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exercise 37A a and p

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created 6 years ago by valerier

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College: Third year

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lung change in internal volume of the bell jar (thoracic cage)

diaphragm pushed up: decreased
diaphragm pulled down: increased


lung change in internal pressure

diaphragm pushed up: increased
diaphragm pulled down: decreased


lung change in the size of the balloons (lungs)

diaphragm pushed up: decreased
diaphragm pulled down: increased


lung change in direction of air flow

diaphragm pushed up: increased into lungs
decreased out of lungs
diaphragm pulled down: increased into lungs
decreased out of lungs


under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs?

increase in thoracic volume
decrease in pressure


under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? Explain why

decrease in thoracic volume, increase in pressure. Gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the "container"


activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins inspiratory process. What effect does contraction of these muscle have on thoracic volume and how is this accomplished?

increase in thoracic volume. The diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior/inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior and posterior dimensions


What was the approximate increase in diameter of chest circumference during a quiet inspiration?

during forced insiration?

no data


what temporary physiological advantage is created by the substantial increase in chest circumference during forced inspiration?

Increases the thoracic volume more; therefore, creates a greateer negative internal pressure, causing the gases to rush in quickly. Also, more "fresh" air reaches the alveoli.


The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal breathing movements. What would happen if an opning were made into the chest cavity as with a pressure wound?
How is this condition treated medically?

Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.

Air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed


which of the respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration?



Which is heard primarily during inspiration?



Where did you best hear the vesticular respiratory sounds?

Heard over most of the lung area


Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration

residual volume (~1100ml)


volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration

expiratory reserve (~1200ml)


Volume of air that is breathed in and out during normal respiration

tidal volume (~500ml)


Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration

inspiratory reserve (~2700-2800ml)


volume of air corresponding to TV+IRV+ERV

vital capacity (~4800ml)


would your vital capacity measurement differ if you preformed the test while standing? While lying down? Explain

Yes, both, when lying down or sitting the abdominal organs press against the diaphragm, making it harder for the diaphragm to move inferiorly


Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema (often associated). Chronic bronchitis lowers the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production; emphysema decreases the amount of air that can be exhaled (check valve effect)


% comp of air inspired

O2- 21%
CO2- .04%
N2- 78%


% comp of air expired

O2- 16%
C02- 4%
N2- 78%


where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?

Medulla oblongata



respiratory rate and depths of respiratory peaks observed: talking

respiratory rate becomes irregular when talking


resp. rate and depths of resp. peaks observed: Yawning

Yawning is reflected by very deep prolonged inspiration


resp. rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Laughing

Respiratory rate becomes irregular. Respiratory depth may increase or decrease depending on the nature of the laugh


Resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: standing

regular rythm and rate


resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Concentrating

resp rate is regular unless punctuated by intervals of apnea in individuals who hold their breath when concentrating


resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Swallowing water

respiration ceases during the period of swallowing


resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: coughing

resp rate becomes irregular and marked by increased depth of expirations during coughing


resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Lying down

regular rhythm and regular or slighly depressed rate. Depth decreases


resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: running in place

increased rate and depth of breathing


After breathing quietly and taking a deep breath which you held, was your urge to inspire or expire



reflex when exhaling and then holding breath



Explain results of breathing relexes

Hering-Breuer reflex. Both extreme deflation and inflation of the lungs excites receptors there. Impulses are transmitted to the medulla oblongata, which then initiates inspiration or expiration.


Why does hyperventilation produce apnea or a reduced respiratory rate?

Hyperventilation washes CO2 out of the blood. Since CO2 is the major chemical stimulus for inspiration, the desire or drive to breathe is decreased


Why does rebreathing air produce an increased respiratory rate?

CO2 (exhaled) accumulateds in the bag; this stimulates increased force/rate of respiration


What was the effect of running in place (exercise) on the duration of breath holding? Explain

decreases the duration because of the bodys need to get rid of CO2 and obtain 02 is increased by exercise


effect of respiration on circulation, explain data

Forced expiration increases intrathoracic pressure, reducing blood flow back to the heart, resulting in dilation of the neck and facial veins. Decreased cardiac output results in increased cardiac rate (seen here as increased pulse)


Increase in blood CO2..increase or decrease with respiratory rate and depth



Decrease in blood O2...increase/ decrease with resp rate and depth



Increase in blood pH...increase/decrease with resp rate and depth



Decrease in blood pH...increase/decrease with resp rate and depth



Did it appear that CO2 or O2 had a more marked effect on modifying the resp rate?



where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in BP located?

Aortic arch and carotid sinus


where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in O2 levels in the blood located?

Aortic bodies in the aortic arch and carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery


What is the primary factor that initiates breathing in a newborn infant

increase levels of CO2 in the blood


blood Co2 levels and blood ph are related. When blood CO2 levels increase, does ph increase or decrease?

Decrease because CO2 combines with H20 to produce carbonicc acid (H2CO3) which dissociates and liberates a H ion


Which if any of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely b exagerrated in a person who is cardiovascularly it such as a runner or swimmer

FEV would all increase


which if any of the measurable resp volumes would likely be exaggerated in a person who has smoked a lot for 20 yrs

FEV would all decrease


define BUFFER

a molecule or molecular system that acts to resist changes in pH


How successful was the lab buffer (pH7) in resisting changes in pH when acid was added?

very successful


when base was added?

very successful


How successful was the buffer in resisting changes in pH when additional aliquots 3 more drops of the acid and base were added to the original samples?

Successful; only slight pH changes are seen


What buffer system operates in blood plasma

Carbonic acid bicarbonate system


which member of the buffer system resists a DROP in ph?



which member of the buffer system resists a RISE in pH?



Expllain how the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system of the blood operates?

H2CO3 a weak acid remains undissociated at physiologic pH or acid pH. However, if the pH starts to rise, H2CO3 dissociates and liberates H, which acts to lower the pH. HCO3(bicarbonate ion) is the alkaline reserve; it acts to tie up excess H into the H2CO3 when the enviornment gets too acidic. Since it is a weak base, it doesnt unction under physiologic or alkaline conditions


what happened when the CO2 in exhaled air mixed with water

Phenol red turned yellow as CO2 mixed with water to form carbonic acid


what role does exhalation of CO2 play in maintaing relatively constant blood pH

CO2 leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents an accumulation of Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

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