REVIEWS Q&A CHAPTER 7

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1

Which of the following is the abnormal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnancy?

Lordosis

2

Articulates with hip bones of the pelvis.

Sacrum

3

Identify the four major cranial sutures in any order and the bones they connect.

Answer:

1. Coronal - parietal and frontal

2. Sagittal - between the parietal bones

3. Squamous - parietal and temporal

4. Lambdoidal - parietal and occipital

4

Attach to ribs.

Thoracic

5

Receive the most stress

Lumbar

6

Allows the head to nod "yes."

A circle of bone that articulates superiorly with the occipital condyles.

Atlas

7

Transverse foramina present.

Cervical

8

How are thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 different from the other vertebrae?

A)There are two foramina on vertebrae 11 and 12.

B)The orientation of the articular processes is different from all the other thoracic vertebrae.

C)The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs.

D)The spinous processes are directed parallel with the centrum.

Answer: C

9

Which bone is considered to be the keystone of the cranium?

Answer: sphenoid

10

Connects occipital and parietal bones.

Lambdoid suture

11

What is the major function of the axial skeleton?

A)give the body resilience

B)provide a space for the major digestive organs

C)provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

D)provide an attachment point for muscles that allow movement

Answer: C

12
  • No canals or foramen present.
  • The fused rudimentary tailbone.

Coccyx

13

These bones have articular facets for the ribs.

Thoracic vertebrae

14

Allows the head to shake "no."

Axis

15

Which bone contains areas of diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone?

A)give the body resilience

B)provide a space for the major digestive organs

C)provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

D)provide an attachment point for muscles that allow movement

Answer: B

16

The pelvic girdle does not include the ________.

A)femur

B)pubis

C)ilium

D)ischium

Answer: A

17

What makes up the axial skeleton?

A)shoulder and pelvic girdles

B)arms, legs, hands, and feet

C)the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

D)the skull, vertebral column, and pelvis

Answer: C

18

The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissure is formed between the sphenoid and ________.

A)lacrimal

B)maxilla

C)ethmoid

D)palatine

Answer: B

19

The largest foramen in the body is the ________ foramen.

Answer: obturator

20

These bones have the thickest centrum with short blunt spinous processes.

Lumbar vertebrae

21

The superior nasal concha is a part of which bone?

A)ethmoid

B)vomer

C)sphenoid

D)maxilla

Answer: A

22

What structure is the "missing" body of the second cervical vertebrae?.

Answer: dens

23

Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?

A)Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

B)Paranasal sinuses contain passages acting as one-way valves.

C)Paranasal sinuses are found in maxillary, ethmoid, and lacrimal bones.

D)Paranasal sinuses open into the oral cavity.

Answer: A

24

Connects occipital and temporal bones.

Occipitomastoid suture

25

Which bone forms the prominence of the cheek?

A)palatine bone

B)temporal bone

C)zygomatic bone

D)sphenoid bone

Answer: C

26

Connects temporal and parietal bones.

Squamosal suture

27

The hyoid bone is unique because it ________.

A)is composed of three bones joined together

B)is the only bone formed by the fusion of right and left halves

C)is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone

D)is the only irregular bone found in the neck

Answer: C

28

Along with support, the anterior ligament of the vertebral column also acts to ________.

A)prevent hyperextension of the spine

B)protect the spinal cord

C)hold the discs in place

D)hold the spine erect

Answer: A

29
  • This bone is wing-shaped and extends behind the eyes and forms part of the floor of the cranial vault.
  • The sella turcica is a portion of this bone.

Sphenoid

30

Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have ________.

A)transverse foramina

B)no transverse processes

C)no intervertebral discs

D)costal facets

Answer: D

31

Which bone is in direct contact with the first metatarsal?

A)palatine bone

B)temporal bone

C)zygomatic bone

D)sphenoid bone

Answer: C

32

The antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?

A)the humerus and the radius

B)the radius and the ulna

C)the humerus and the clavicle

D)the scapula and the clavicle

Answer: B

33

The smallest short bone in the hand is the ________.

Answer: pisiform

34

here are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

TRUE

35

Connects parietal and frontal bones.

