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Ch. 52 Intro to Ecology

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Which level of ecological study focuses the most on abiotic factors? ecology

B.speciation ecology

C.ecosystem ecology

D.population ecology



Which of the following investigations is an example of the study of an abiotic factor?

A.investigating how an elk population competes for food

B.observing interactions among various organisms in a rainforest canopy

C.identifying food sources for an egret populationthe relationship between finch beak size and food availability on two different Galapagos Islands

D.investigating how the amount of annual precipitation affects the distribution of a tree species



Of the following, which is the most inclusive level of organization in nature?







What is a biome?

A.a set of similar communities

B.a major type of ecosystem

C.a specific set of abiotic factors area with a uniform distribution of organisms and abiotic environmental conditions

E.a major type of biosphere



In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms in terrestrial ecosystems are _____.

A.water and temperature

B.wind and water

C.temperature and sunlight

D.competitors and predators

E.predators and parasites



What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?

A.temperature and light

B.temperature and rainfall

C.light and rainfall

D.plants and animals

E.temperature and plants



Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?

A.temperate broadleaf forest

B.coniferous forest


D.temperate grassland

E.tropical rain forest



Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?


B.coniferous forest

C.temperate broadleaf forest

D,temperate grassland




Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?

A.temperate grassland

B.coniferous forest

C.tropical rain forest





Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?


B.tropical forest


D.coniferous forest




Which of the biomes—tundra, coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf forest, temperate grassland, savanna, chaparral, desert, tropical rainforest—require periodic fires to maintain their existence?

A.tropical forest, savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest
B.savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grassland, and temperate broadleaf forest
C.savanna and chaparral
D.savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, tundra, and coniferous forest
E.savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest



Some arctic tundra ecosystems receive as little precipitation as deserts but have much more dense vegetation.

What climatic factor might explain this difference?

A.Tundra is much warmer than deserts, so less water evaporates during the growing season and the tundra stays more moist.
B.Tundra is much cooler than deserts, so less water evaporates during the growing season and the tundra stays more moist.
C.In addition to rain, tundra also receives water in the form of snow.
D.Tundra plants are better adapted to dry conditions than desert plants.


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Based on the data in the figure above, which of the following statements are correct?
I) Area 1 would be considered a desert because of its high average temperature.
II) Area 1 has more average precipitation than Area 2.
III) Area 2 would be considered a desert because of its low average precipitation.
IV) Area 2 has a larger annual temperature variation.

A.only I and III
B.only II, III, and IV
C.only II and IV
D.only I, II, and IV

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Based on the data in the figure above, which of the following statements are correct?
I) Area 1 has more average precipitation than Area 2.
II) Area 1 has a higher average temperature than Area 2.
III) Both areas have low variation in monthly precipitation.
IV) Area 2 has a lower annual temperature variation compared to Area 1.

A.only II, III, and IV
B.only I, II, and III
C.only I and III
D.only II and IV

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Besides sunlight, which would be the next most important climatic factors for terrestrial plants?

A.temperature and wind
B.wind and fire
C.temperature and moisture
D.moisture and wind



Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between fire and ecosystems?

A.Chaparral communities have evolved to the extent that they rarely burn.
B.The likelihood of a wildfire occurring in a given ecosystem is highly predictable over the short term.
C.Many kinds of plants and plant communities have adapted to frequent fires.
D.The suppression of forest fires by man has prevented certain communities, such as grasslands, from reaching their climax stage.



Fire suppression by humans _____. a management goal of conservation biologists to maintain the healthy condition of forest communities. necessary for the protection of threatened and endangered forest species.
C.can change the species composition within biological communities.
D.will result ultimately in sustainable production of increased amounts of forest products for human use.



If global warming continues at its present rate, which biomes will likely take the place of the coniferous forest (taiga)?

A.tropical forest and savanna
B.desert and chaparral
C.temperate broadleaf forest and grassland
D.chaparral and temperate broadleaf forest


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The eight climographs below show yearly temperature (line graph and left vertical axis) and precipitation (bar graph and right vertical axis) averages for each month for some locations on Earth.

Which climograph shows the climate for location 1?




Suppose that the number of bird species is determined mainly by the number of vertical strata found in the environment. If so, in which of the following biomes would you find the greatest number of bird species?

A.temperate grassland


C.temperate broadleaf forest

D.tropical rain forest



Which of the following is an important feature of most terrestrial biomes?

A.annual average rainfall in excess of 250 centimeters

B.vegetation demonstrating vertical layering

C.clear boundaries between adjacent biomes

D.a distribution predicted almost entirely by rock and soil patterns



In areas of permafrost, stands of black spruce are frequently observed in the landscape, while other tree species are noticeably absent. Often these stands are referred to as "drunken forests" because many of the black spruce are displaced from their normal vertical alignment. What is the most likely explanation for the unusual growth of these forests in this marginal habitat?

A.Trees tip so that they do not compete with each other for sunlight.
B.Trees are tilted so snow prevents them from breaking or tipping over.
C.Taproot formation is impossible, so trees developed shallow root beds.
D.Branches are adapted to absorb more carbon dioxide with this displaced alignment.



Two plant species live in the same biome but on different continents. Although the two species are not at all closely related, they may appear quite similar as a result of _____.

A.gene flow

B.convergent evolution

C.allopatric speciation




If carbon dioxide levels continue to increase and climate change continues over the next century, which of the following would best predict the directional migration of the North American ecosystems from the biomes shown in this climograph?

A.The ecosystems will shift to the south due to decreasing transpiration rates.
B.The ecosystems will move down mountains as the temperatures warm.
C.The ecosystems will move to both the eastern and western coastlines as these areas will be more moderate.
D.The ecosystems will shift to the north as temperatures warm.


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Based on the data in the figure above, which of the following statements is true?

A.Area 2 could be tundra.
B.Area 1 could be called a tropical wet/rain forest.
C.Area 1 could be called a boreal forest/taiga.
D.Area 2 could be called a temperate grassland.

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Aquatic biomes cover approximately three-quarters of Earth's surface. Examples of aquatic biomes include lakes, streams and rivers, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans. Different types of aquatic biomes are distinguished by their physical and chemical characteristics, their depth, and, for some biomes, their distance from shore. Many temperate lakes undergo semiannual turnover, a process that mixes the surface and bottom waters, resulting in the redistribution of oxygen and nutrients.

Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?

A.the presence of algae
B.relatively cool water
C.relatively stable water temperature
D.dead organic matter
E.low oxygen level



In deep water, which of the following abiotic factors would most limit productivity?

A.light availability
C.solute concentration



Wetlands are standing bodies of freshwater, just like lakes and ponds. However, wetlands are different from lakes and ponds because wetlands have _____.

A.emergent vegetation
B.oxygen-poor water
C.shallow water and emergent vegetation
D.emergent vegetation and oxygen-poor water



Which of the following statements regarding turnover in a lake is correct?

A.Fall turnovers and spring turnovers are exactly the same.
B.The surface water gets to 4°C only by cooling.
C.In fall turnover, dense water at 4°C rises and disturbs sediments in the benthic zone.
D.In fall turnover, dense water at 4°C sinks and disturbs sediments in the benthic zone.



Which of the following types of organisms is likely to have the widest geographic distribution?




Which of the following can be said about light in aquatic environments?

A.Most photosynthetic organisms avoid the surface where the light is too intense.
B.Light penetration seldom limits the distribution of photosynthetic species.
C.Water selectively reflects and absorbs certain wavelengths of light.
D.Longer wavelengths penetrate to greater depths.



Turnover of water in temperate lakes during the spring and fall is made possible by which of the following?

A.cold, more dense water layered at the bottom
B.warm, less dense water layered at the top
C.the changes in the density of water as seasonal temperatures change
D.a distinct thermocline between less dense, warm water and cold, dense water



Imagine that a deep temperate zone lake did not turn over during the spring and fall seasons. Based on the physical and biological properties of limnetic ecosystems, what would be the difference from normal seasonal turnover?

A.An algal bloom of algae would result every spring.
B.Lakes would suffer a nutrient depletion in surface layers.
C.The pH of the lake would become increasingly alkaline.
D.The lake would fail to freeze over in winter.



If you are interested in observing a relatively simple community structure in a clear water lake, you would do well to choose diving into _____. oligotrophic lake
B.a nutrient-rich lake
C.a relatively shallow lake
D.a eutrophic lake



If a meteor impact or volcanic eruption injected a lot of dust into the atmosphere and reduced the sunlight reaching Earth's surface by 70 percent for one year, which of the following marine communities most likely would be least affected?

B.coral reef
D.deep-sea vent



The oceans affect the biosphere by _____.
I) producing a substantial amount of the biosphere's oxygen
II) adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
III) being the source of most of Earth's rainfall
IV) regulating the pH of freshwater biomes and terrestrial groundwater

A.only I, II, and IV
B.only I and III
C.only II and IV
D.only I, II, and III



Which of the following is responsible for the differences in summer and winter temperature stratification of deep temperate zone lakes?

A.Stratification is caused by a thermocline.
B.Winter ice sinks in the summer.
C.Water is densest at 4°C.
D.Oxygen is most abundant in deeper waters.



A certain species of pine tree survives only in scattered locations at elevations above 2800 meters in the western United States. To understand why this tree grows only in these specific places, an ecologist should _____.

A.investigate the various biotic and abiotic factors that are unique to high altitude
B.analyze the soils found in the vicinity of these trees, looking for unique chemicals that may support their growth
C.collect data on temperature, wind, and precipitation at several of these locations for a year the anatomy and physiology of this species



Which of the following statements best describes the effect of climate on biome distribution?

A.Average annual temperature and precipitation are sufficient to predict which biome will be found in an area.
B.Seasonal fluctuation of temperature is not a limiting factor in biome distribution if areas have the same annual temperature and precipitation means.
C.Correlation of climate with biome distribution is sufficient to determine the cause of biome patterns.
D.The average climate and pattern of climate are important in determining biome distribution.



In the development of terrestrial biomes, which factor is most dependent on all the others?

A.the species of colonizing animals
B.prevailing rainfall
C.soil structure
D.mineral nutrient availability



Studying species transplants is a way that ecologists _____.

A.consolidate a landscape region into a single ecosystem
B.determine if dispersal is a key factor in limiting distribution of organisms
C.develop mathematical models for distribution and abundance of organisms
D.determine the distribution of a species in a specified area



Which of the following is characteristic of most terrestrial biomes?

A.clear boundaries between adjacent biomes
B.a distribution predicted almost entirely by rock and soil patterns
C.vegetation demonstrating vertical layering
D.annual average rainfall in excess of 250 cm
E.cold winter months



Which of the following is true with respect to oligotrophic lakes and eutrophic lakes?

A.Eutrophic lake water contains lower concentrations of nutrients.
B.Oligotrophic lakes are more subject to oxygen depletion.
C.Sediments in oligotrophic lakes contain larger amounts of decomposable organic matter.
D.Eutrophic lakes are richer in nutrients.
E.Rates of photosynthesis are lower in eutrophic lakes.



Which lake zone would be absent in a very shallow lake?

A.littoral zone
B.pelagic zone
C.benthic zone
D.limnetic zone
E.aphotic zone



The oceans affect the biosphere in all of the following ways except

A.removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
B.regulating the pH of freshwater biomes and terrestrial groundwater.
C.producing a substantial amount of the biosphere's oxygen.
D.being the source of most of Earth's rainfall.
E.moderating the climate of terrestrial biomes.



When climbing a mountain, we can observe transitions in biological communities that are analogous to the changes an ecosystem as it evolves over time.
B.across the United States from east to west. a community through different seasons. biomes at different latitudes. different depths in the ocean.



Suppose that the number of bird species is determined mainly by the number of vertical strata found in the environment. If so, in which of the following biomes would you find the greatest number of bird species?

A.temperate grassland
D.tropical rain forest
E.temperate broadleaf forest



In ecological terms, disturbance is an event such as a storm, fire, or human activity that changes a community, removing organisms and altering resource availability. Which of the following statements about the effects of disturbance is correct?

A.The effects of disturbance on a community are almost always negative.
B.Disturbances can create patches of different habitats in a community.
C.A healthy community is in an equilibrium state of balance, with few disturbances.


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