Urinary System

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Urinary System
updated 2 years ago by mapodaca11
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1

Arteriole

small artery

2

Calciferol

active form of vitamin d, secreted by the kidney

3

calyx; calix

cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis.

4

Catheter

tube for injecting or removing fluids

5

Cortex

outer region of an organ; the renal _______ is the outer region of the kidney

6

Creatinine

nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.

7

Cortical

pertaining to the cortex

8

Creatinine clearance

measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing creatinine from the blood

9

electrolyte

chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water; are necessary for functioning muscles and nerves.

10

erythropoietin (EPO)

hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells from bone marrow

11

filtration

process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter

12

glomerular capsule

enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus; also known as Bowman's capsule; collects material that has been treated in the blood through the walls of the glomerulus

13

glomerulus

tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney

14

hilum

depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave

15

kidney

one of two bean shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lunar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine

16

meatus

opening or canal

17

medulla

inner region of an organ; the renal ____ is the inner region of the kidney

18

medullary cavity

(in long bones) the innermost part containing red and yellow marrow

19

nephron

mbination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney; functional unit in the kidney; can form urine by itself; 1 million in each kidney

20

nitrogenous waste.substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine; examples: urea

uric acid, and creatinine

21

potassium

electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood

22

(K+)

potassium

23

Reabsorption

process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream

24

renal artery

blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney

25

renal pelvis

central collecting region in the kidney

26

renal tubule

microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration

27

renal vein

blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart

28

renin

hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing a narrowing of the blood vessels (vasoconstriction)

29

Sodium

electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions

30

Na+

Sodium

31

Trigon

Triangular area in the urinary bladder

32

Urea

major nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine

33

ureter

one of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

34

urethra

tube leading from urinary bladder to the outside of the body

35

uric acid

nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine

36

urinary bladder

hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine

37

urination (voiding)

process of expelling urine; also called micturition

38

cali/o-

calci/o, calyx(calix); cup-shaped

39

cyst/o

urinary bladder

40

glomerul/o

glomerulus

41

meat/o

meatus

42

nephr/o

kidney

43

pyel/o

renal pelvis

44

ren/o

kidney

45

trigon/o

trigone (region of the bladder)

46

ureter/o

ureter

47

urethr/o

urethra

48

vesic/o

urinary bladder

49

albumin/o

albumin (a protein in the blood)

50

azot/o

nitrogen

51

bacteri/o

bacteria

52

dips/o

thirst

53

kal/o

potassium

54

ket/o

keton/o, ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)

55

acetone

a ketone body

56

lith/o

stone

57

natr/o

sodium

58

noct/o

night

59

olig/o

scanty

60

-poietin

substance that forms

61

py/o

pus

62

-tripsy

crushing

63

ur/o

urine (urea)

64

urin/o

urine

65

-uria

urination; urine condition

66

color test

normal- yellowish; clear- watery; reddish- large amounts of blood in urine

67

appearance test

normal- clear; UTI- cloudy/turbid with pus and bacteria

68

pH test

normal- 6.5; bacteria present- alkaline (basic)

69

protein test

normal- small amounts; albumin- leak in glomerular protein

70

glucose test

normal- no sugar; sugar present- diabetes mellitus

71

specific gravity test

normal- normal gravity; too high- due to sugar

72

ketone bodies test

ketones present- sign of ketosis

73

sediment and casts test

presence of abnormal particles- due to pathological condition

74

phenylketonuria (pku) test

rare condition where baby cannot break down proteins (amino acids)

75

bilirubin test

present when patient has liver disease; pigment in urine due to hemoglobin breakdown

76

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney

77

interstitial nephritis

inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules

78

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones (renal calculi)

79

nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)

group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine

80

polycystic kidney disease (pkd)

multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney

81

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma

82

renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)

cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood

83

renal failure

decrease in excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration function

84

renal hypertension

high blood pressure resulting from the kidneys

85

wilms tumor

malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood

86

bladder cancer

malignant tumor of the urinary bladder

87

diabetes insipidus (DI)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH

88

diabetes mellitus (DM)

insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects

89

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

measurement of urea levels in blood

90

CT urography

x-ray images obtained using computed tomography show multiple cross-sectional and other views of the kidney

91

kidneys

ureters, and bladder (KUB), x-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

92

renal angiography

x-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney

93

Retrograde pyelogram (RP)

x-ray image of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder

94

voiding cyst urethrogram (VCUG)

x-ray image (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding

95

ultrasonography

imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves

96

radioisotope scan

image of the kidney obtained after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream

97

MRI urography

changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body

98

Cystoscopy

direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).

99

Dialysis

process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood

100

Lithotripsy

urinary tract stones are crushed

101

renal angioplasty

dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries

102

renal biopsy

removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination

103

renal transplantation

surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient

104

urinary catheterization

passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder

105

BUN

Blood Urea Nitrogen

106

Cl

chloride - an electrolyte excreted by the kidney

107

C & S

culture & sensitivity testing - to determine antibiotic effectives against bacteria grown from a patients urine specimen

108

K

potassium - an electrolyte

109

KUB

Kidney, ureter, & bladder

110

Na

sodium - an electrolyte

111

pH

potential hydrogen, scale to indicate degree of acidity or alkalinity

112

UA

urinalysis

113

UTI

urinary tract infection

114

Urea

nitrogenous waste

115

Urinary Function

2-Kidney
2-Ureter
1-Urethra

116

Protein Process

Protein --> Nitrogen --> Urea

117

Cystectomy

Urinary bladder removal

118

cystostomy

opening of the urinary bladder

119

nephrostomy

opening of the kidney

120

azotemia

nitrogen in the blood

121

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

122

nocturia

urination at night

123

lithrotripsy

crushing stones

124

enuresis

bed wetting

125

toxo

poison

126

metro

uterus

127

tomy

processes of cuting

128

ren/o

kidney

129

emia

blood condition

130

ectasis

dilation, widening

131

lysis

breakdown,

132

ptosis

falling, dropping

133

ptysis

spitting

134

rraphy

suture

135

rreha

flow

136

poly

many

137

hydro

water

138

anti

against

139

ante

before

140

Urination

to void / micturition


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