Muscles - Origin, Insertion & Action

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created 2 years ago by Elicia_Sontag
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1
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Sternocleidomastoid

Origin - Manubrium of Sternum, Medial clavicle

Insertion - Mastoid process of temporal bone

Action - Flexes & Laterally rotates head

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Scalenes - Anterior, middle & posterior

Origin - Transverse proccesses of cervical vertebrae

Insertion - Anterior surface of ribs 1 - 2

Action - Elevates ribs 1-2, Flexes & rotates neck

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Pectoralis Minor

Origin - Ribs 3 - 5

Insertion - Coracoid process of scapula

Action - Depresses scapula

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Serratus anterior

Origin - Ribs 1 - 8

Insertion - Vertebral border of scapula

Action - laterally rotates scapula

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External Oblique

Origin - Ribs 5 - 12

Insertion - Linea alba, Pubic crest, Public tubercle, iliac crest

Action - Flexes vertebral column, compressess abdominal wall

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Internal oblique

Origin - Lumbar fascia, iliac crest

Insertion - Linea alba, Pubic crest

Action - Flexes vertebral column, compressess abdominal wall

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Rectus abdominis

Origin - Pubic crest, Public symphysis

Insertion - Xiphoid process, ribs 5 -7

Action - Flexes lumbar region, rotates lumbar region

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Trapezius

Origin - Occipital bone, Spinous processes of C7 - T12

Insertion - Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, Spine of scapula, acromion process of scapula

Action - Elevates, depresses, rotates & adducts scapula

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Deltoid - anterior, middle & posterior

Origin - Anterior - Lateral third of clavicle, Middle - Acromion process of scapula, Posterior - Spine of scapula

Insertion - Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Action - Anterior - Flexes shoulder, Middle - Abducts shoulder, Posterior - Extends shoulder

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Latissimus Dorsi

Origin - Spinous processes of T7-T12, Ribs 9-12, Iliac crest, Inferior angle of scapula

Insertion - Bicipital groove of humerus

Action - Extends shoulder

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Pectoralis Major

Origin - Sternal end of clavicle, Ribs 1-6

Insertion - Greater tubercle of humerus

Action - Flexes shoulder

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Levator Scapulae

Origin - Transverse processes of C1-C4

Insertion - Vertebral border of scapula

Action - Elevates scapula

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Rhomboid Minor

Origin - Spinous processes of C7-T1

Insertion - Vertebral border of scapula

Action - Retracts scapula

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Rhomboid Major

Origin - Spinous processes of T2-T5

Insertion - Vertebral border of scapula

Action - Retracts scapula

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Supraspinatus

Origin - Supraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion - Greater tubercle of humerus

Action - Abducts arm

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Infraspinatus

Origin - Infraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion - Greater tubercle of humerus

Action - Extends arm

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Teres Minor

Origin - Lateral border of scapula

Insertion - Greater tubercle of humerus

Action - Lateral rotates arm

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Teres Major

Origin - Inferior angle of scapula

Insertion - Lesser tubercle of humerus

Action - Extends shoulder, adducts & medially rotates arm

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Subscapularis

Origin - Subscapular fossa of scapula

Insertion - Lesser tubercle of humerus

Action - Medially rotates arm

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Biceps Brachii - Long & Short head

Origin - Long Head - Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula, Short Head - Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion - Radial tuberosity of radius

Action - Extends shoulder, Flexes & Supinates forearm

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Brachialis

Origin - Anterior humerus

Insertion - Coromoid process of ulna

Action - Flexes forearm

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Coracobrachialis

Origin - Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion - Medial humerus

Action - Flexes & Adducts arm

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Triceps Brachii - Long, Medial & Lateral Head

Origin - Long head - Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, Lateral head - Posterior humerus, Medial head - Posterior humerus

Insertion - Olecranon process of ulna

Action - Extends forearm

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Pronator Teres

Origin - Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion - Lateral radius

Action - Pronates forearm

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Flexor Carpi Radialis

Origin - Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion - 2nd & 3rd metacarpals

