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1

Source Card #1

Shakespeare, William, and William Shakespeare. Macbeth and Related Readings. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 1997. Print.

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender roles

Subtopic: Power and leadership

"Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood; stop up the access and the passage of remorse that no compunctious visiting of nature shake my fell purpose nor keep peace between the effect and it! Come to my women’s breast and take my milk for gall, you murd’ring ministers" (Act 1 scene)

Note: Important because lady Macbeth is asking for the spirits to "unsex" her. She no longer wants to be a women, she wants to be as powerful as a man.

2

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender roles

Subtopic: Power and control

"Glamis thou art, and shalt be what thou art promised. Yet do I fear thy nature. It is too full o’ the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way" (Act 1)

Notes: Important because Lady Macbeth knows that murder has to be committed in order to get the power her and Macbeth are looking for. Lady Macbeth has to manipulate her husband is order to commit the murder

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender roles

Subtopic: Power and control

"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o’erleap, for in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires! Let not light see my black and deep desires. The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be, which the eye fears, when it is done to see." (Act 1)

Note: Important because it signals to the reader early in the play that he has “black and deep desires.” This foreshadows all of the violence he acts upon to acquire power.

3

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender

Subtopic: Power and control

"My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, shakes so my single state of man that function is smother'd in surmise, and nothing is but what is not." (Act 1)

Note: This is important because Macbeth's first thought was killing the king to get his power.

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender

Subtopic: Power and control

"Besides, this Duncan hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been so clear in his great office, that his virtues will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against the deep damnation of his taking-off;" (Act 1)

Note: this is important because even Macbeth admits that Duncan was a good king. He sort of contradicts himself with "meek" but he still admires King Duncan for his great rein.

4

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender

Subtopic: Power and control

"Was the hope drunk wherein you dress'd yourself? hath it slept since? And wakes it now, to look so green and pale at what it did so freely? From this time such I account thy love. Art thou afeard
To be the same in thine own act and valor as thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem's the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting "I dare not" wait upon "I would," Like the poor cat i' th' adage? I dare do all that may become a man;" (Act 1)

Note: This is important because Lady Macbeth is comparing Macbeth to a women. She is demising him with his weakness and telling him he is being a girl.

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender

Subtopic: Power and control

"Bring forth men-children only, for thy undaunted mettle should compose nothing but males." (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth is telling his wife that he only wants boys is they ever have children. Also shows how people cared more to have boys than girls is there time period.

5

Content Card

Topic: Characters and gender

Subtopic: Power and control

"O gentle lady, 'Tis not for you to hear what I can speak. The repetition in a woman's ear Would murder as it fell." (Act 2)

Important because Macduff is explaining how it is rare for a women to hear about a murder plot but having one involved makes it were.

Content Card

Topic: Superstition

Subtopic: The witches

"I'll drain him dry as hay. Sleep shall neither night nor day hang upon his penthouse lid.He shall live a man forbid. Weary sev'nnights, nine times nine, shall he dwindle, peak, and pine. Though his bark cannot be lost, yet it shall be tempest-tossed. Look what I have." (Act1)

Note: The sailer's wife did not want to share with the sisters and now they are going to take revenge by making the sailer is impotent and infertile.

6

Content Card

Topic: Superstition

Subtopic: The witches

"There's comfort yet; they are assailable. Then be thou jocund. Ere the bat hath flown his cloister'd flight, ere to black Hecate's summons the shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hums hate rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done a deed of dreadful note." (Act 3)

Note: Macbeth begins to think of the murder of Banquo and Fleance he begins to think of the witch sisters.

Content Card

Topic: Ambition

Subtopic: Power Hungry

"I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which overlaps itself And falls on the other— (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth is discussing with himself how he realizes that he does not have a valid reason to kill Duncan. He's so ambitious for power that he is willing to murder for it.

7

Content Card

Topic: Ambition

Subtopic: Power Hungry

"For mine own good all causes shall give way. I am in blood stepped in so far that, should I wade no more, returning were as tedious as go o'er." (Act 3)

Note: Important because Macbeth is doing all these horrible crimes for his own good and not for anybody else.

Content Card

Topic: Ambition

Subtopic: revenge

"Either thou, Macbeth, or else my sword, with an unbuttered edge, I sheathe again unseeded. There thou shouldest be; by this great clatter, one of greatest note seems bruited. Let me find him, Fortune, and more I beg not." (Act 5)

Note: Important because Macduff has ambition to avenge his family and his king but he does not have the motive to do it to gain power. He juxtapositions Macbeth because Macbeth is murdering just to gain power, while Macduff is avenging what Macbeth has caused and does not to gain power. He is fine with what power he has.

