A firm, nodular, hypertrophic mass of scar tissue extending beyond the area of injury. It may develop in any scarred area but is most common on the shoulders and upper chest. A keloid on a pierced earlobe may have troublesome cosmetic effects. Keloids are more common in darker-skinned people. Recurrence may follow treatment.
A deposit of uric acid crystals characteristic of chronic tophaceous gout. It appears as hard nodules in the helix or antihelix and may discharge chalky white crystals through the skin. It also may appear near the joints, hands (p. 649), feet, and other areas. It usually develops after chronic sustained high blood levels of uric acid.
Formerly called a sebaceous cyst, a dome-shaped lump in the dermis forms a benign closed firm sac attached to the epidermis. A dark dot (blackhead) may be visible on its surface. Histologi- cally, it is usually either
(1) an epidermoid cyst, common on the face and neck, or (2) a pilar (trichilemmal) cyst, com- mon in the scalp. Both may become inflamed.
In chronic rheumatoid arthritis, look for small lumps on the helix or antihelix and additional nodules elsewhere on the hands, along the surface of the ulna distal to the elbow (p. 648),
and on the knees and heels. Ulceration may result from repeated injuries. Such nodules may antedate the arthritis.
This normal right eardrum (tympanic membrane) is pinkish gray. Note the malleus lying behind the upper part of the drum. Above the short process lies the pars flaccida. The remainder of the drum is the pars tensa. From the umbo, the bright cone of light fans anteriorly and downward. Posterior to the malleus, part of the incus is visible behind the drum. The small blood vessels along the handle of the malleus are normal.
Perforation of the Drum
Perforations are holes in the eardrum that usually result from purulent infections of the middle ear. They are classified as central perforations, which do not extend to the margin of the drum, and marginal perforations, which do involve the margin.
The more common central perforation is illustrated here. A reddened ring of granulation tissue surrounds the perforation, indicating chronic infection. The eardrum itself is scarred, and no landmarks are visible. Discharge from the infected middle ear may drain out through such a perforation. A perforation often closes in the healing process, as in the next photo. The membrane covering the hole may be exceedingly thin and transparent.
In the inferior portion of this left eardrum, there is a large, chalky white patch with irregular margins. It is typical of tympanosclerosis: a deposition of hyaline material within the layers of the tympanic membrane that sometimes follows a severe episode of otitis media. It does not usually impair hearing and is seldom clinically significant.
Other abnormalities in this eardrum include a healed perforation (the large oval area in the upper posterior drum) and signs of a retracted drum. A retracted drum is pulled medially, away from the examiner’s eye, and the malleolar folds are tightened into sharp outlines. The short process often protrudes sharply, and the handle of the malleus, pulled inward at the umbo, looks foreshortened and more horizontal.
Serous effusions are usually caused by viral upper respiratory infections (otitis media with serous effusion) or by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure as from flying or diving (otitic barotrauma). The eustachian tube cannot equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with that of the outside air. Air is partly or completely absorbed from the middle ear into the bloodstream, and serous fluid accumulates there instead. Symptoms include fullness and popping sensations in the ear, mild conduction hearing loss, and perhaps some pain.
Amber fluid behind the eardrum is characteristic, as in this patient with otitic barotrauma. A fluid level, a line between air above and amber fluid below, can be seen on either side of the short process. Air bubbles (not always present) can be seen here within the amber fluid.
Acute Otitis Media With Purulent Effusion
Acute otitis media with purulent effusion is caused by bacterial infection. Symptoms include earache, fever, and hearing loss. The eardrum reddens, loses its landmarks, and bulges laterally, toward the examiner’s eye.
Here the eardrum is bulging, and most landmarks are obscured. Redness is most obvious near the umbo, but dilated vessels can be seen in all segments of the drum. A diffuse redness of the entire drum often develops. Spontaneous rupture (perforation) of the drum may follow, with discharge of purulent material into the ear canal.
Hearing loss is of the conductive type. Acute purulent otitis media is much more common in children than in adults.
Bullous myringitis is a viral infection characterized by painful hemorrhagic vesicles that appear on the tympanic membrane, the ear canal, or both. Symptoms include earache, blood-tinged discharge from the ear, and hearing loss of the conductive type.
In this right ear, at least two large vesicles (bullae) are discernible on the drum. The drum is reddened, and its landmarks are obscured.
Several different viruses may cause this condition, including mycoplasma.
Pathophysiology of Conductive Loss
Pathophysiology of Sensorineural Loss
Differences in usual age of onset between Conductive Loss and Sensorineural Loss
What does the Weber Test show in conductive loss?
(in unilateral hearing loss)
What does the Weber Test show in sensorineural loss?
(in unilateral hearing loss)
What does the Rinne Test show in conductive loss?
What does the Rinne Test show in sensorineural loss?
Angular cheilitis starts with softening of the skin at the angles of the mouth, followed by fissuring. It may be due to nutritional deficiency or, more commonly, to overclosure of the mouth, as in people with no teeth or with ill-fitting dentures. Saliva wets and macerates the infolded skin, often leading to secondary infection with Candida, as seen here.
