to flatten and die and be sloughed off. In the bone marrow other stem cells produce erythrocytes that lose their nucleus and function for a few months in the bloodstream before they too die. Such "dead end" cells that reproduce no further

A. Leave the cell cycle in a G0 phase, which immediately follows telophase
B. Leave the cell cycle in a G3 phase, which immediately follows g2
C. Halt in the midst of the S phase
D. Continually cycle but simply fail to go through cytokinesis
E. Reverse from G2 to G1

9

What phase of mitosis in pictured?

A. Prophase
B. Prometaphase
C. Metaphase
D. Anaphase
E. Telophase

10

The enzyme that beings about apoptosis are called Caspases?

A. True

B. False

11

What occurs in anaphase?

A. Centrioles move to opposite poles
B. Chromosomes move to opposite poles
C. Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell
D. The nuclear envelope disappears
E. The nuclear envelope is constructed

12

Apoptosis refers to cells "self-destructing" and

A. Is a way to make room for new cells
B. Occurs in abnormal cells that could become cancerous
C. Can be the result of mutations that cannot be repaired
D. And is essential to normal fetal development
E. All of the answers are correct

13

The enzymes that bring about are:
are ordinarily held in check by inhibitors

A. True

B. False

14

Cytokinesis in plant cells differs from this process in animal cells because

A. The plant endoplasmic reticulum forms a cell plate
B. Microtubules are laid down in a plywood-like cell plate patter
C. The Golgi apparatus produces vesicles that migrate along microtubules and fuse to become a cell plate
D. The inner plasma membrane divided by cytokinesis as in animal cells and then secretes a cellulose cell wall
E. Asters coalesce to form a fibrous plate that reinforces with cellulose

15

The function of mitosis is:

A. Growth of the organism and tissue repair
B. To ensure that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information
C. Asexual reproduction in some species
D. All of the choices are correct

16

Which state best describes the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis?

A. Mitosis is the portion of the cell that divides the nuclear material while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm
B. Mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that divides the cytoplasm while cytokinesis divides the nuclear material
C. Mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that uses a contractile ring to divide the nuclear material while cytokinesis uses the contractile ring to divide the cell membrane
D. Mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that uses a cell plate to divide the cell membrane in a plant cell while cytokinesis uses contractile ring to divide the cell membrane in animal cells

17

Which represents the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle?

A. G1, G2, S, M
B. G1, G2, M, S
C. G1, M, G2, S
D. G1, S, G2, M

18

Cancer cells require many nutrients, which are supplied by blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels to cancerous tissue is called:

A. Angiogenesis
B. Metastasis
C. Carcinogenesis
D. Apotosis

19

Contact inhibition stops Normal cells from dividing when they come in contact with neighboring cells, but this is not functional in cancer cells:

A. True

B. False

20

Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as:

A. Spreading of cancer by angiogenesis
B. Metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect
C. Proteinase enzymes making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues
D. Growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign
E. Die to these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer

21

Which sequence of stages in mitosis is correct?

A. Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

22

Which state is Not true about mitosis?

A. Mitosis is a process that duplicates and divides the nuclear contents only
B. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same amount number of chromosomes as the parent cell
C. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same kind of chromosomes as the parent cell
D. Mitosis uses diploid (2n) parent cell to form daughter cell containing a haploid number (n) of chromosomes
E. Mitosis is involved in development of a fertilized egg into a multicellular organism

23

Virtually all specialized cells of multicellular organisms

A. Develop through mutations fro less specialized cells of the organism
B. Contain more more genetic material than less specialized cell of the same organism
C. Contain less genetic material than less specialized cells f the same organism
D. Have the same amount of DNA and the same number of chromosomes as all he other cells of the organism and develop from the same basic stem cells

24

If a parent cell has 48 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each daughter have after mitosis and cytokinesis occurs?

A. 24 chromosomes
B. 48 chromosomes
C. 12 chromosomes
E. 96 chromosomes

25

The region that contain the genetic information in a bacterial cell is called the:

A. Nucleus
B. Nucleoid
C. Nucleolus
D. Nucleosome
E. Nucleoprotein

26

Genetically, complex organisms do require more genes to control their synthesis and organization than do primitive organisms. However, the number of chromosomes vary from ants with 2, molds with 4-14, humans with 45, potatoes with 100 and the crayfish with 200! Some birds and insects have chromosomes that swingle in size into obscurity, so it is not possible establish a diploid number. How do you explain this situation?

A. There must be no relationship between the amount of genetic information and complexity of the organism
B. The number of genes per chromosome may vary among organisms, preventing a simple relationship between chromosome number and complexity
C. Birds and insects probably cannot follow the same mitosis laws as other organisms
D. All of the choices are correct

27

Which of he following is Not true concerning mitosis?

A. Plant cells lack centrioles while animal cells do not
B. Both plants and animal cells undergo cytokinesis
C. Mitosis allows growth and increase in size in both plants and animals
D. Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not

28

During which stage of the cell cycle is cell growth and replication of organelles most significant?
A. M phase
B. G1 phase
C. G2 phase
D. S phase
E. G0 phase

A. M phase
B. G1 phase
C. G2 phase
D. S phase
E. G0 phase

29

Which is Not correctly associated with cancer?