8

Content Card

Topic: Fate

Subtopic: free will

"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, without my stir." (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth is decides to let things fall in their place instead of him forcing things and taking an extreme on the situation.

Content Card

Topic: Fate

Subtopic: free will

"Prithee, peace: I dare do all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none." (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth had originally chosen not to murder the king but Lady Macbeth convinced him that murdering Duncan was the best decision in order to gain power. When he choses to murder him he believes this is the ultimate action a real man can do.

9

Content Card

Topic: Fate

Subtopic: free will

"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, for in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires; Let not light see my black and deep desires: The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be,which the eye fears, when it is done, to see." (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth realizes that King Duncan is the heir to the crown of Scotland, he is not pleased with that and decides to take actions into his own hands, murdering him.

Content Card

Topic: Fate

Subtopic: free will

"I am settled and bend up each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show.False face must hide what the false heart doth know." (Act 1)

Note: Important because Macbeth has to fake many aspects of what he has to do in his everyday life because of the crimes he has committed. He is slowly getting the hang of faking that everything is okay.

10

Source Card #2

Fox, Levi. The Shakespeare Handbook. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1987. Print.

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"It is ironic that Lady Macbeth should echo her husband's apocalyptic child imagery, when she protects her constancy through the perverted metaphor of the feeding baby plucked from her breast and brained by its mother. The powerfully mediated presence of youth and children underlines the extent to which the future and natural order eluded the childless couple." (165)

Note:Important because this quotation is analyzing how Lady Macbeth is her husbands echo, which is ironic because women in that time period were in their husbands shadows not having much power or say in anything.

11

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"Not only is Macbeth equipped with a unique and discriminating and vivid poetic imagination, but he is a married man who dotes on his wife. Its is the androgyny of this unholy couple which precipitates the murder of Duncan." (164)

Note: Important because this quotation is discussing how Macbeth is talented in many aspects but he is a married man, to someone he enjoys and relies on. This quote also states that this power couple is the couple that killed King Duncan together.

Source Card #3

Alfar, Cristina León. Fantasies of Female Evil: The Dynamics of Gender and Power in Shakespearean Tragedy. Newark: U of Delaware, 2003. Print.

12

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"Thus questioning the concept of evil as it is linked to a literary tradition vilifying strong female characters (women who seek power and reject filial loyalty as prior to self-loyalty and who pursue desire in all its forms—romantic, adulterate, authoritarian, and even violent) is essential to a feminist poststructuralist project.20 Thus far, however, the question of General's, Regan's, and Lady Macbeth's “evil” reifies ideological constructions of action as definitive of masculinity, so that evil is ascribed to women who aspire to self-determination and thereby disrupt their designated sociopolitical function as obedient daughters and wives." (19)

Note: Important because gender roles begin to be questioned when one is at loss of power or the gain of power. Lady Macbeth’s thirst for power evolved into her gaining masculine characteristics.

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"My study assumes, however, that Shakespeare's subjects of tragedy are also female. It also assumes that Shakespeare's tragedies are important because of their particular (rather than universal) perspectives on early modern notions of gender and power. In this regard, I argue that the difference between male and female subjects in his tragedies is not necessarily a reflection of the playwright's lack of interest in female experience or psychic development, but a reflection of our own investments in male subjects, in male experience and psychic development. Our own ideological biases and investments in binaries of active/passive and good/evil, reiterated in that of male/female, are projected onto his plays." (20)

Notes: Important because it is seeing how Shakespeare portrays the female characters in his plays. Both Genders are displayed different to the audience in his tragic plays.

13

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles
Subtopic: Power

"Thus I argue that the complexities scholars have identified in Shakespeare's representation of power obtain in his representation of women in his tragedies as well, not just in terms of legitimate monarchy (though such concerns are important to my study), but also in regard to women's acts of power in systems of domination run by and for the benefit of a masculinist moral order. I offer a reading of Shakespeare accounting for the dynamics of gender and power staged in these tragedies that does not shrink at the violence with which women take power." (21)

Notes: Important because this quotation talks about how Shakespeare represents women in tragedies and they are given male characteristics. The women are given violent roles and do gain powers throughout his tragic plays.

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"Shakespeare's women unsettle the vision of a feminized chaotic depravity because they are women in positions of power traditionally reserved for and natural to men." (21)

Note: Important because it discusses how women are traditionally looked at as a women that cannot do much without their husband, but shakespeare women that he includes in certain plays do not follow the normal characteristics of a woman.

14

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"By tracing in Shakespeare's plays a process by which women become evil, it becomes clear that when women fail to perform their femininity through appropriate behaviors such as submission and obedience, they are accused of monstrosity and manliness, attributes that are posed as betrayals of fathers, husbands, and lovers. These betrayals are also seen by male characters as transgressions against a patrilineal moral order invested in a passive and obedient female nature. Rather than assuming that the plays' assumptions about female characters are transmitted through the eyes of these men, I argue that the process by which women become evil is exposed in Shakespeare's plays as a construct, a strategy deployed both for the preservation of masculinist power and as a way to mask the patrilineal structure's own ruthlessness and violence."

Notes: Important because this quotation is describing that women turn evil because of the masculine characters in these plays. The masculine power overshadows them and too much overshadowing can drive a woman crazy.

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"The brimming flesh of sin belongs, of course, to both sexes; but its root and basic representation is nothing other than feminine temptation.”35 Kristeva's critique points to the bodily excess, the ungraspable and therefore fearsome materiality of the feminine. She also clarifies what is bothersome about “evil” women in postmodern culture. General, Regan, and Lady Macbeth, as women whose seemingly ruthless desire for power coincides with a chaotic sexual and blood lust, represent for contemporary critics, who accept male characters' views, all that is abject." (25)

Notes: Important because she talks about how Lady Macbeth were so power hungry that they were willing to do some things that are considered extreme.

15

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Power

"Thus, the evil of which these women are accused is a fantasy, a moralized and naturalized fiction intended to stabilize patrilineal forms of power through scapegoating women. Because the plays are grounded in political and domestic competitions for power, the actions of their female characters become responses to specific marital and monarchical pressures rather than evidence of their fundamental and innate evil." (26)

Notes: Important because this quotation argues that women is shakespeare plays are scapegoated to being "evil" when they are out of there character or place with power.

Source Card #4

Bamber, Linda. "Four Macbeth and Coriolanus." Comic Women, Tragic Men: A Study of Gender and Genre in Shakespeare. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1982. N. pag. Print.

16

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: masculinity

"In Macbeth and Coriolanus, the two most important representatives of the feminine are even more committed than the heroes to a code of manliness that emphasizes power, honor, war, and revenge. They both prefer a bloody ambitious sort of honor over traditionally feminine values in general and womanly love in particular… And in the violence of her ambition Lady Macbeth renounces womanly love for the spirit of murder: “ Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here... Come to my woman's breasts, And take my milk for gall” (I.v.40-41, 47-48) Both women value the world of men above everything else; at various points in these plays each urges the hero beyond the limits of decency in his struggle for power in that world. Both Volumnia and Lady Macbeth are the opposite of the Jungian feminine." (91)

Notes: Important because it is discussing Lady Macbeth's ambition to gain any power she could. Also she is being considered to have masculine characters due to the fact that she has a strong characteristic.

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Masculinity

"Instead of connecting us to natural fertility, family love, or a sense of the body, they represent fanaticism according to the dogma of "man- honor-fight. " In Shakespearean tragedy, as we have seen, the feminine is not necessarily congruent with the Jungian feminine; the dialectic is not necessarily between the world of men and the world of Woman. But in tragedies like Hamlet, Othello, and Antony and Cleopatra the feminine is always other to the male Self, if not thematically then circumstantially. Women characters in these plays have their own purposes, whether or not these are notably or necessarily "feminine" purposes." (91)

Notes: Important because Lady Macbeth is not like an average women in other Shakespeare plays. Lady Macbeth has her own purpose in the play, not compared to other plays where the women is dependent of her husband.

17

Content Card

Topic: Gender roles

Subtopic: Masculinity

"In Macbeth and Coriolanus, Lady Macbeth and Volumnia are the heroes' collaborators or stage managers rather than independent centers of self-interest. There is no dialectic between the masculine Self and the feminine other in these plays because the primary representatives of the feminine are not other to the hero. They are identified with the masculine-historical project in general and the heroes' own careers in particular. They do not present him with the challenge of the other but merely repeat the demands these heroes make upon themselves.” (92)

Notes: Important because it describes how Lady Macbeth was Macbeth's assistant in this play. They are not characters who does not only worry for herself. She worries for her husband and the power he contains.

Source Cards #5

Shakespeare, William, and John Crowther. No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet. New York: SparkNotes, 2003. Print.

18

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics

Subtopic: Hamlet

“How all occasions do inform against me, And spur my dull revenge! What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. Sure he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unused. Now whether it be Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on th' event -- A thought which, quartered, hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward -- I do not know Why yet I live to say 'This thing's to do', Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means, To do't.” (Act 4)

Notes: Important because Hamlet is frustrated that he has not been able to take revenge on behalf on his fathers murder, due ro the fact that he keeps om holding himself back.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Hamlet

"How strange or odd some'er I bear myself (As I perchance hereafter shall think meet to put an antic disposition on) (Act 1)

Notes: Important because when Hamlet was aware that his father was murdered he began to think of vengeance. He warned his friends that he will begin to act like a madman so they should not be concerned.

19

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Claudius

"Oh, my offence is rank it smells to heaven; It hath the primal eldest curse upon't, A brother's murder. Pray can I not, Though inclination be as sharp as will: My stronger guilt defeats my strong intent; And, like a man to double business bound, I stand in pause where I shall first begin, And both neglect. What if this cursed hand Were thicker than itself with brother's blood, Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens To wash it white as snow? Whereto serves mercy But to confront the visage of offence? (Act 3)

Notes: Important because Claudius does feel guilty for murdering his own brother but he prefers to have his power instead of having forgiveness from God or anybody.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics

Subtopic: Claudius

"And what's in prayer but this two-fold force, To be forestalled ere we come to fall, Or pardon'd being down? Then I'll look up; My fault is past. But, O, what form of prayer Can serve my turn? 'Forgive me my foul murder'? That cannot be; since I am still possess'd Of those effects for which I did the murder, My crown, mine own ambition and my queen. May one be pardon'd and retain the offense? (Act 3)

Note: Important because Claudius is praying for forgiveness but he does not know how because he finds it weird for asking forgiveness for "murdering." He is is confused because it seems foul to ask for forgiveness for such horrible sin.

20

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics

Subtopic: Claudius

"Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother's death the memory be green, and that it us befitted to bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom to be contracted in one brow of woe, Yet so far hath discretion fought with nature That we with wisest sorrow think on him Together with remembrance of ourselves.
(Act 1)

Note: Important because Claudius is remembering Older Hamlet's death by saying that it was the most beneficial thing that could have happened to the kingdom. He also states that the wisest thing for the kingdom was to move on quickly from his death.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics

Subtopic: Gertrude

"“Did he receive you well?" “Did you assay him?” “To any pastime?” (Act 3)

Notes: Important because this does display that Gertrude is a caring mother and even though her son is not fond of her at the moment she is looking out for his best interests.

21

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics

Subtopic: Gertrude

"Ophelia, I do wish that your good beauties be the happy cause of Hamlet’s wildness. So shall I hope your virtues will bring him to his way again, to both your honors.” (Act 3)

Notes: Important because Gertrude knows that Ophelia is the only person that could bring some joy to Hamlet in the depressing environment and she wants her to make sure he is in an okay state of mind.

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"Marry, I’ll teach yourself a baby that you have ta’en these tenders for true pay, which are not sterling. Tender yourself more dearly, or-not to crack the wind of poor phrase, running it thus- you’ll tender me fool.” (Act 1)

Notes: Important because Polonius, Ophelia’s father, is warning her about how she should not be foolish and fall for Hamlet’s “affectionate” actions. He calls her a baby for being manipulated to believe these actions. He implies that she is not respecting herself at all by believing him and that if people know that she is being foolish, people will take him as a joke.

22

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"Tis sweet and commendable in your nature, Hamlet, To give these mourning duties to your father. […] but to persever In obstinate condolement is a course Of impious stubbornness. 'Tis unmanly grief. It shows a will most incorrect to heaven, A heart unfortified, a mind impatient, An understanding simple and unschooled" (Act 1)

Notes: important because Hamlet's ways of grieving over his fathers death is looked upon as unmanly. A man is not supposed to show any types of weakness even over a death so tragic as that.

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"That it should come to this: But two months dead—nay, not so much, not two. So excellent a king, that was, to this Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother That he might not better the winds of heaven Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and Earth. Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him As if increase of appetite had grown By what it fed on. And yet, within a month." (Act 1)

Notes: Important because Hamlet is discussing how he is disgusted by his mothers actions for her sexual appetite and ends with all women because he believes that all women are the same and will commit the same actions.

23

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"I shall the effect of this good lesson keep As watchman to my heart. But, good my brother, Do not, as some ungracious pastors do, Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven, Whiles, like a puffed and reckless libertine, Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads And rocks not his own rede. (Act 1)

Notes: Important because after Ophelia's brother had told her about purity and that she should stay pure from Hamlet, she decides to respond back with her telling her brother that purity for men is just as important as it is for women.

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"Why, what an ass am I! This is most brave, That I, the son of a dear father murdered, Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell, Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with word, And fall a-cursing, like a very drab, A stallion! (Act 2)

Notes: Important because Hamlet is beginning to see himself weak due to the fact that he has not avenged him father's death yet. He believes he is so weak he is as weak as a women and he is not truly a man.

24

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"If thou dost marry, I'll give thee this plague for thy dowry: be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Get thee to a nunnery, farewell. Or, if thou wilt needs marry, marry a fool, for wise men know well enough what monsters you make of them. To a nunnery, go, and quickly too. Farewell. (Act 3)

Notes: Important because Hamlet claims to Ophelia that wives make their husbands turn into horrible house. He also says that Ophelia has been messing around with other men when he tells her to go to a nunnery.

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"I have heard of your paintings too, well enough. God has given you one face, and you make yourselves another. You jig and amble, and you lisp; and nickname God's creatures and make your wantonness your ignorance. Go to, I'll no more on 't. It hath made me mad. I say, we will have no more marriages. Those that are married already, all but one, shall live. The rest shall keep as they are. (Act 3)

Notes: Important because Hamlet is comparing a painting to a painting and how they are easily deceived.

25

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"Too much of water hast thou, poor Ophelia, And therefore I forbid my tears. But yet It is our trick; nature her custom holds, Let shame say what it will. When these are gone, The woman will be out.—Adieu, my lord. I have a speech of fire, that fain would blaze, But that this folly drowns it. (Act 4)

Notes: Important because when Laertes finds out about Ophelia's death he believes that he has cried too much and that grieving is not looked upon as manly.

Source Card #6

Bamber, Linda. "Three- Hamlet." Comic Women, Tragic Men: A Study of Gender and Genre in Shakespeare. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1982. N. pag. Print.

26

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"The first phase has ended with the death of Hamlet's father, two months prior to time present. That death has ended the old world, comfortably centered on the masculine Self and based on an identity of interests between father and son. In the new world the presence of the other destroys the hero's sense of centrality. Misogyny is a version of the anger the hero directs toward the other for destroying his old, self-centered world. Hamlet, like the other heroes, rages against women when he loses his place in the sun. Of course, it was not Hamlet who was central to the old world; it was his father. But in the old world, as we have seen in the history plays, the father and son share power with one another. (72)

Note: Important because this quotation is explaining how a Hamlet's fathers death had a huge impact into him maturing into a man.

Content Card

Topic: Themes

Subtopic: Gender roles

"In the new world the continuum is broken: Claudius does not share power and position with Hamlet, as the late king had done. Hamlet's loss is perhaps more grave than even Lear's or Antony's; he loses what he has never actually had. But only the second phase of the tragic fable is defined by the hero's rage at his losses. In the third and final phase the hero is beyond his anger. And it is notable that after a certain moment in Hamlet the sex nausea simply vanishes. After Act IV, scene IV, Hamlet's last scene before going to England, we hear no more about the frailty of women." (72)

Note: important because this quotation talk about how Hamlet did not get much power to rule and women throughout the play were looked upon as bad but they did not.

27

Source Card #7

Price, Leah. The Anthology and the Rise of the Novel: From Richardson to George Eliot. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. Print.

Content Card

Topic: Themes
Subtopic: Gender roles

"This scapegoating also allows Hamlet to exercise his jealously and envy--jealousy that his mother is in a happy, satisfying relationship, and that he isn't; envy of the happiness and pleasure she has that is forbidden him by his father's world--by transforming his jealousy and envy into moral superiority, and by reducing her happiness to rank and detestable crimes he can sadistically punish. Furthermore, this moral superiority and the sadism it necessitates gives Hamlet something heroic to do (he thinks) in the face of not being able to figure out how to deal with Claudius, or how to have a viable relationship with Ophelia. Having no kingdom to rule, and no lover to embrace, "scourge and minister" become two of the many hopeless roles with which he chooses to fill up the nothing that, at present, has become his life. (87)

Note: Important because Hamlet has so much anger that his mom has happiness t6hat he believes talking away her joy would be ruined.

28

Content Card

Topic: Themes
Subtopic: Gender roles

"Furthermore, this moral superiority and the sadism it necessitates gives Hamlet something heroic to do (he thinks) in the face of not being able to figure out how to deal with Claudius, or how to have a viable relationship with Ophelia. Having no kingdom to rule, and no lover to embrace, "scourge and minister" become two of the many hopeless roles with which he chooses to fill up the nothing that, at present, has become his life." (87)

Notes: Important because this explains how Hamlet has been losing the things and people he likes most.

Source Card #8

Corum, Richard. "8- Gertrude, Thy Name Is Woman." Understanding Hamlet: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. N. pag. Print.

29

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Gender roles/ Gertrude

"Gertrude is the most unjustly treated character in Hamlet. An angry ghost slanders her. Hamlet "will speak daggers to her, but use none" (3.2.366). In the ghost and closet scenes, Gertrude, put on trial, is told she is what is rotten in Denmark. And at the end she is abandoned and killed. These judgments are extremely problematic, however, since virtually none of them are true." (183)

Note: Important because this quote is describing how Gertrude was not portrayed to her best abilities in this play because she was a loving mother to her son, but she was portrayed as a women who was cold hearted and did not know how to deal with her husbands passing.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Gender roles/ Gertrude

"In the face of these charges, then, what proof to the contrary? The first two charges are easily dismissed since there is no evidence in the text to support them. Though Hamlet's words frequently are taken as proof of adultery, neither the ghost nor Hamlet accuses Gertrude of sleeping with Claudius while Hamlet Sr. was alive, and no other evidence supports such a conclusion. Thus, this allegation is without merit, though left open are any number of other ways the prosecution may think Gertrude guilty of making her "marriage vows / As false as dicers' oaths." (184)

Note: Important because Gertrude is accused of many things throughout the play or it is implied that she might have committed some things, but in reality she hardly ever committed a crime.

30

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Gender roles/ Gertrude

"Moreover, in light of the way Gertrude responds in the closet scene (3.4), Hamlet relinquishes his belief that Gertrude is complicit in his father's death or knows she is living with the man who murdered her first husband.In short, the first two charges are hasty, unfounded fabrications based solely on the legendary source. (185)

Notes: Important because at the end of the day Gertrude Cares more for her son than her marriage with her brother in-law. She might be portrayed as an awful person but she has a heart that yearns to fulfill her son with endless amounts of joy.

Source Card #9

Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1976. Print.

31

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Ma Joad

“She seemed to know, to accept, to welcome her position, the citadel of the family, the strong place that could not be taken. And since, when a joyful thing happened, they looked to see whether joy was on her, it was her habit to build up laughter out of inadequate materials from position as healer, her hands had grown sure and cool and quiet; from her position as arbiter she had become as remote and faultless in judgment as a goddess. (ch. 8)

Notes: Important because Ma Joes is first described as someone who was the leader of the family and has a strong persona because she is a strong woman who is in charge of the family.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Ma Joad

"She seemed to know that if she swayed the family shook, and if she ever really deeply wavered or despaired the family would fall, the family will to function would be gone.” (ch. 8)

Notes: Important because the narrator is describing how if Ma Joad starts to feel weak it would affect the whole family and they would not be able to function without her.

32

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Ma Joad

""I never had my house pushed over," she said. "I never had my fambly stuck out on the road. I never had to sell – everything – Here they come now." (ch. 8)

Notes: Important because since Ma Joad is at a point in her life where she is not faced with certain road block in the road and she has leave her house that is a huge disappointment. Ma Joad is sad about it but she will not show her weakness in front of anyone.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Ma Joad

"Her hazel eyes seemed to have experienced all possible tragedy and to have mounted pain and suffering like steps into a high calm and a superhuman understanding. (ch. 8)

Notes: Important because her eyes have experienced so much tragedy and good times that she can amount to anything that gets thrown at her. She has experienced so much that she has grown more and more and a better version of herself every time.

33

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Tom Joad

"Now look-a-here, fella. You got that eye wide open. An' ya dirty, ya stink. Ya jus' askin' for it. Ya like it. Lets ya feel sorry for yaself. 'Course ya can't get no woman with that empty eye flappin' aroun'. Put somepin over it an' wash ya face. You ain't hitting' nobody with no pipe wrench." (ch. 16)

Notes: Important because Tom tells a man with one eye to get his life together because the man with one eye blames everyone else for his own problems.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Tom Joad

"Maybe all men got one big soul everybody's a part of." (ch. 4)

Notes: Important because Tom is wondering if all men were created equally because somehow each and every one of us are somehow connected to one another.

34

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Tom Joad

"'Course you get goddamn good an' sick a-doin' the same thing day after day for four years. If you done somepin you was ashamed of, you might think about that. But, hell, if I seen Herb Turnbull coming' for me with a knife right now, I'd squash him down with a shovel again." (ch. 6)

Notes: Important because if Tome is not fond of someone he will assure that he is caring himself with honor.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Tom Joad

"Tom, looking down towards the Joad lent, saw his mother heavy and slow with weariness =, build a little trash fire and put the cooking pots over the flame." (ch. 20)

Note: Important because Tom is admiring his mom do the smallest things around the campo sight because he probably sees how important his mom after he was in prison.

35

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Jim Casy

"If he needs a million acres to make him feel rich, seems to me he needs it 'cause he feels awful poor inside hisself, and if he's poor in hisself, there ain't no million acres gonna make him feel rich." (ch. 18)

Notes: Important because Casy understands that being rich does not mean one thing if your heart is not rich. He may be poor and have nothing but he puts it in the perspective that he would rather be poor and content with his life rather than him being rich with much wealth and luxuries that is miserable with life.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Jim Casy

" Just Jim Casy now. Ain't got the call no more. Got a lot of sinful ideas – but they seem kinda sensible." (ch. 4)

Notes: Important because Casy realizes that his sinful ways were stopping him from fulfilling his job in being a preacher. He chooses to leave preaching because he knew he could not keep on going any longer deceiving himself.

