Ch. 22 Enlightenment and Revolution

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by MrsHurly
Sec. 1: The Scientific Revolution Sec. 2 The Enlightenment in Europe Sec. 3 The Enlightenment Spreads Sec. 4 The American Revolution
updated 6 years ago by MrsHurly
Grade levels:
9th grade, 10th grade
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
code changes based on your size selection

Scientific Revolution

A new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and a willingness to question old ideas that developed in the mid-1500s.


heliocentric theory

card image

Theory that the sun is at the center of the universe developed by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in the early 1500s. He feared opposition by the Catholic Church and did not publish his theory until just before his death.
Picture: />


geocentric theory

card image

Long-held theory that the Earth was the center of the universe. (This was disproved by German mathematician Johannes Kepler in the 1600s).


Galileo Galilei

card image

Scientist who was forced by the Catholic Church to take back scientific ideas that disagreed with the church's views.


scientific method

Lgocial procedure for gathering and testing ideas; starting with a hypothesis and then testing whether it is supported by facts by experiments. English writer Francis Bacon said scientists should base thinking on what they can observe and test. French mathematician Rene Descartes promoted thinking based on logic and mathematics.


Isaac Newton

card image

An English scientist who in the 1600s discovered laws of motion and gravity, including that gravity causes the movement of planets, all matter on earth and in space.



An intellectual movement in which thinkers tried to apply reason and the scientific method to laws that shaped human actions.


social contract

English writer Thomas Hobbes believed that people would war against each other without government. He believed people had a "social contract" in which they gave up their rights to the government in exchange for a safe and orderly society. A strong king who could force everyone to obey would be the best government, Hobbes said.


John Locke

An English writer who believed that people have three rights: life, liberty and property. If the government fails to protect these rights, the people have the right to overthrow the government, he said.



French thinkers who had five main beliefs: 1: thinkers can find the truth by using reason; 2: what is natural is good and reasonable and human actions are shaped by natural laws; 3:acting according to nature can bring happiness; 4: by taking a scientific view, people can make progress and achieve a better life; and 5: by using reason, people can gain freedom.



The most brilliant of the philosophes. He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech.


Baron de Montesquieu

A great philosophe would promoted separation of powers -- dividing power among the separate branches of government.


Jean Jacques Rousseau

A great philosophe would favored human freedom and believed all people were equal.


Cesare Beccaria

An Italian philosophe who spoke out against abuses, including the abolishment of torture.


Mary Wollstonecraft

British writer who promoted the rights for women at a time when most Enlightenment thinkers did not include women in their equal rights.



Social gathering places for thinkers and artists in in Paris in the 1700s. Ideas about the Enlightenment were spread at the salons.



A very grand and ornate style of painting and architecture.



A new style of simple but elegant painting and architure in the late 1700s that borrowed ideas from classical Greek and Roman design. (neo = new)This was also the time of classical music from Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.


enlightened despots

Rulers who supported enlightenment ideas but did not give up power. Many Enlightenment thinkers supported monarchies as the best government if rulers were willing to respect people's rights.


Catherine the Great

Russian rules who supported the Enlightenmen.t She wanted to end serfdom and modernize Russia. But after a bloody peasant revolt, she gave more power to the nobles.


Declaration of Independence

A 1776 document declaring American independence from Britain. It drew heavily on ideas from the Enlightenment and resulted from a meeting or congress of representatives from the 13 colonies.


Thomas Jefferson

author of the Declaration of Independence


checks and balances

The American Constitution, written in 1787, drew on Montesquieu's ideas of separation of powers to develop separate executive (president), judical (courts) and legislative(Congress) branches to prevent any branch from abusing its powers.


federal system

A system of government in which powers are divided between the national and state governments.


Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constituion, which protect basic rights for people.

Related pages

uhddswhat is 1-100 in spanishhomeostatic imbalance of the digestive systemis tay sachs autosomal or sex-linkedpons functionsaxons of the corticospinal tract synapse at motorthe lymphatic system quizletthe primary function of the uterus is tonames of blood vesselsosseous tissue istransitional epithelium structureskeletal muscle cells have glycosomesbinary acids and oxyacidswhat type of government does canadawordly wise wordswho first fights macbethlamprey circulatory systemanatomy and physiology quiz gameswhat does ossification meanwhat is the difference between filtrate and urinesentence using the word assiduousa dihybrid cross involvessquare deal apushvitamin b6 solubilityshape of staphylococcus aureusglucagon solubilitycohesive bondperiod of ventricular contraction in the heartgastrulation is the process that directly forms thewhich of the following is correct concerning subatomic particlesclocks easy pianodefine tropical desertwhat are products of photosynthesiswhat are the two types of ribosomespyramids of numbers biomass and energybat shaped bonewhat is a microfilamentaberration to kill a mockingbirdsomatic reflex examplesthe enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of rna iswhich of the following statements contains a metaphorgenetics red hair probabilitythe amendments 1-27lord of the flies quiz answersheart dissection lab worksheetsensory neuron labeledhow does a volvox reproduceautomatic premium loan riderwhat part of the sarcolemma contains acetylcholine receptorsdispositional traitsstate flash cards printablebasal surfaceperinuclear cytoplasmhorseshoe kidney embryologyis cholesterol hydrophilic or hydrophobicdefine cisterna chylithe coupled stages of cellular respirationrespiratory bronchiole epitheliumlatent learning can occur in the absence ofquiz on of mice and mengross and microscopic anatomycapillary specialized for filtrationcompared with identical twins fraternal twins aregross anatomy of the human urinary systeminhibiting hormones are produced by thesynovial articulationfemale pronucleuswhat are the products of lactate fermentationspinal cord and spinal nerves quizcleavage and gastrulationclassification of tissues review sheet exercise 6 answerspampers target marketmajor muscles posteriorcampbell biology chapter 40 test preparationmedical terminology chapter 10206 bones quizg protein signallinglysogenic cell