Coronal suture

36

Connects right and left parietal bones.

Sagittal suture

37

The pituitary gland is housed in the ________.

A)sinuses of the ethmoid bone

B)sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

C)foramen lacerum

D)vomer

Answer: B

38

Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these facial bones?

A)vomer

B)zygomatic bones

C)maxillae

D)nasal conchae

Answer: C

39

Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?

A)lordosis

B)kyphosis

C)scoliosis

D)swayback

Answer: C

40

The vomer forms part of the nasal septum.

TRUE

41

Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?

A)zygomatic bone

B)palatine

C)mandible

D)hyoid bone

Answer: D

42

Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?

A)to improve cervical center of gravity

B)to accommodate the weight of the pelvic girdle

C)to provide resilience and flexibility

D)to accommodate muscle attachment

Answer: C

43

What is the major function of the intervertebral discs?

A)string the vertebrae together

B)prevent hyperextension of the spine

C)absorb shock

D)prevent hyperextension

Answer: C

44

In women of childbearing age, the dimensions of the true pelvis are of utmost importance.

TRUE

45

Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body?

A)the cervical region

B)the sacrum

C)the sacral promontory

D)the lumbar region

Answer: D

46

The medial condyle of the femur articulates with the medial condyle of the ________.

Answer: tibia

47

In the anatomical position, the lateral forearm bone is the radius.

TRUE

48

Only the ________ vertebrae have transverse foramina.

Answer: cervical

49

The tubercle of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra.

TRUE

50
  • These very small bones are at the medial wall of each orbit.
  • Failure of these anterior bones to fuse causes a condition known as cleft palate.

Lacrimal bones

51

The term vertebrochondral ribs refers to ribs that attach to each other before they attach to the sternum.

TRUE

52

This bone houses the apparatus of the internal and middle ear.

Temporal bones

53

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.

A)sutures

B)areolas

C)foramina

D)fontanelles

Answer: D

54

Body weight is carried primarily by the talus and calcaneus

TRUE

55

Costal cartilages join most ribs to the sternum.

TRUE

56

The mastoid sinuses are located at a position in the skull where they are usually free from infections.

FALSE

57

All of the bones of the skull, except the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable.

TRUE

58

The most common site of fracture in the humerus is the anatomical neck.

FALSE

59

The vertebral column is held in place primarily by the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments.

TRUE

60

The fused rudimentary tailbone.

Coccyx

61

The styloid process of the ________ points to the thumb.

Answer: radius

62

The bones that contain teeth.

Maxillae

63

Which part of the ethmoid bone forms the superior part of the nasal septum?

A)calcaneus

B)medial malleolus

C)lateral malleolus

D)head

Answer: A

64

The ________ is the bone confined to the septum of the nose.

Answer: vomer

65

Which forms the largest portion of the coxal bone?

A)ilium

B)pelvic

C)pubis

D)ischium

Answer: A

66

This bone has a passageway into the nasal cavity.

Lacrimal bones

67

These bones have the thickest centrum with short blunt spinous processes.

Lumbar vertebrae

68

Your "cheekbone" is mostly formed from the ________ bone.

Answer: zygomatic

69

This bone articulates with the glenoid fossa.

Humerus

70

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.

A)last cervical

B)last lumbar

C)axis

D)atlas

Answer: C

71

The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following except the ________.

A)cribriform plate

B)crista galli

C)inferior nasal concha

D)superior nasal concha

Answer: C

72

The fingers have three of these bones and the thumb has only two.

Phalanges

73

Forearm bone that articulates with most of the carpals.

Radius

74

The frontal bone articulates with the parietal bone by means of the sagittal suture.

FALSE

75

Describe the composition of the intervertebral discs.

Answer: Intervertebral discs are composed of an inner semifluid nucleus pulposus, which gives the discs elasticity and compressibility, and a covering of fibrocartilage, the annulus fibrosus, which limits expansion and holds successive vertebrae together.

76

The shallow socket of the shoulder joint restricts the movement of the humerus but does increase the stability of the joint.

FALSE

77

The ischium articulates with both the ilium and the pubis.