36

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Jim Casy

"Maybe I can preach again. Folks out lonely on the rush, folks with no Ian', no home to go. They got to shave some land of home."

Notes: Important because Casy wants to be constantly helping others but his downfall for women are what contradicts himself.

Content Card

Topic: Characteristics
Subtopic: Jim Casy

"i aim'y sayin' I'm like Jesus... but i got tired like him, an' I got mixed up like him, an' I went into the wilderness like him. Without no compin' stuff... sometimes I'd pray like I always done. (ch. 8)

Notes: Important because Casy is explaining how even though he is not holy anymore, he still has suffered the same things just like Jesus has gone through.

37

Content Card

Topic: family
Subtopic: reliability

"Women and children knew deep in themselves that no misfortune was too great to bear if then men were hole. (ch. 1)

Notes: Important because women and children believe that no situation is too hard if the men are calm about it.

Content Card

Topic: Power
Subtopic: Land

"They came in closed case, as they felt the dry earth with their fingers, and sometimes they drove big earth augers into the ground for soil tests. The tenants, from their sun-beaten door yards watched, uneasy when the closed cars drove along the fields." (ch. 5)

Notes: Important because it displays the importance of keeping up with farming aspect of, soil, makes or breaks wether the family can stay or leave the rented land.

38

Content Card

Topic: Land
Subtopic: Money

"a bank or a company can't do that, because those creatures don't breathe profits; they eat the interest of money." (ch. 5)

Notes: Important because it explains how the people renting these places may want to borrow money from a bank. The bank does not care how they make profits, making them an easy target to get money robbed from them.

Content Card

Topic: Land
Subtopic: Money

"The bank- the monster has to have profits all the time. It can't waiT, it'll die, no taxes go on. When the monster stops growing, it dies. It cant stay on size. (ch. 5)

Notes: Important because the senate is desperate to keep its rented land and believes that in a year the cotton fields will prosper. The land renters tell the tenants that they cannot wait around for a year. The tenant explains how the bank is the monster here.

39

Content Card

Topic: tradition
Subtopic: starting over

"Fella gets use' to a place, it's hard to go," said Casy. "Fella gets use to it a way of thinkin' it's hard to leave." (ch. 6)

Notes: Important because this passage informs us that the Joad's have lived in this house for generations and all of a sudden they have to start all over.

Content Card

Topic: deceivement
Subtopic: Robbing of Money

"Salesmen, neat, deadly, small intent eyes watched for weakness." (ch. 7)

Notes: Important because the salesmen are looking for any reason to sell these cars for an unreasonable price so they make a profit.

40

Content Card

Topic: deceivement
Subtopic: Robbing of Money

"Guarantee? We guarantee it to be an automobile. We didn't guarantee to wet nurse it." (ch.7)

Notes: Important because the salesmen do not guarantee for the automobile to work at its best conditions but it will at least be an automobile.

Content Card

Topic: deceivement
Subtopic: Robbing of Money

"Spattering roar of ancient engines." (ch. 7)

Notes: Important because when a car roars majority of people expect for the engine to sound smoothly, but the salesmen are selling engines that are not just old but ancient.

41

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women roles

"The women went into the houses to their work, and the children began to play, but cautiously at first. (ch.1)

Notes: Women are in charge of keeping the house running smoothly.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men roles

"The men sat in the doorways of their houses; their hands were busy with sticks and little rocks. The men sat still – thinking – figuring." (ch. 1)

Notes: Important because the men are the ones to think about the problem,s and find a solution in the family.

42

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men roles

"The men were ruthless because the past had been spoiled, but the women knew how the past would cry to them in the coming days." (ch. 9)

Notes: Important because the men are taking it out one the women because there past traditions and accomplishments have been ruined but the women know that the past is always going to be a memory.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men roles

"And [Ma Joad's] hands were crusted with salt, pink with fluid from the fresh pork. "It's women's work," she said finally." (ch. 10)

Notes: Important because ma joad has done a job that only a man would do, but dir went on and did it anyways.

43

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men and women roles

"Men sang the words, and women hummed the tunes." (ch. 17)

Notes: Important because the men can change the lyrics to the song and the women can change the tone of the humming, changing the emotion of everything.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men roles

""Besides, us folks takes a pride holdin' in. My pa used to say, 'Anybody can break down. It takes a man not to.' We always try to hold in." (ch. 13)

Notes: Important because the men in this novel believe that breaking down is not a manly thing to do no matter what circumstances.