A. Angiogenesis form new blood vessels and bring nutrients and oxygen to the tumor
B. The disorganized mass of cells in encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue
C. Metastasis establishes new tumors distant from the site of the primary tumor
D. Cells have receptors to adhere to basement membranes, then secrete proteinase enzymes to invade underlying tissue

30

Cloning can only be carried out using adult stem cells

A. True

B. False

31

Which of the following is Not true about cancer cells?

A. They never fully differentiate and do not contribute to the functioning of a tissue
B. They exhibit contact inhibition
C. They exhibit uncontrolled growth
D. They exhibit disorganized growth
E. They may undergo metastasis

32

Which state bellow lists steps for binary fission?

1. Attachment of chromosome to the plasma membrane, 2. Enlargement of cell volume, 3. DNA replication occurs, 4. Cell elongates and chromosomes are pulled apart, 5. A new cell wall and plasma membrane divide the cell in half

33

Binary fission in bacteria differs from mitosis because

A. The chromosome copies attach to the attach to the plasma membrane and are pulled apart by cell growth
B. The chromosome is simple DNA strand without complex proteins and no spindle forms
C. There is no nuclear membrane to break down and rebuild
D. All of the choices are correct
E. None of the choices are correct

34

What structures will code for the proteins that will promote the normal cell cycle and prevent apoptosis?
A. Tumor suppressor genes
B. Oncogenes
C. Caspases
D. Proto- oncogenes

A. Tumor suppressor genes
B. Oncogenes
C. Caspases
D. Proto- oncogenes

35

What is the result of a cell not meeting the criteria to pass the G1 checkpoint?
A. The cell cycle halts
B. The cell may enter the G0 stage
C. The cell may undergo apoptosis
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

A. The cell cycle halts
B. The cell may enter the G0 stage
C. The cell may undergo apoptosis
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

36

Viruses and chemical exposure can cause mutations in proto-oncogenes which can lead to cancer.

A. True

B. False

37

The function of mitosis is:

A. Growth of he organism and tissue repair
B. To ensure that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information
C. Asexual reproduction in some species
D. All of the choices are correct

38

Which does NOT occur in Telophase?

A. Cytokinesis is under way
B. The nuclear envelope is being reconstructed
C. The centromeres split apart, moving to opposite ends of the cell
D. Chromosomes de-condense into chromatin
E. The Nucleolus reforms

39

Organisms produced as result of mitosis exhibit a great deal of genetic variation

A. True

B. False

40

The diploid (2n) number of chromosomes for a human being is

A. 46

B. 24

C. 52

41

The critical checkpoints that control the cell cycle are the:
A. M to G1 stage and G2 to M stage
B. S to G2 stage and G2 to M stage
C. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage
D. M to G1 stage and S to G2 stage

A. M to G1 stage and G2 to M stage
B. S to G2 stage and G2 to M stage
C. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage
D. M to G1 stage and S to G2 stage

42

Which statement is NOT true about eukaryotic chromosomes?

A. There is only one chromosome of each type in each body cell
B. Chromosomes contain both DNA and associated histones
C. Chromosomes condense from chromatin at the start of mitosis
D. Chromosomes disperse back into chromatin at the end of mitosis
E. Chromosomes are not located within the nuclear envelope during mitosis

43

Angiogenesis:

A. Is the growth of blood vessels into the tumor
B. Is directed by additional mutations in tumor cells
C. Brings nutrients and oxygen to a tumor
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

44

Apoptosis:

A. Is programmed cell death
B. Is a process that acts to decrease the number of somatic cells
C. Frees the fingers and toes of the human embryo from their 'webbed' structure to independent structures.
D. All of the choices are correct

45

The haploid (n) number of chromosomes for a human being is 23

A. True

B. False

46

The purpose of therapeutic cloning is:

A. To produce an individual to the donor of the nucleus
B. To produce specialized tissue cells
C. To stimulate cells that have been arrested in the S phase
S. None of the above

47

Generally, animals build an organism using the diploid number of chromosomes. However, insect in the order of ants, wasps and bees can use a haploid-diploid system where adults of one sex are formed with haploid number of chromosomes. This would mean that,

A. A single set of chromosomes is sufficient to code for a functional individual
B. A female could determine the sex of the offspring by fertilizing or not fertilizing an egg
C. All males and females are not equally "related" to their mothers considering the proportion of genes held in common
D. All of the choices are true
E. This system in no way differs from regular diploid organisms

48

The event that signals the start of anaphase is:

A. Division of the centromeres to separate sister chromatids
B. Migration of he centrioles to opposite poles of the nuclear space
C. A cleavage furrow starts to form
D. Asters disappear.

49

What phase of mitosis is pictured? (Sister chromatids forming)

A. Anaphase

50

Which of the following statements applies to mitosis but not cytokinesis?

A. It contains a checkpoint that will evaluate the quality of the cell
B. Requires a large amount of ATP in order for the cellular mechanisms to function
C. If it is distributed it can lead to an abnormal cell
D. It results in two daughter cells that are half the size of the original cell

51

Generally, brain and nerve cells are not able to regenerate after injury because they have left the cell cycle and are unable to return

A. True

B. False


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