TRUE

78

Which vertebra does not have a body?

A)last cervical

B)last lumbar

C)axis

D)atlas

Answer: D

79

What is the function of the lumbar curvature?

Answer: It positions the weight of the trunk over the body's center of gravity, thus providing optimal balance when standing.

80

The layman's name for the scapula is the collarbone.

FALSE

81

How are the pectoral and pelvic girdles structurally different? How is this difference reflected in their functions?

Answer: The pectoral girdle moves freely across the thorax and allows the upper limb a high degree of mobility, while the pelvic girdle is secured to the axial skeleton to provide strength and support. This is why the glenoid cavity of the scapula is relatively shallow and the acetabulum of the pelvis is a deep socket.

82

The fibula is the major weight-bearing bone of the leg.

FALSE

83

Describe the differences between the bones of the lower and upper limb and briefly state why these differences exist.

Answer: The lower limbs carry the weight of the body and are subjected to exceptional forces. These bones are thicker and stronger. The upper limb bones are adapted for flexibility and mobility and are therefore smaller and lighter.

84

Which portion of the fibula articulates with the talus?

A)calcaneus

B)medial malleolus

C)lateral malleolus

D)head

Answer: C

85

Which vertebral curvature abnormality is the most serious? Why?

Answer: Scoliosis is the most serious abnormality, due to the pressure that can be placed on the lungs and resulting breathing difficulties.

86

Lordosis affects the thoracic vertebrae.

FALSE

87

Why is the area just distal to the tubercles of the humerus called the surgical neck?

Answer: This area is called the surgical neck because it is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus.

88

Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?

A)rotation

B)supination

C)flexion and extension

D)lateral flexion

Answer: B

89

What are the fontanelles and what advantages do they confer on the fetus? The mother?

Answer: The fontanelles are regions of unossified, fibrous membrane in the skull allowing the cranium to grow and yet allow bony overriding during head compression in delivery.

90

The pituitary gland is housed in a saddlelike depression in the temporal bone called the sella turcica.

FALSE

91

What is the purpose of the vertebral curvatures?

Answer: Their purpose is to increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine, allowing it to function like a spring rather than a rigid rod.

92

All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina.

FALSE

93

Why is the area just distal to the tubercles of the humerus called the surgical neck?

Answer: This area is called the surgical neck because it is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus.

94

The hyoid bone is anchored by the annular ligament to the styloid process of the temporal bone,

FALSE

95

How do the first two cervical vertebrae differ from other cervical vertebrae? What are their functions?

Answer: The atlas or C1 vertebra has no body. It articulates with the skull with large curved articular surfaces to allow the skull to rock in a "yes" motion. The axis or C2 vertebra has a projection called the dens that allows the axis to pivot, giving the head the "no" motion. The vertebral foramen of the atlas is enlarged so that when the head is pivoted in the "no" motion, the spinal cord can move.

96

Which of the following bones is not weight bearing?

A)talus

B)tibia

C)fibula

D)femur

Answer: C

97

Sam is an accountant who is especially busy during tax season. By the end of each day he complains of shoulder stiffness and tightness as well as some upper back pain. What might be Sam's problem and how could he prevent the discomfort? .

Answer: Sam is probably sitting hunched over his desk rather than sitting up properly. This can result in kyphosis and resulting upper back pain and stiffness. Sam needs to practice good posture and/or invest in an ergonomic chair to help him maintain the proper thoracic vertebral curve

98

The dens articulates with the axis.

FALSE

99

Identify the arches of the foot and describe how they are maintained.

Answer: There are three arches: the medial and lateral longitudinal arches, and the transverse arch. Together they form a half-cone that distributes the weight of the body. They are maintained by the shape of the foot bones, strong ligaments, and by the pull of some tendons.

100

The "true wrist" or carpus consists of ________.

A)the metacarpals

B)the styloid processes of the radius and ulna

C)the phalanges

D)a group of eight short bones united by ligaments

Answer: D

101

How might low back pain be related to poor abdominal muscle tone?