Action - Flexes & Abducts hand/wrist

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Palmaris Longus

Origin - Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion - Palmar aponeurosis

Action - Flexes hand at wrist

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Flexors Carpi Ulnaris

Origin - Medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process of ulna, shaft of ulna

Insertion - Pisiform, Hamate, 5th metacarpal

Action - Flexes & Adducts hand/wrist

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Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

Origin - Medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, shaft of radius

Insertion - Middle phalanges of 2nd to 5th digit

Action - Flexes hand/wrist

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Flexor Digitorum Profundus

Origin - Ulna

Insertion - Distal phalanges of 2nd to 5th digit

Action - Flexes hand/wrist

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Flexor pollicis longus

Origin - Anterior radius

Insertion - Distal phalanx of thumb

Action - Flexes 1st interphalangeal joint

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Pronator Quadratus

Origin - Distal & anterior ulnar shaft

Insertion - Distal & anterior radial shaft

Action - Pronates forearm

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Brachioradialis

Origin - Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion - Styloid process of radius

Action - Flexes forearm & stabilizes elbow

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Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Origin - Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion - 2nd metacarpal

Action - Extends & Abducts hand/wrist

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Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Origin - Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion - 3rd metacarpal

Action - Extends & Abducts hand/wrist

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Extensor Digitorum

Origin - Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion - Distal phalanges of 2nd to 5th digit

Action - Extends hand/wrist

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Iliopsoas

Origin - Iliac fossa, Ala of sacrum, Transverse processes of T12-L5

Insertion - Lesser trochanter of femur

Action - Flexes thigh & vertebral column

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Sartorius

Origin - Anterior superior iliac spine

Insertion - Medial tibia

Action - Flexes & laterally rotates thigh, flexes knee

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Rectus Femoris

Origin - Anterior Inferior iliac spine

Insertion - Patella and tibial tuberosity via tendon of quadriceps femoris & patellar ligament

Action - Extends leg at knee, Flexes thigh at hip

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Vastus Lateralis

Origin - Greater trochanter of femur, Linea alba of femur

Insertion - Patella and tibial tuberosity via tendon of quadriceps femoris & patellar ligament

Action - Extends leg at knee, stabilizes knee

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Vastus Medialis

Origin - Linea alba of femur

Insertion - Patella and tibial tuberosity via tendon of quadriceps femoris & patellar ligament

Action - Extends leg at knee, stabilizes patella

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Vastus Intermedius

Origin - Shaft of femur

Insertion - Patella and tibial tuberosity via tendon of quadriceps femoris & patellar ligament

Action - Extends leg at knee

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Pectineus

Origin - Superior ramus of pubis

Insertion - Linea aspera of femur

Action - Adducts thigh, flexes thigh at hip, medially rotates thigh

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Tensor Fascia Latae

Origin - Anterior superior iliac spine, iliac crest

Insertion - Medial surface of tibia

Action - Flexes thigh at hip, Abducts & medially rotates thigh

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Gracilis

Origin - Inferior ramus of pubis, body of pubis

Insertion - Medial surface of tibia

Action - Adducts thigh, Flexes leg at knee, medially rotates leg

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Adductor Longus

Origin - Pubis - near pubic symphysis

Insertion - Linea aspera of femur

Action - Adducts & medially rotates thigh, Flexes thigh at hip

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Adductor Brevis

Origin - Inferior ramus of pubis, body of pubis

Insertion - Linea aspera of femur

Action - Adducts & medially rotates thigh

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Adductor Magnus

Origin - Inferior ramus of pubis, Ischial ramus, Ischial tuberosity

Insertion - Linea aspera of femur

Action - Adducts & laterally rotates thigh, Flexes thigh at hip

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Gluteus Maximus

Origin - Posterior ilium, sacrum, coccyx

Insertion - Iliotibial tract, gluteal tuberosity of femur

Action - Extends thigh at hip, Laterally rotates & abducts thigh

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Gluteus Medius

Origin - Lateral surface of ilium

Insertion - Greater trochanter of femur

Action - Abducts & medially rotates thigh

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Gluteus Minimis

Origin - Lateral surface of ilium

Insertion - Greater trochanter of femur

Action - Abducts & medially rotates thigh

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Biceps Femoris - Long & Short Head