44

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women roles

“She seemed to know, to accept, to welcome her position, the citadel of the family, the strong place that could not be taken. And since, when a joyful thing happened, they looked to see whether joy was on her, it was her habit to build up laughter out of inadequate materials from position as healer, her hands had grown sure and cool and quiet; from her position as arbiter she had become as remote and faultless in judgment as a goddess. She seemed to know that if she swayed the family shook, and if she ever really deeply wavered or despaired the family would fall, the family will to function would be gone.” (ch.8)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad has been through so much and she still manages to keep the whole family intact even in tough times they go through.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women roles

"She walked for the family and held her head straight for the family." (ch. 13)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad is the one who the the family backbone, without her this family would becomes immensely weak. No one can compare to the support she gives to everyone in their family.

45

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men roles

"The family became a unit […] Pa was the head of the family now." (ch. 13)

Notes: Important because even though Pa Joad just made himself the leader of the family, the reader defiantly knows who calls the shots in the family, Ma Joad.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women roles

"[Ma Joad:] "Use' ta be the family was fust. It ain't so now. It's anybody." (ch. 30)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad is realizing how her family values and morals towards the family throughout this whole journey. At the beginning of the novel, the family was united as a unit but little by little they began to discover other things and they aren't as united as before.

46

Source Card #10

Bloom, Harold. John Steinbeck. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. Print.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

"Most writers of the first half of this century concentrated on characterizations of men and the problems and motivations of men. Perhaps that is because most writers of anything other than romantic novels or popular magazine stories are men. Two notable exceptions to the patters were John Steinbeck and D.H. Lawrence, who tried to release women from the pasteboard, shadowy role she generally assumed in fiction. Today, Lawrence’s portraits of aggressive and often neurotic women have come under attack by certain feminist critics, while Steinbeck’s contributions to American literature in any sense are ignored or dismissed." (143)

Notes: Important because writers in the 20th century would characterize women as weak with no powers but Steinbeck did not characterize women like that he gave women power that complemented men's power.

47

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

"True, Ma Joad and Rosasharon are unforgettable women, but both clearly fall under “earth- mother category which is a stereotype, however flattering.” (147)

Notes: Important because these are the characteristics that the main women roles in the novel are given.

Source Card #10

Gale, Robert L. Barron's Simplified Approach to The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 1966. Print.

48

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

“She is a kind of pagan earth mother, kind to her father-in-law and her mother-in-law, anxious to let her husband Pa lead the family but quickly assuming the reins when he lets them slip through weakness and lack of understanding, firm but sympathetic with her children, friendly with deserving strangers (for example, the Wilsons and then the Wainwrights) but fierce when her family is threatened (for example, by religious zealots). Her actions reveal that she feels the truth of Jim Casy's philosophical pronouncements about the universal holiness and decency of life." (87)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad is characterized as someone who has th power to lead her family with wisdom and try her best to not let them down.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

"Ma holds her family together far longer than anyone else in the group could have done. She suffers intensely when she sees Grandpa die, then Noah disappear, then Granma die, and then Tom obliged to hide and then go away. But she almost never reveals the degree of her misery. She knows that while she holds, the unit will hold -- unless man's inhumanity to man and nature's indifference put pressure upon her, which simply cannot be endured. She goads Pa into near frenzy, knowing that it will make him stronger. She threatens to slap Rose of Sharon at times, but when the poor, pregnant, abandoned girl needs comfort, Ma is there with it in full measure." (87)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad has to be the one that experiences grandma dying on her and has to hide her pain from her family because she does not want to show any signs of weakness.

49

Source Card #10

Heavilin, Barbara A. The Critical Response to John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

“That moving description of man and woman by Ma Joad, however, also underlies the displacement of authority in the novel from thinking man to spiritual woman, from a rational life jerked apart to a life led by the heart that bends and flows like the river. To demonstrate this, Steinbeck parallels Ma's rise to authority with Pa's displacement from, and the destruction of, the squatter's circle." (123)

Notes: Important because it emphasizes how a women in this novel has the authority, they keep men sane spiritually.

50

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: men characteristics

"In the novel Steinbeck depicts the traditional physical posture for decision-making among the male leaders of the family as squatting on the haunches in a circle. It represents a high formality among the migrant men and functions in the novel as a testament to rational order and male authority.” (132)

Notes: Important because the novel questions the mens roles in the family and their leadership skills. They do have majority rule but they do not always have that title.

Content Card

Topic: gender roles
Subtopic: women characteristics

"She knows that she can rely on Tom, not Al. She lets Uncle John have money for one quick drunken spree, knowing that without it he might crack. She rarely speaks much, but she once expresses the great comprehensive moral of the novel.” (127)

Notes: Important because Ma Joad knows everyones limits and she understands that s]certain people in her family require certain needs that others. She helps accommodate to everyone in the family.


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