Answer: If the abdominal muscles are weak and can't maintain contraction, the belly sags forward, increasing the amount of lordosis. With greater curvature, the ligaments and muscles of the back undergo greater strain in order to maintain alignment of the vertebrae and counterbalance the shift in the center of gravity.

102

When administering chest compression to someone whose heart has stopped beating, the heel of the hand should be placed on the sternum on a line drawn between the nipples. Why would it be a problem if the hand was placed at a lower part of the sternum?

Answer: The compressions could break the xiphoid process of the sternum and drive it into the heart, diaphragm, or liver resulting in possibly deadly complications.

103

The largest and strongest bone of the face is the maxilla.

FALSE

104

If the hyoid bone is not attached to another bone why is it so important?

Answer: The hyoid acts as an attachment point for muscles in the neck region to connect the muscles in the lower jaw region. It allows for the muscles to make a right angle at the junction of the lower jaw and throat. The hyoid serves as a movable base for the tongue and its horns are attachment points for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during speech and swallowing.

105

The heel bone is called the ________.

Answer: calcaneus

106

What is the purpose of the articular processes of the vertebrae?

Answer: These processes (superior and inferior) allow the vertebral column to flex forward some, but lock the vertebrae if the column is flexed back and limit rotation to avoid injury to the spinal cord and its nerve roots. In a four-legged animal, such as a horse, these processes allow the back to remain in place while you ride it.

107

After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, Jamila complained that she had a headache just above her eyes and that the right side of her face ached. What specific bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold?

Answer: The paranasal sinuses,, specifically the frontal sinus located in the frontal bone and the right maxillary sinus located in the right maxilla.

108

The temporal bone connects to the zygomatic bone via the temporal process of the temporal bone.

FALSE

109

A skeleton was found in a wooded area. It was brought to a forensic medicine laboratory for identification. The first thing the coroner did was determine the age, sex, and possible size of the person. What was examined in order to get this information?

Answer: By examining the shape of the pelvic inlet, the depth of the iliac fossa, the characteristics of the ilium, and the angle inferior to the pubic symphysis, one could determine the sex. Also significant for determining the sex of the skeleton are the position of the acetabulum, the shape of the obturator foramen, and the general design of the ischium. To determine the age of the individual, bone density, the status of growth plates, and markings are important. The markings where muscles were attached will reveal information about the mass and the general shape of the person.

110

The lateral condyle of the femur articulates with the lateral condyle of the ________.

Answer: tibia

111

Jason is a 14-year-old who recently had his nose pierced through the nasal septum. He tells his mother that the area is very tender and warm to the touch. The area is also red. The mother calls the pediatrician's office and the nurse recommends that the mother bring Jason in for evaluation. The nurse explains to the mother that a local infection can spread and cause serious harm. Where do you think the infection could spread and why?

Answer: Infection of nasal piercings can spread to the brain and cause serious complications. Infections in the brain may occur because of the direct extension from ear, tooth, mastoid, or sinus infections.

112

The fingers have three of these bones and the thumb has only two.

Phalanges

113

You are a school nurse in a middle school. You are responsible for screening the children for scoliosis. What is involved in this screening?

Answer: Scoliosis literally means "twisted disease" and is an abnormal rotational curvature causing lateral deviation that occurs most often in the thoracic region. It is quite common during late childhood. The nurse would need to observe the child standing erect, disrobed from the waist up. An older girl may leave her bra on. The child is observed from behind and the nurse would note any asymmetry of the shoulders and hips. With the child bending forward so that the back is parallel to the floor, the nurse may observe from behind, noting tilting of the rib cage.

114

Forearm bone that articulates with most of the carpals.

Radius

115

This bone articulates with the glenoid fossa.

Humerus

116

Sharon is a 32-year-old horse trainer. While training a young horse, she was thrown off of the horse and suffered a mild head injury. The nurse inquires about the use of a helmet. Sharon replies, "This is the first time I have ever had a head injury from a horse. I don't think I need a helmet." Based on your understanding of the skull, how should the nurse respond to the patient?

Answer: the skull protects the brain from blows. A helmet would add extra protection in sports where there is an increased risk for head injury.


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