Origin - Long Head - Ischial tuberosity, Short Head - Linea aspera

Insertion - Head of fibula, Lateral condyle of tibia

Action - Extends thigh at hip, Flexes leg at knee, Laterally rotates leg

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Semitendinosus

Origin - Ischial tuberosity

Insertion - Medial tibia

Action - Extends thigh at hip, Flexes leg at knee, Medially rotates leg

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Semimembranosus

Origin - Ischial tuberosity

Insertion - Medial condyle of tibia

Action - Extends thigh at hip, Flexes leg at knee, Medially rotates leg

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Piriformis

Origin - Lateral surface of sacrum

Insertion - Greater trochanter of femur

Action - Laterally rotates thigh when hip is extended

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Quadratus Femoris

Origin - Ischial tuberosity

Insertion - Intertrochanteric crest of femur

Action - Laterally rotates thigh, stabilizes hip

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Tibialis anterior

Origin - Lateral condyle of tibia

Insertion - Medial cuneiform, 1st metatarsal

Action - Dorsiflexes foot at ankle, Inverts foot

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Extensor Hallucis Longus

Origin - Anterior fibula

Insertion - Distal phalanx of hallux (big toe)

Action - Dorsiflexes foot at ankle, Extends 1st interphalangeal joint

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Fibularis

Origin - Anterior fibula, head of fibula, distal fibula

Insertion - 5th metatarsal, Medial cuneiform, 1st metatersal

Action - Dorsiflexes foot at ankle, Plantar flexes foot at ankle, everts foot

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Gastrocnemius

Origin - Lateral condyle of femur, Medial condyle of femur

Insertion - Calcaneus

Action - Planter flexes foot at ankle

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Soleus

Origin - Proximal tibia, Proximal fibula

Insertion - Calcaneus

Action - Planter flexes foot at ankle

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Flexor Digitorum Longus

Origin - Posterior tibia

Insertion - Distal phalanges of 2nd to 5th digits

Action - Planter flexes foot at ankle, Flexes 2nd - 5th distal interphalangeal joints

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Flexor Hallucis Longus

Origin - Middle shaft of fibula

Insertion - Distal phalanx of hallux (big toe)

Action - Planter flexes foot at ankle, Inverts foot, Flexes all joints of hallux

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Tibialis Posterior

Origin - Proximal tibia, Proximal fibula

Insertion - Navicular bone, 2nd to 4th metatarsals

Action - Planter flexes foot at ankle, Inverts foot

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Iliocostalis - Cervicis, Thoracis, Lumborum

Origin - Iliac crest, Ribs 3-12

Insertion - Inferior border of ribs, Transverse processes of C4-C6

Action - Extends & Laterally flexes vertebral column

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Longissimus - Capitis, Cervicis, Thoracis

Origin - Transverse processes of C4-L5

Insertion - Mastoid process of temporal bone

Action - Extends & Laterally flexes vertebral column

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Spinalis - Cervicis, Thoracis

Origin - Spinous processes of T7-L3

Insertion - Spinous processes of C4-T6

Action - Extends vertebral column

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Splenius Capitis

Origin - Spinous processes of C6-T7

Insertion - Mastoid process of temporal bone, Occipital bone

Action - Extends or hyper-extends vertebral column

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Semispinalis capitis

Origin - Transverse processes of C7-T12

Insertion - Occipital bone

Action - Extends vertebral column

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The Brain

  • Cerebrum - Lobes
  • Thalamus
  • Cerebellum
  • Lobes - Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital & Insula
  • Cerebellum - Arbour vitae (tree of life)
  • The Pons
  • Medulla Oblongata
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The Eye

  • Cornea > Pupil > Iris > Lens > Retina > Choriod > Sclera
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The Ear

  • External - Pinna > External auditory canal > Tympanic membrane
  • Middle - Malleus > Incus > Stapes
  • Inner - Semi circular canal > Cochlea

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