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19th Century Art History Vocabulary

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created 2 years ago by PrettyGhost
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updated 2 years ago by PrettyGhost

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Salon des Refuses

French for "exhibition of rejects" (French pronunciation: ​[salɔ̃ de ʁəfyze]), is generally an exhibition of works rejected by the jury of the official Paris Salon, but the term is most famously used to refer to the Salon des Refusés of 1863.

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avant-garde

new and unusual or experimental ideas, especially in the arts, or the people introducing them.

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Barbizon School

of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time.

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Expressionism

was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.

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Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre

he was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography

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Julia Margaret Cameron

She was a British photographer. She became known for her portraits of celebrities of the time, and for photographs with Arthurian and other legendary or heroic themes

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Sublime

it is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic. The term especially refers to a greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement, or imitation.

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Juste Milieu

art movement, meaning 'happy middle,' is a term to describe a painting philosophy which sought to make amends between the two dominant art movements in France at the time; namely the Impressionist movement and the artists who continued with the Academic Style. Trying to combine the best aspects of the two art forms. The key artists of this group were able to mix with the Impressionists for exhibitions, but also those who continued with 'academism'.

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Orientalism

it is a term used by scholars in art history, literary, geography, and cultural studies for the depiction of Eastern, that is "Oriental" cultures, including Middle Eastern, South Asian, African and East Asian cultures, done by writers, designers, and artists from the West.

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plein-air

it is a phrase borrowed from the French equivalent meaning "open (in full) air".

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Impressionism

it is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

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Hudson River School

it was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.

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Haussmannization

renovation of the city of Paris from narrow streets to wide boulevards. Modernized the city. New emphasis on modern identity and modern art. Introduced Japanese art that had flat expanses of color and floral patterns. Introduced photography and aerial perspectives.

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Art Nouveau

a style of decorative art, architecture, and design prominent in western Europe and the US from about 1890 until World War I and characterized by intricate linear designs and flowing curves based on natural forms

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Positivism

Similar to Realism, idea that one must insist on verifiable facts and not on wishful thinking.

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Symbolism

was an art movement in response to Realism and Impressionism. Poets, musicians, artists, and writers all used Symbolism to express meaning in an indirect manner. Symbolist painters wanted their pictures to depict a meaning beyond just the figures they drew.

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Daguerreotype

an early photographic process named for Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. A daguerreotype was a positive print made on a light-sensitized copper plate.

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Post-Impressionism

reaction to impressionism, instead of creating quick images, artists of this group were defined by their wanting to create art that seemed more permanent.

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Heliograph

a signaling device by which sunlight is reflected in flashes from a movable mirror.

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Divisionism/pointillism

it was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically.

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Realism

it is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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Odalisque

a female slave or concubine in a harem, especially one in the seraglio of the sultan of Turkey.

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Neo-Impressionism

it refers to a pictorial technique where color pigments are no longer mixed either on the palette or directly on canvas, but instead placed as small dots side by side.

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Synthetism

method of painting that emphasizes two-dimensional flat patterns, thus breaking with Impressionist art and theory. This style shows a conscious effort to work less directly from nature and to rely more upon memory.

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Joseph Nicephore Niepce

he was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.

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industrial revolution

was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Albumen print

also called albumen silver print, was published in January 1847 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a photographic print on a paper base from a negative.


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