Actinic cheilitis results from excessive exposure to sunlight and affects primarily the lower lip. Fair-skinned men who work outdoors are most often affected. The lip loses its normal redness and may become scaly, somewhat thickened, and slightly everted. Because solar damage also predisposes to carcinoma of the lip, be alert to this possibility.
Herpes Simplex (Cold Sore, Fever Blister)
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) produces recurrent and painful vesicular eruptions of the lips and surrounding skin. A small cluster of vesicles first develops. As these break, yellow-brown crusts form, and healing ensues within 10 to 14 days. Both of these stages are visible here.
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Multiple small red spots on the lips strongly suggest hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Spots may also be visible on the face and hands and in the mouth. The spots are dilated capillaries and may bleed when traumatized. Affected people often have nosebleeds and gastrointestinal bleeding.
When pigmented spots on the lips are more prominent than freckling of the surrounding skin, suspect this syndrome. Pigment in the buccal mucosa helps to confirm the diagnosis. Pigmented spots may also be found on the face and hands. Multiple intestinal polyps are often associated.
Chancre of Syphilis
This lesion of primary syphilis may appear on the lip rather than on the genitalia. It is a firm, buttonlike lesion that ulcerates and may become crusted. A chancre may resemble a carcinoma or a crusted cold sore. Because it is infectious, use gloves to feel any suspicious lesion.
Large Normal Tonsils
Normal tonsils may be large without being infected, especially in children. They may protrude medially beyond the pillars and even to the midline. Here they touch the sides of the uvula and obscure the pharynx. Their color is pink. The white marks are light reflections, not exudate.
This red throat has a white exudate on the tonsils. This, together with fever and enlarged cervical nodes, increases the probability of group A streptococcal infection or infectious mononucleosis. Anterior cervical lymph nodes are usually enlarged in the former, posterior nodes in the latter.
These two photos show reddened throats without exudate.
-redness is diffuse and intense. Each patient would probably complain of a sore throat, or at least a scratchy one. Possible causes include several kinds of viruses and bacteria. If the patient has no fever, exudate, or enlargement of cervical lymph nodes, the chances of infection by either of two common causes—group A streptococci and Epstein-Barr virus (infectious mononucleosis)—are very small.
Diphtheria (an acute infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae) is now rare but still important. Prompt diagnosis may lead to life-saving treatment. The throat is dull red, and a gray exudate (pseudomembrane) is present on the uvula, pharynx, and tongue. The airway may become obstructed.
Thrush on the Palate (Candidiasis)
Thrush is a yeast infection due to Candida. Shown here on the palate, it may appear elsewhere in the mouth (see p. 279). Thick, white plaques are somewhat adherent to the underlying mucosa. Predisposing factors include (1) prolonged treatment with antibiotics or corticosteroids and (2) AIDS.
Fordyce Spots (Fordyce Granules)
Fordyce spots are normal sebaceous glands that appear as small yellowish spots in the buccal mucosa or on the lips. A worried person who has suddenly noticed them may be reassured. Here they are seen best anterior to the tongue and lower jaw. These spots are usually not so numerous.
Koplik’s spots are an early sign of measles (rubeola). Search for small white specks that resemble grains of salt on a red background. They usually appear on the buccal mucosa near the first and second molars. In this photo, look also in the upper third of the mucosa. The rash of measles appears within
Marginal gingivitis is common among teenagers and young adults. The gingival margins are reddened and swollen, and the interdental papillae are blunted, swollen, and red. Brushing the teeth often makes the gums bleed. Plaque—the soft white film of salivary salts, protein, and bacteria that covers the teeth and leads to gingivitis—is not readily visible.
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
This uncommon form of gingivitis occurs suddenly in adolescents and young adults and is accompanied by fever, malaise, and enlarged lymph nodes. Ulcers develop in the interdental papillae. Then the destructive (necrotizing) process spreads along the gum margins, where a grayish pseudomembrane develops. The red, painful gums bleed easily; the breath is foul.
Pregnancy Tumor (Epulis, Pyogenic Granuloma)
Gingival enlargement may be localized, forming a tumorlike mass that usually originates in an interdental papilla. It is red and soft and usually bleeds easily. The estimated incidence of this lesion in pregnancy is about 1%. Note the accompanying gingivitis in this example.
Attrition of Teeth; Recession of Gums
In many elderly people, the chewing surfaces of the teeth have been worn down by repetitive use so that the yellow-brown dentin becomes exposed—a process called attrition. Note also the recession of the gums, which has exposed the roots of the teeth, giving a “long in the tooth” appearance.
Hutchinson’s teeth are smaller and more widely spaced than normal and are notched on their biting surfaces. The sides of the teeth taper toward the biting edges. The upper central incisors of the permanent (not the deciduous) teeth are most often affected. These teeth are a sign of congenital syphilis.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
Symptoms of hypothyroidism
Signs of hyperthyroidism
Signs of hyopthyroidism
Dry, coarse, cool skin, sometimes yellowish from carotene, with nonpitting edema and loss of hair Periorbital puffiness
Decreased systolic and increased diastolic blood pressures
Bradycardia and, in late stages, hypothermia Intensity of heart sounds sometimes decreased
Impaired memory, mixed hearing loss, somnolence, peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome